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2 ,v.3 



At I f N (.OUN1Y f'UBl IC I lilMAHY 

3 1833 01101 0185 

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Article. Vage. 

I. Continuation of Johnson's Wonder-working Providence 123 

II. Rise and Progress of the Bass and Mackerel Fishery at 

Cape Cod 220 

III. Account of the Expedition against Canada, 1690 255 

IV. Recantation of Confessors of Witchcraft 221 

V. Number of Negro Slaves in Massachusetts, 1754 95 

VI. Account of the Deaths at Kingschapel 290 

VII. Expenses of Canada to Great Britain 122 

VIII. Tons of Shipping in Massachusetts, 1806 122 


IX. Notices of the Life of Major General Benjamin Lincoln 233 

Relating to the Indians. 

X. State of the Indians in Mashpee and parts adjacent, 1767 

Topography and Local History, 

XI. Note on Lancaster, N. H. 97 

XII. Geographical Sketch of Bath, N. H. 105 

XIII. Note on Plymouth, N. H. 109 

XIV. Note on New Holderness 113 

XV. Note on Wolfeborough 117 

XVI. Note on Middletown, N. H. 120 

XVII. Topographical and Historical Description of Waltham 261 

XVIII. Note on the Historical Sketch of Brookline 284 

XIX. Description of Kingston, Mass. 204 

XX. Notes on Plymouth, Mass. 162 

XXI. Notes on New Bedford 18 

XXII. Description of Mashpee 1 

XXIII. Description of Duke's County 38 

XXIV. Notes on Nantucket 19 

XXV. Note on Jamaica 285 

Fine Arts. 

XXVI. Criticism on the Landing of the Fathers, a picture by 

Henry Sargent, Esq. 225 

XXVII. Another paper on the same subject 230 

Relating to the Society. 

XXVIII. Letters respecting Hubbard's History 286 

XXIX. Donations to the Society 292 






































xi. xiii. 






















xxvi. xxvii. xxix. 


A Description of Mashpee, in the County of 
Barnstable. September 16th, 1802. 

IVlASIIPEE is distant from Sandwich village eleven 
miles ; and from Barnstable court-house, thirteen miles. 
It is bounded on the north by Sandwich ; on the 
east, by Sandwich and Barnstable ; on the south, 
by Vineyard Sound ; and on the west, by Falmouth and 
Sandwich. The plantation is eight miles and a half in 
length from north to south ; and four miles in breadth, 
from east to west ; and contains, some say thirteen thou- 
sand five hundred acres, others say not more than twelve 
thousand acres ; which are exclusive of the spaces cov- 
ered by the harbours and lakes, and of the land in the 
possession of the whites. 

There are two harbours on the coast, Popponesset 
Bay and Waquoit Bay, both of which have bars at their 
mouths. On these bars the tide is from four to six feet 
deep at high water, common tides rising about five feet. 
The outward bar is continually shifting its position and 
altering its depth. Popponesset Bay is the eastern boun- 
dary of the plantation. There is an island in it, named 
Popponesset Island, containing forty acres of excellent 
land. Coatuit River, or Brook, which divides Mashpee 
from Barnstable, empties itself into this bay ; and takes 
its rise from Sanctuit Pond, a lake a mile and three 
quarters long. Two miles west of it is Mashpee River, 
which is discharged into the same bay, and runs from 
Mashpee Pond, a beautiful lake two miles and a half in 


length, and divided into two parts by Canaumut Neck, 
the northern part of the pond being called Whakepee. 
Between the two bays is Great Neck, a part of Mashpee 
which is the best settled by the Indians. Waquoit Bay 
is the western boundary of the plantation. There are in 
it two islands ; not far from which is the mouth of Quash- 
net River, which runs from John's Pond, a piece of wa- 
ter that from its size also deserves the name of a lake. 
Another pond, called Ashimuit, is on the Falmouth line, 
and nearly parallel with the road leading from that town 
to Sandwich. Besides which there are two or three other 
small ponds, and Peter's Pond on the Sandwich line, 
north of Whakepee, the greatest part of it being in that 
township. These rivers are among the longest ; and 
these lakes, among the largest, in the county of Barnsta- 
ble. Mashpee River is as much as four miles in length. 
The rivers afford trout, alewives, and several other fish ; 
and in the vicinity of them and the ponds are found ot- 
ters, minks, and other amphibious animals. The bays 
abound with fish ; and on the flats, along their shores, 
there are clams and other testaceous worms in plenty. 

Mashpee, being south of the chain of hills, which ex- 
tends from west to east along the north part of the coun- 
ty of Barnstable, is in general level land. The greatest 
part of it is covered with wood : the growth is a few 
oaks, but principally pitch pine. These woods, with 
those of Sandwich and Falmouth that join them, form an 
extensive forest, which affords a range for deer. In the 
same forest are also to be found a few rackoons. The 
land, which has been cleared, is chiefly on the necks 
near the harbours, and on the banks of the rivers and 
lakes. The soil of these places, particularly in the 
neighbourhood of John's Pond, Mashpee Pond, and 
Sanctuit Pond, is pretty good. Much of the land how- 
ever is sandy. The cleared land has been estimated at 
about twelve hundred acres. The soil is easily tilled ; 
and produces Indian corn from seven to twenty bushels 
by the acre, and about one third as much of rye. On 
new land, being a mixture of sand and loam, properly 
manured by foddering cattle with salt hay upon it, Mr. 


I Iawlcy has raised fifty bushels of Indian corn to an acre. 
On seventy-seven rods of loamy land, being fresh and 
new and properly manured, his son has grown not less 
than a hundred and ninety seven pounds of well dressed 
and good flax. Not much oats and no barley are pro- 
duced. The land at present is not manured by fish. 
The Indians use little barn dung ; but about their novels 
and stacks their land grows better. Some of them are 
farmers, and keep oxen ; many of them own a cow, and 
a few sheep ; and perhaps half a dozen of them possess 
horses. Beside corn and rye the Indians raise potatoes. 

The roads for the most part pass through the woods, 
out of sight of the houses. The excellent road, which 
leads from Sandwich to Falmouth, is for more than four 
miles the western boundary of Mashpee. This road 
leaves the line of the plantation and enters Falmouth be- 
tween Ashimuit Pond on the east, and an inn on the 
west, ten miles from Sandwich. The road from Barn- 
stable to Falmouth passes through the middle of the 
plantation, leaving the meeting house about a quarter of 
a mile to the north. Another road leads from Sandwich 
to Coatuit, between Mashpee and Sanctuit Ponds. 

Of the twelve or thirteen thousand acres of land in the 
plantation, a part is appropriated to the several families, 
is held in fee simple, is mostly enclosed, and descends 
by special custom. This family land, thus held sepa- 
rately, is considered and used as private property by the 
respective owners ; and in no degree is the improvement 
of it affected by the special statutes made to regulate the 
plantation. The residue of the land is common and un- 
divided, and wholly subject to these statutes and regula- 
tions. This land consists of a hundred and sixty acres 
of salt marsh, a few enclosed pastures, escheated to the 
plantation for want of heirs to inherit them, and the 
large tracts of wood land. One half of the marsh 
land is leased for the common benefit of the planta- 
tion. The overseers do not allow more wood to 
be carried to market, than can be spared ; but it is for 
the general interest, that three or four hundred cords 
should be annually exported to Nantucket and other 


places. Beside these sources of income, several families 
of whites are tenants, and pay rent to the overseers for 
the benefit of the Indians. These monies are applied to 
the use of the poor, sick, and schools, and to the current 
expenses of the plantation. There are within the limits 
of Mashpee about twenty-five families of whites ; the 
greatest part of whom live on a large tract of land in the 
neighbourhood of Waquoit Bay, which was alienated 
from the Indians above a century ago : they pay taxes 
and do duty in Falmouth. West of Whakepee is anoth- 
er tract of land in the possession of white inhabitants, 
who pay taxes in Sandwich. At Coatuit is another 
tract possessed by whites, who are taxed in Barnstable. 
These two tracts also were long since alienated from the 
Indians. The missionary himself, Mr. Hawley, consid- 
ers himself as belonging to Barnstable ; and votes with 
the freeholders of that town. Neither the lands nor the 
persons of the Indians in Mashpee, Martha's Vineyard, 
or in any part of Massachusetts, are taxed ; nor are 
they required to perform services to the government 
in any way. They are not however a free people. The 
government views them as children, who are incapable 
of taking care of themselves : they are placed under 
overseers and guardians, who will not permit them to do 
many things which they please, and who in particular 
will not suffer them to sell their lands to any one. 

The inhabitants of Mashpee are denominated Indians ; 
but very few of the pure race are left ; there are negroes, 
mulattoes, and Germans. Their numbers have often 
been taken and have not varied much during the past 
twenty years. At present there are about eighty houses, 
and three hundred and eighty souls.* The houses are 
either wigwams or cottages. The wigwams are few in 
number ; some of them are about fifteen or eighteen feet 
square ; and others, of nearly the same dimensions, are 
of an octagon shape. A fire is made in the middle of 
the floor ; and a hole in the top suffers the smoke to es- 
cape. They are built of sedge ; and will last about ten 

* In 1808 an exact account was taken of the Indians, Negroes, and Mulattoes 
in Mashpee, and the number was found to be three hundred and fifty-seven. 


years. Some of them arc comfortable habitations in 
winter ; but in summer they arc so infested with fleas 
and bugs, that it is impossible for anyone but an Indian 
to sleep in them. The cottages are dirty, unfinished huts. 

The Indians in general are not neat either in their per- 
sons or houses. Neither can they be said to be distin- 
guished for their industry. Beside the farmers, some of 
the men are whalemen ; others catch trout, alewives, 
and other fish in the rivers. Several of the women cul- 
tivate the ground ; and many of them make brooms and 
baskets, and sell them among their white neighbours, 
but more frequently carry them over to Nantucket. A 
few of the women manufacture their wool, and clothe 
themselves and their husbands with the labour of their 
own hands. A very few of them make butter or cheese. 
Several of the young females go to the large sea-port 
towns for months together, and serve in gentlemen's 
kitchens, to the great injury of their morals ; and others 
of the women lead a vagabond life in the country, where 
at last they find negro husbands, whom they bring home 
to enjoy all the privileges and immunities of Mashpee. 

There are several schools, where the children are 
taught reading and spelling ; but none of them are good ; 
for as the Indians are scattered over the plantation, not 
enough children for a school can be collected in any one 
place. The females are in general better taught than 
the males ; but many of the latter can write and cast ac- 
counts : and some of them have a mechanical turn. 

Morals are not in a good state. There are instances 
of industry and temperance ; but too many of these In- 
dians are unwilling to work, and are addicted to drunk- 
enness. The females are more temperate than the 
males ; but not a few of the young women, as well those 
who are married, as those who are not, are unchaste. 
The Indians, like other ignorant people, are apt to be 
suspicious. They cannot believe that the officers of gov- 
ernment, the members of the Society for propagating the 
gospel, their overseers and guardians, and the other gen- 
tlemen, who have endeavoured to make them good and 
happy, and who, if ever men were disinterested, must be 
allowed to be so, are not under the dominion of selfish 


motives. Too many of them are false and trickish : 
their way of life disposes them to these vices ; hunting, 
fishing, and fowling, the usual employments of savages, 
train them up to be insidious. But though they are 
cunning and sly, yet they are at the same time improvi- 
dent. If they were to be left to themselves, the Indians 
of Mashpee, and the same thing is true of those of Mar- 
tha's vineyard, would soon divest themselves of their 
land, and spend the capital. The inhabitants of this 
place are poor ; and several of them are entirely sup- 
ported by the guardians. At times all of them require 
relief. Their stores are generally very small, as an In- 
dian depends for his daily bread upon his daily success : 
a week's sickness therefore impoverishes the greatest 
part of them, and renders them destitute of every com- 
fort. Without the compassion of their white guardians 
many of them would perish ; for they have not much 
pity for each other. Several of them have actually suf- 
fered in times passed, from want of attention. Not 
twenty years since, two widows, Sarah Esau and the 
widow Nauhaud, who were in usual health, but feeble 
and alone, perished, at different times, and not far from 
home. Their bodies were found ; but no coroner was 
called, no inquest was taken. These widows might be 
driven out by unkindness, or urged by want might be 
seeking wild fruit in the woods, where they got entan- 
gled and died. At that time the Indians of Mashpee 
were a body politick, and annually chose officers to pro- 
vide for their poor. But the elected officers of any peo- 
ple are the people in miniature ; and among savages, and 
those who are in a low state of civilization, the sick and 
the aged are always treated with neglect : for tenderness 
and disinterested benevolence do not spring up in the heart 
like indigenous plants ; but they are the fruits of long, 
of laborious, and of intelligent cultivation. 

Religion among these people is not in a better state 
than morals. Last year their meeting house resembled 
a cage of unclean birds : it may not perhaps be in so 
bad a condition at present, as a promise was then given 
that it should be cleansed. The situation of it proved, 
that they took no delight in the worship of God, as the 


house which is dedicated to him was more offensive to 
the senses, than even their filthy huts. When the sava- 
ges of New England were first converted to the christian 
faith, they were styled Praying Indians : but this name 
cannot with propriety be applied to the inhabitants of 
Mashpee ; for family prayer is almost, if not altogether, 
unknown among them. Not much more attention is 
paid to publick, than to domestick religion : very few 
of the children are baptized ; and there are not more 
than ten or twelve communicants. In one respect, how- 
ever, there seems to be no indifference to religion ; for 
though there are not more than eighty families, yet there 
are two ministers of the gospel. Mr. Hawley, the mis- 
sionary, is a Congregationalist ; and Mr. John Freeman, 
a half-blooded Indian, who is most followed by the na- 
tives, is a Baptist. — The Indians retain few of the super- 
stitions of their ancestors : perhaps they are not more 
superstitious than their white neighbours. They still 
however preserve a regard for sacrifice rocks, on which 
they cast a stick or stone, when they pass by them. 
They themselves can hardly inform us why they do this, 
or when it began to be a custom among them. Perhaps 
it may be an acknowledgment of an invisible agent, a to- 
ken of the gratitude of the passenger on his journey for 
the good hand of Providence over him thus far, and may 
imply a mental prayer for its continuance : or perhaps, as 
many of the vulgar among the English carry about with 
them lucky bones, and make use of other charms to se- 
cure the smiles of fortune, so these sticks, which are 
heaped on the sacrifice rocks, may be nothing more than 
offerings made to good luck, a mysterious agent, which 
is scarcely considered as a deity, which is spoken of 
without reverence, and adored without devotion. Of 
the fables of the Indians not many traces are left. One 
marvellous story however is still preserved. Before the 
existence of Coatuit Brook, a benevolent trout, intend- 
ing to furnish the Indians with a stream of fresh water, 
forced his way from the sea into the land ; but finding 
the effort too great for his strength, he expired, when 
another fish took up the work where he left it, and com- 
pleted the brook to Sanctuit Pond. The reader may be- 


lieve as much of this story as he pleases. He probably 
would regard the whole as a fiction, if he was not assur- 
ed, that thousands of persons have seen the mound of 
earth, which covers the grave of the benevolent trout. 
It is on the grounds of Mr. Hawley, and not far from his 
house ; and is twenty-seven feet over, and fifty-four feet 
in length. 

Those parts of the history of Mashpee, which have 
been given in these Collections,* need not be repeated 
here. At the time when this territory was granted to 
the South Sea Indians, as they are styled in the deeds, 
the natives were numerous in the county of Barnstable ; 
but they were not particularly so in Mashpee. At pres- 
ent there are as many in Mashpee, as in former periods, 
whilst from other parts of the county they have almost 
entirely disappeared. It must not be inferred from this 
fact, that the plantation is exempt from the general law 
to which the aboriginals are subject, that its inhabitants 
should gradually waste away ; but it has proceeded from 
this cause that Mashpee enjoying many peculiar privi- 
leges and advantages, in particular that those who dwell 
in it are sure of a living, from their labour, if they are 
willing to work, and from the charity of their guardians, 
if they are not, — has during a great number of years 
been an asylum for lazy Indians from all quarters of the 
country. They have come, not only from the towns of 
the county, but from Middleborough, New Bedford, Na- 
tick, Narraganset, and even Long Island. So far is Mash- 
pee from being able to keep good its numbers by natural 
population, that several ancient families have entirely lost 
their name. We might particularly mention the Wep- 
quish and Sincausin families, who were remarkable for 
their cunning and artifice, and of whom, though they 
flourished here not forty years ago, no sprig now remains. 
Several ancient families however are still left, in particu- 
lar the Popmonets and the Keetohs. 

The Commissioners of the Society for propagating 
the gospel in New England during a long course of 

* See Coll. of Hist. Soc. 1st Ser. Vol. I. p. 196. 204. Vol. III. p. 188. Vol. IV. 
p. 66. Vol. V. p. 206. Vol. X. p. 113. 133. 


years superintended these Indians;* and they expended 
large sums of money for their benefit, — in the salaries of 
their ministers, in schools for the education of their chil- 
dren, in clothes and food for their poor, and in the jour- 
nies of committees, who visited them from time to time, 
for the sake of promoting their improvement in piety 
and virtue, of listening to their complaints, and redress- 
ing their grievances. The Report of one of the com- 
mittees follows this Description ; and it is given as a 
specimen of the care, with which the Commissioners 
watched over these Indians. Committees of the legis- 
lature have also visited Mashpce, whenever it has been 
requested ; and have exhausted much time, patience, 
and money in the service of the inhabitants. It has not 
however been found easy to satisfy them, or to render 
them happy : as the committees could not give them 
temperance and industry, they have still remained poor, 
abject, and discontented. 

.Before 1763, they were under overseers and guar- 
dians, who were appointed by the government ; but the 
complaints of the Indians were for many years so loud, 
and their demands for more liberty so pressing, that in 
August, J 76 1 , the General Court sent a respectable Com- 
mittee, consisting of the Honourable William Brattle, 
Thomas Foster, and Daniel Howard, Esquires, to ask 
the Indians what they wished. The natives stated their 
requests to these gentlemen, who reported them to the 
legislature. At length, after several delays, a law was 
obtained, which conferred on the natives the long desired 
privilege of choosing their own officers. Accordingly 
on the 14th day of June, 1763, an act was passed, incor- 
porating the Indians and Mulattoes of Mashpee into a dis- 
trict, and empowering them to elect five Overseers, two 
being Englishmen, a Town Clerk and Treasurer, they 
being Englishmen, two Wardens, and one or more Con- 

At first it was supposed that this law would produce 
good effects ; but the experiment was tried a number of 
years, and every one acquainted with Mashpee became 

* Since the Revolution they have been under the care of other bodies of men. 
See Coll. of Hist. Soc II. 47. 2d. Series. 



convinced, that its inhabitants were not to be trusted 
with power, and that they were incapable in any degree 
of governing themselves. This being properly repre- 
sented to the government, an act was passed June 13th, 
1788, repealing the former act, by which Mashpee was 
incorporated into a district. By a subsequent act, pass- 
ed January 30th, 1789, it was provided, that a board of 
Overseers, consisting of five members, should be ap- 
pointed by the Governour and Council, which board had 
authority to appoint under them two Guardians of the 
Indians. By another act, passed March 4th, 1790, the 
Guardians were authorized to appoint Constables and 
other officers. 

This is the present constitution of Mashpee. It did 
not satisfy the Indians, who were louder than ever in 
their complaints ; which reaching the ears of the legisla- 
ture, a Committee was appointed in the year 1795 to go 
to Mashpee. This Committee, which consisted of the 
Honourable Nathan Dane, William Eustis, and Jonathan 
Mason, Esquires, were instructed to inquire into the cir- 
cumstances of the inhabitants of Mashpee, to ascertain 
the causes of their uneasiness, and to consider whether 
any alterations ought to be made in the laws regulating 
the plantation. After a long and patient hearing of the 
natives, the Committee reported, that it was not best to 
make any alteration in the present laws for regulating the 
plantation ; but as they learned, that the wood of Mash- 
pee was stolen by persons living near the plantation, they 
recommended that provision should be made by the leg- 
islature to prevent such trespasses in future. Accord- 
ingly in February, 1796, an act to this purpose was pass- 
ed ; and it appears in a great measure to have produced 
the intended effect. 

The Overseers of the plantation are at present Hon. 
Walter Spooner Esquire of New Bedford, Hon, Joshua 
Thomas Esquire and Ephraim Spooner Esquire of 
Plymouth, Holmes Allen Esquire of Barnstable, and the 
Rev. Gideon Hawley. They meet annually at Mashpee, 
the second Tuesday of October, to hear complaints and 
transact business for the regulation of the people. They 
then appoint a President, Secretary, and Treasurer. The 


Guardians for many years have been David Parker Es- 
quire of Barnstable, and Mr. George Allen of Sandwich, 
who meet occasionally as business requires. 

It appears from the account which has been given of 
this plantation, that it has been an expensive establish- 
ment from the beginning, but that probably little good 
has been produced. The Indians have become neither 
a religious nor a virtuous people, nor have they been 
made happy. No one can doubt the pious and benevo- 
lent intentions of Richard Bourne, who procured this ex- 
tensive patent for the Indians ; nor of the gentlemen, 
who in succession, for a century and a half, have watch- 
ed over them, like parents over their children. The ex- 
ertions, which have been made for their benefit, are hon- 
ourable to the government of Massachusetts, and to the 
societies who have so liberally contributed their time and 
wealth ; but the melancholy reflection, that they have la- 
boured in vain, perpetually intrudes itself on the mind. 
With a hundredth part of the pains which have been be- 
stowed on these savages, a town minht have been raised 
up on the ground occupied by them, which would con- 
tain four times as many white inhabitants, enjoying all 
the comforts of civilized life, and contributing by their 
industry to the welfare of the state, and by the taxes, 
which they pay, to the support of government. This 
plantation may be compared to a pasture, which is capa- 
ble of feeding fifteen or sixteen hundred sheep ; but in- 
to which several good-natured and visionary gentlemen 
have put three or four hundred wolves, foxes, and 
skunks, by w r ay of experiment, with the hope that they 
might in time be tamed. A shepherd has been placed 
over them at high wages ; and as the animals have been 
found to decrease, other wolves, foxes, and skunks have 
been allured to the pasture, to keep up their number. 
But the attempt has been in vain ; the wild animals have 
worried the shepherd ; have howled, and yelped, and 
cast other indignities upon the gentlemen, who from 
time to time have visited them, for the sake of observing 
how the experiment went on ; and have almost died 
with hunger, though they have been fed at an enormous 
expense. — What then, it may be said, do you mean that 


this plantation ought to be broken up, and its inhabitants 
dispersed ? Shall the speculators, who are hovering on 
its borders, be let in to prey on these natives, and to 
seize their lands ? We answer, no : the plantation was 
entailed on these Indians in the days of our forefathers ; 
nor can they be dispossessed of it without an act of injus- 
tice. Let them remain ; and let the pious and benevo- 
lent still persevere in their endeavours, however hopeless, 
to make them good men and christians. Perhaps when 
they cease to be Indians, when their blood is more plen- 
tifully mixed with the blood of Africa, they may acquire 
the habits of temperance and industry ; and may become 
useful to the state, in which they have so long been a 
nuisance : or if not, they are our fellow men, and they 
are poor men ; they are incapable of supporting them- 
selves, and consequently are entitled to the alms of the 

\* The above has been collected from observa- 
tions made in two visits to Mashpee, and from a great 
number of letters and other manuscripts, which have 
been communicated to the compiler by the Rev. Mr. 
Hawley, Dr. Thacher, and Dr. Eliot. 

Report of a Committee on the state of the 
Indians in Mashpee and parts adjacent. 

[The following paper was put into the hands of the editor by Dr 
Eliot. It is not signed, and is without date ; but from several notes 
of time in it, it appears to have been written in the year 1767.* A 
corner of one of the leaves being torn off, the editor has supplied the 
words which are wanting, by conjecture.] 

JL HE Commissioners of the Company for propagating 
the Gospel in New England, &x. having appointed us a 
Committee to repair to Mashpee, to inquire into the 

* It will be sufficient to mention the following notes of time. That the paper 
was written after 1765, appears by the last paragraph but five ; that it was- 
written before Nov. 5th, 1768, may be shown by the last paragraph but two, 
because the Rev. Mr. Green of Yarmouth, spoken of in it as alive, died on that 
day ; [see Hist. Coll. v. 60.] and that it was written in 1767, may be proved 
by the first paragraph, because Lord's day in that year fell on the 13th of Sep- 

IN MASHPEE. 17G7. 13 

state of the Indians in that place and the parts adjacent, 
we took the opportunity of repairing to Mashpee, at a 

time of the year when the Indians of Martha's Vineyard, 
and the neighbouring Indians on the Continent, usually 
convene, and celebrate the holy communion together ; 
at which we were present with them, on the second 
Lord's day in September instant. We had then the sat- 
isfaction of seeing the house of publick worship filled 
with the Indians, who appeared there with a becoming 
gravity. The morning service was on this occasion car- 
ried on by Indian ministers in their own language : Sol- 
omon Bryant, the pastor of the church there, prayed, and 
Zachary Osooit, pastor of the Indian church at Gay 
Head, preached ; and both of them performed their re- 
spective parts of the service with apparent solemnity and 
devotion. After this the sacrament was administered 
jointly by them and the Rev. Mr. Hawley, the English 
missionary, who prayed alternately in English and In- 
dian, to a great number of Indian communicants, Mr. 
Hawley and our own company being the only English 
persons that joined with them in this solemnity. The 
afternoon service was carried on in English by Mr. Pem- 
berton. When this was over, notice was given, that we 
should be at the meeting house at ten o'clock the next 
morning, and should be then ready to hear any of them 
that had any thing to offer. 

Monday, September 14th. A number of Indians met 
us ; among whom were Solomon Bryant and Zachary 
Osooit, the Indian pastors before mentioned, John Ralph, 
the minister at Potenumacut, and Isaac Jephry, minister 
at the Ponds in Plymouth. We took this opportunity 
to mention a subject that had been lately under the con- 
sideration of the Commissioners, the expediency of Mr. 
Mayhew's being ordained to the pastoral office at Mar- 
tha's Vineyard. Zachary Osooit readily signified his 
approbation of the thing ; and the other Indian ministers 
present expressed their concurrence with him in opinion, 
that it would be best. 

We likewise inquired of Isaac Jephry, what number 
of Indians he had to attend publick worship with him ; 

2 # 


who informed us, that there were now only two men at 
home, and seven or eight women. His allowance is 
small, as well as his congregation. He bears a good 
character, and would merit a larger allowance, if his use- 
fulness could be rendered more extensive. Mr. Tupper 
has hitherto received his allowance for him, accounting 
those Indians a part of his charge, although, as said Isaac 
informed us, he had never seen him there, since he min- 
istered to those people, which is more than twenty 

Mr. Hawley informed us, and presented us with a list ? 
that there were twenty-one shingled houses und fifty-two 
wigwams at Mashpee, belonging to and inhabited by In- 
dians and mulattoes ; that there were a hundred and 
twelve married, thirty-six widows, a hundred and twen- 
ty-three minors and unmarried, in all two hundred and 
ninety-one souls : # That besides these there are belong- 
ing to his meeting, but who live off the Mashpee lands, a 
number at Scanton, where and in its neighbourhood 
there are nine wigwams : That there are at Saccanesset 9 
or Falmouth, about twenty persons belonging to said 
meeting. We were also informed, that there are six 
wigwams at Yarmouth, the inhabitants of which belong- 
to the church and congregation at Potenumacut, or East- 
ham, where there are a larger number of Indians, than at 
any other place in that neighbourhood besides Mashpee. 

As Mr. Tupper has proposed to move to Pocasset, we 
made particular inquiry concerning the Indians there? 
and were informed, that there are eight Indian families 
or houses in that place, consisting of about thirty persons 
in all. Some of them were present, and expressed their 
desire of Mr. Tupper's settling there, as they are seven 
or eight miles distant from meeting. 

Tuesday, September 15. Having, as we went down, 
appointed to meet Mr. Tupper this day at Sandwich on 
our return, he came over accordingly. We conferred 
with him on his proposal of removing to Pocasset, which 
is a part of Sandwich, but seven or eight miles distant 

* The total amount is only two hundred and seventy-one.— Editor- 

in iMASHi'Ei:. 17G7. 15 

from the meeting house. We were in informed, that there 
were fifty English families there, who were fond of his 
settling among them ; and this it appeared to us would 
accommodate the forementioned Indians. But then it 

appeared from the information of Deacon , that there 

was a small numher of English people living on that 
road, who also wanted to be accommodated with the gos- 
pel ofiener with them than at present ; so that if he was 
the minister of these English people, the said Indians 
would have four miles to travel to meeting. Upon this 
it appeared to your Committee, that the English were 
like to differ among themselves on this point ; and if it 
should be carried for settling him in the centre of the 
English, we feared it would but poorly accommodate the 
Indians. We inquired, what number of Indians he had 
to hear him where he was ; and it was agreed on all 
hands, though he did not incline to allow it himself, that 
he had for the most part only two or three, sometimes 
more, and it was said, sometimes none at all. The 
house he preaches in is in the road to Sandwich, about 
two miles distant from Mr. Williams's meeting house at 
Sandwich ; and was built by a party who separated from 
that church, where they now attend to Mr. Tupper's min- 
istry ; nor do we find that he preaches elsewhere to the 
Indians, except, as he says, once a month to a number of 
Indians, who live near the Herring Pond, so called, and 
now and then to the Wareham and Pocasset Indians. 
Upon the whole, with respect to Mr. Tupper, your Com- 
mittee are of opinion, that his continuing to preach where 
he now does can be of little service to the Indians, as by 
travelling two miles further, they might be accommoda- 
ted at Sandwich meeting house ; and with regard to the 
English, we think it is doing an injury to the body of the 
people at Sandwich, to encourage him in preaching to 
the separation. But with regard to the Indians at the 
Herring Pond, we think it would be as well for them, if 
Isaac Jephry was to preach one sabbath in a month to 
them, which he would icillingly undertake to do, if his 
salary was augmented from four pounds to six pounds 
per annum. He is no further distant from them than 


Mr. Tupper is, about seven miles. The Wareham In- 
dians live mostly in English families ; and being twelve 
miles distant from Mr. Tupper, as he says, can doubtless 
be as well accommodated by other means, as by Mr. 
Tupper's preaching now and then to them. If the Board 
of Commissioners should be of opinion with their Com- 
mittee, we do not see where Mr. Tupper could be ser- 
viceable to the Indians, except it be at Pocasset ; and 
his removal thither seems to depend entirely upon the 
English ; and by Mr. Tupper's memorial, it appears 
that he looks upon them as principals, desiring of the 
Commissioners their assistance only towards his support. 
Your Committee are therefore of opinion, that Mr. Tap- 
per's present allowance should cease at the expiration of 
the year, which will be in November next : But that if 
he should settle with the English at Pocasset, or in that 
neighbourhood, so as to accommodate the Indians there, 
that he have such allowance on their account, as the 
Commissioners shall judge his service may deserve ; and 
that in consideration of his having been so long in the 
service, in case he settles at Pocasset, as at first proposed, 
his allowance be the same that it has heretofore been, 
agreeably to the prayer of his said memorial.* 

When we were at Mashpee, application was made to 
us in behalf of six Indian families, destitute of a minister, 
living on Naushon Island, about three miles from Fal- 
mouth ; and it was proposed, whether it might not be 
expedient that Mr. Palmer, the minister of Falmouth, 
should be employed as a lecturer to them. 

Solomon Bryant applied to us to be furnished with 
Burkit's Annotations ; acquainted us that he was about 
forty pounds, old tenor, in debt for doctors, and prayed 
for some relief.f 

* The editor has in his possession a memorial of Elisha Tupper to the Com- 
missioners for propagating the gospel among the Indians, dated Nov. 18th, 1761. 
In this paper he states, that his salary is 1. 183. 6. 8. old tenor. 

t Solomon Bryant, the Indian pastor of the Mashpee church, " was a sensible 
man, and a good preacher to the Indians in their own dialect ; " [See Hist. Coll. 
in. 191.] but, like others of the natives, he was destitute of forethought. Mr. 
Hawley thus writes concerning him in a letter, which is dated Oct. 15th, 1760 : 
11 1 also beg leave to advise the Commissioners, that Solomon Bryant's salary be- 

IN MASIU'KE. 17G7. 17 

Joseph Bryant,* a late Indian minister, bis widow ap- 
plied for an allowance towards her support. She lias 
been allowed six dollars in 1765. 

Hepbzibah Augooche, sister to Zachary Osooit, and 
mother-in-law to Deacon Popmonet of Maslipee, she 
now living with him, but properly a Vineyard Indian, 
and Jerusha, the widow of Deacon Papenau, both desir- 
ed an allowance. 

The Indians at the Ponds in Plymouth have usually 
received four blankets a year ; which your Committee 
apprehend the Rev. Mr. Robbins would undertake to 
distribute, as also to the Indians at the Herring Pond, in 
case Isaac Jcphry should be employed to preach to them, 
as well as to inspect his behaviour in the office. 

Deacon Elisha Nauhautf of Yarmouth informed us, 
that they had six Indian families there, living about three 
miles distant from the Rev. Mr. Green, and that it would 
be more convenient to have their supplies come through 
his hands, than through Mr. Hall, who lives more remote 
from them. 

The widow Augooche informed us, that in old Mr. 
Mayhew's time, some lands at the Gay Plead were taken 
from the Indians ; and Zachary Osooit acquainted us, 
that to this day some English people hold lands at a place 
called Deep Bottom, which were formerly leased to them 
by Mess'rs Hunt and Summer and Major Mayhew, when 
they were guardians to the Indians, although the leases 
have been expired some time ; and that Elijah Luce 
holds land on the Indian part of the Gay Head, which 
was let to him ten years ago by Dr. Mayhew ; and de- 
sired that they might have no more guardians. 

All which matters and things your Committee thought 
themselves obliged to report to the Honourable and Rev- 
erend Board, which are humbly submitted. 

ing small, and he no very good economist, I have been obliged, in the course 
of little more than three years, to advance more than fifty pounds, old tenor, 
which he now owes me, to supply him with necessaries, viz. bread and cloth- 
ing ; and I have the satisfaction to tell his benefactors, that he does pretty well, 
and grows better, as he grows older. He is near sixty-six years of age, has 
been a preacher more than forty, and continues in his usefulness to this day." 
He died May 8th, 1775. 

* He died April 2Gth, 1759. t See Hist. Coll. v. 50. 


Notes on New Bedford. 

IN the year 1795 Dr. Eliot published in the fourth vol- 
ume of these Collections a Description of New Bedford. 
Being at that place in July, 1807, I found there another 
account of it, written, it is supposed, by Mr. Sherman, a 
respectable bookseller, in the year 1 802. The following 
extracts from it contain a few things not mentioned by 
Dr. Eliot. 

" The village of New Bedford stands in a pleasant sit- 
uation, upon the north side of Acushnet River, in Lati- 
tude 41° 37' 30" N. and Longitude 70° 52' 30" W. 
from Greenwich, according to Knight's Survey. It lies 
north and south, upon a gradual ascent from the water, 
and exhibits a pleasing view of the harbour. The 
streets, [three running north and south, and twelve east 
and west,] are of a good width, and cross each other at 
right angles. The houses, which are, with few exceptions, 
built of wood, are in general well finished, and possess 
an air of neatness. In the year 1765, there were two or 
three small vessels employed in the whale fishery. In 
the course of ten years, at the commencement of the year 
1775, when a period was put to that business, the num- 
ber of whalemen increased to forty or fifty. 

" According to the valuation of 1801, the number of 
dwelling houses in the village was a hundred and eighty- 
five. The public buildings are a meeting house for 
Friends, one for Congregationalists, two large school 
houses, one for each of those societies, an almshouse, and 
a small market house. The principal dependence of the 
inhabitants is on commerce. In 1790, there were only 
two or three square rigged vessels : there are now (1802) 
nearly twenty sail of ships. During the late war, they 
have been principally employed in the freighting business 
from New York and the southern ports to Europe. 
Voyages have also been made to Europe, and the East 
and West Indies, directly from this port, Since the 
peace, they have been returning in some measure to 
whaling. Ship building, the manufacture of cordage, 


for which purpose there are two ropcwalks, and the man- 
ufacture of spermaceti candles, are advantageously pur- 

" In 179G, a company was incorporated to build a 
bridge across Acushnet River, to connect Bedford with 
the villages of Fair-haven and Oxford; which has since 
been accomplished, at the expense of about thirty thou- 
sand dollars. The bridge, including the abutments, and 
the space taken up by two islands which it crosses, is 
upwards of four thousand feet in length." 

Note added July 24//t. 1807. 

In Bedford there are seven wharves ; between ninety 
and a hundred ships and brigs, containing each on an 
average two hundred and fifty tons; and between twen- 
ty and thirty small vessels : twelve of the ships are whale- 
men. In 1805 there were belonging to this place seven- 
ty-three ships and thirty-nine brigs. A lot of a quarter 
of an acre of land sells for five hundred dollars to two 
thousand dollars. Bedford contains a little short of three 
hundred dwelling houses; Fair-haven, about a hundred. 
There are three ropewalks in Bedford ; and one, in Fair- 
haven. The depth of water in the harbour is from three 
to four fathoms. Common tides rise five feet. The 
light house, which stands on Clark's Point, shows one 
light. The bridge mentioned above was this year, in 
the month of March, swept away by the tide. It is now 
rebuilding ; and will soon be finished. 

Notes on Nantucket. August 1st. 1807. 
The County of Nantucket. 

JL HE County of Nantucket is composed of five islands. 
Beginning west, the first is Muskeget, which is about 
six miles east from Washqua Point in Chappaquiddick 
Island. It is a low, sandy island, and is not used for 
sheep or cattle. South-east of it is Tuckanuck, an island 
containing thirteen hundred acres of land, which afford 


pasture for eight hundred or a thousand sheep and forty 
head of horned cattle. Between Muskeget and Tuck- 
anuck are two small islands, called Gravelly Islands, 
which are of no value. The only island of importance 
is the large island, Nantucket. According to the valu- 
ation of 1801, the county contains 

652 Acres of English upland mowing, 
138 vSalt marsh, 

14581 Pasturage, 

40 Fresh meadow, 

3360 Unimproved land, 

5376 Unimprovable land, 

300 in Roads, 

1163 covered with Water, 

1350 of Tillage land. 

26960 Total, which are equal to 42 S 

square miles. Not much credit is in general due to 
valuations. There are however a few honourable ex- 
ceptions ; and this of Nantucket in particular is very little 
short of the truth. 

Island of Nantucket. Harbours. Coast. 

Two miles east from Tuckanuck is Eel Point, the 
north-west point of Nantucket. Smith's Point runs to 
the south of Tuckanuck. December 5th, 1786, the sea 
made a breach through the point ; and the strait is now 
half a mile wide ; but the breadth is continually varying. 
Twelve or fourteen years ago, the irruptions of the sea 
converted it into three islands. These two points and 
Tuckanuck Island form Matacut Harbour. The chan- 
nel is crooked and narrow ; and a vessel may carry into 
it nine or ten, some say twelve, feet of water. Within 
the harbour the water is four or five fathoms deep. Fish 
abound in it, particularly the bass, shad, and alewife ; and I 
a fishery might be carried on here to great advantage : at 
present four or five hundred barrels are taken annually. 

From Eel Point to Sandy Point, the shore curves, and 
forms an extensive bay, in which there are from five to 
eight fathoms of water. The principal harbour, on 


which the town is built, is at Wesko, within this bay. 
Its barrier against the sea is a long neck of sandy beach, 
which terminates in Coatne Point. Opposite to this 
point, at the distance of one third of a mile, is Brant Point, 
on the west side of the harbour. Brant Point, during 
the past thirty years, has gained ten or fifteen rods in 
length toward the south-east, by which the harbour is 
improved. Common tides rise about three feet. In en- 
tering this harbour from the sea, keep two miles from 
Sandy Point, on which stands Nantucket Light House, 
as a shoal runs E. by N. from the point. When the 
light bears N. N. E. run S. W. by S. until you bring 
the Harbour Light House on Brant Point to bear S. E. 
by S. Then run for it till the depth of water decreases ; 
and follow the shore into the harbour, being careful to 
avoid a shoal, which runs from Coatue Point toward 
Brant Point. The head of the harbour is six or seven 
miles from the town. A branch of it, which runs half a 
mile from the east part of it, is called Podpis.* 

There is no opening from the sea into the land either 
on the east or south sides of the island. The whole of 
the shore is a sandy beach, and resembles the beaches of 
Cape Cod, except at Siasconsit, where the sand appears 
to be composed of fragments of granite. The south side 
of the island is gaining slowly on the sea. 

Ponds. Wells. 
There are seventeen ponds ; several of which are large. 
Five or six of them are well filled with excellent perch. — 
The wells in the upper part of the town are about forty 
feet deep, which is the height of land above the level of 
the sea. The water in them is generally hard. 

State of the Thermometer. 
The climate is like that of Martha's Vineyard. The 
following Table exhibits the state of Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer, which is kept constantly in the shade, at the 

* This word is sometimes written Palpus : but the L and R ought not to be 
introduced in spelling any word of the Indians of New England, as the natives 
could not pronounce either of those letters. 




north side of the Marine Insurance Office, Nantucket, 
Lat. 41° 16', as observed by Mr. Robert Barker, at 
8 o'clock, A. M. for a year and seven months. 

Mean Heat. 








67 Decimals 





















19 Mean of c 















44 77 Mean of 7 months. 

For the sake of instituting a comparison between the 
climate of Nantucket and that of Salem, the author of 
these Notes has procured from Dr. Holyoke the state of 
the thermometer at the latter of these places, during 
the same period of a year and seven months. 

Observations of Fahrenheit's Thermometer suspended in 
the shade, at the door of Dr. Holyoke *s house in Salem, 
Lat. 42° 34' at 8 o'clock, A. M. 

Mean Heat. 

1806. January 22° 77 Decimals, 
February 28 08 


































Mean of one year. 



















44 Mean of 7 months. 

Face of the Island. Soil. 
The south part of the island is a plain, which is not 
more than twenty-five feet above the level of the sea. 
On the north part the land rises into hills, which are for- 
ty feet in height. Sankoty Head, the most elevated spot, 
in Lat. 41° 16', Long. 69° 58', is eighty feet high. 
Coatue Point and Sandy Point are a few feet only above 
the sea. — The soil in general is sandy. The best land 
is round the harbour, particularly on the south-east quar- 
ter of it, where there is a large tract of a good quality. 
This part of the island is private property, and is worth 
twenty-five dollars an acre. A tract of ground, four 
miles and a half from the town, S. S. E. stretching along 
the shore, and containing between a hundred and fifty 
and two hundred acres, is black, barren land, and resem- 
bles Hampstead Plain on Long Island. — Two kinds of 


clay, one of which is of a yellow, and the other of a blue 
colour, are found on the island. Both of them, particu- 
larly the former, are excellent for the making of cisterns 
to hold whale oil. A particular sort of yellow sand of 
the island is the best in the world for the coopering of 
oil casks. As these two substances are not to be obtained 
elsewhere in such perfection, the whaling business, 
say some of the patriotick inhabitants, cannot be carried 
on in any other place to so much advantage as in Nan- 
tucket. — The island contains iron ore ; but in one in- 
stance only has it ever been worked into iron. 

Vegetable Productions. 
The plants which grow on the beaches are beach grass, 
beach pea, beach ivy, rupture wort, and a fetid, poison- 
ous plant, probably a species of orach. The common 
hardy prickly pear (cactus opuntia) grows on Coatue 
Beach and Sandy point: it flowers in July. — Other 
plants produced on the island are southern wood, worm- 
wood, common sorrel, maiden hair, agremony, evergreen, 
vervain, ladies mantle, garlick, alder tree, chickweed, 
marsh mallows, smallage, tansy birth wort, mugwort, 
orach — several kinds, burdock, night shade, betony, bo- 
rage, butcher's broom, calamint, motherwort, thistle- 
may kinds, centaury, ground pine, celandine, endive, 
hemlock, crane's bill, henbane, saint John's wort, flower 
de luce, juniper bush, and many others, the names of 
which are unknown. — The wild fruits are, whortleber- 
ries — three species, craneberries, beach plums — very 
good, gooseberries, strawberries — scarce, meal plums, 
grapes, box berries or ivy plums, choak berries, wild 
cherries — scarce, and hazel nuts. Other bushes are the 
bay berry, the hog craneberry, and the shrub oak, grow- j 
ing only a few inches in height. — The forest trees have 
been cut down (except at Cosskaty, where there were 
three hundred cords in 1780) for a hundred years or more, j 
The natural growth was oak, beech, maple, white pine, j 
and small red cedar. A few red cedars still remain at j 
Cosskaty, which is at the head of the harbour : their I 
branches, which straggle on the ground, do not rise more 


than throe feet in height. Rabbits have heretofore bur- 
rowed in these cedars. Though the island is destitute 

of forest trees, yet there are many swamps, from which 
peat can he dug ; hut very little of it is used hy the in- 
habitants. Fire wood is brought chiefly from the south 
shore of Massachusetts, and sells for five or six dollars a 
cord. — There are a few fruit trees, such as apples, cher- 
ries, quinces, pears, and peaches. One apple tree, a 
greening, is remarkahle for the size of its fruit, which 
frequently weighs above twenty ounces. 

Cattle and Sheep. 
Above four hundred cows are kept on the island in two 
herds. At sunset they are brought to the town by the 
herdsmen, and remain in it during the night. In the 
morning they are turned out; and the herdsmen take 
them to the pastures, which extend from one to four 
miles from the town. The pasture of a cow, during the 
summer, is worth about two dollars. — There are thirty or 
forty oxen, and three hundred and fifty horses. — Seven 
thousand sheep are fed on the common lands, and near 
five hundred at Quayz. One sixth of the lambs are kill- 
ed every year. The sheep produce each about two 
pounds of wool annually. The greatest part of the wool 
is exported from the island. 

Divisions of the Island. 
Several parts of the island are distinguished by Indian 
names, which are in familiar use among the inhabitants. 
The first territory east of the town, where was formerly 
an Indian village, is Shimmoah. Adjoining it is Tetau- 
kimmo ; and then Shaukimmo ; east of which is Quayz ; 
and east of Quayz, Podpis, on the branch of the harbour 
mentioned above. At Podpis there are several dwelling 
houses, which are considered as belonging to the town, 
and are accordingly included in the enumeration given 
below. East of Podpis is Squam ; adjoining which is 
Sasacacheh, on the ocean. At Sasacacheh is a village 
consisting of fifteen fishing houses ; next to which is 
Siasconsit, where there is a village containing forty-two 


small houses, which with those of Sasacacheh are not in- 
cluded in the town. To these two villages, which are 
pleasantly situated at the east end of the island, many of 
the gentlemen of the town retire with their families during 
the heat of summer. Five hundred barrels of cod-fish 
are taken at them every autumn ; and in the spring, 
three hundred quintals of table fish, which are esteemed 
superior to Isle of Shoal fish. South of the town is Mi- 
acomit, where another Indian village formerly stood. 
Other quarters of the island receive their denominations 
from the ponds and points of land, which are near them. 

Huts of the Humane Society. 
On two parts of the coast, which are remote from 
dwelling houses, the Humane Society have erected huts 
for the relief of shipwrecked seamen. One of them 
stands two miles and a half south of the light house on 
Sandy Point, six miles N. E. by E. from the tower of 
the Congregational meeting house, forty rods N. N. E, 
from Cosskaty Pond, and a mile and a half north of the 
head of the harbour, where there are three fishing houses. 
It is on a well chosen spot of the beach, being fifteen feet 
above the level of the sea. The other hut stands on the 
south shore, near the head of Hummock Pond, three 
miles S. E. from Smith's Point, and four miles and a 
half W. S. W. from the tower of the Congregational 
meeting house. 

The Town. 
The town stands on the west side of the harbour, and 
is a mile and a half in length, and a third of a mile in 
breadth. It contains eight hundred and fifty dwelling 
houses (including fifteen at Podpis, Quayz, Squam, &c.) 
sixty-three stores, a great number of shops, beside can- 
dle works, rope walks, &c. which will be more particu- 
larly mentioned under the head of Manufactures, five 
wharves, and five windmills. The town, with the ex- 
ception of one or two houses, is built of wood. The 
houses are generally two stories in height ; some of them 
have clapboards in front ; but the greatest part of them 


are covered with shingles. Several of them are painted 
green. They are convenient buildings, but there is not 
much elegance in their appearance. — The publick edi- 
fices are two meeting houses for the Friends, a Congre- 
gational meeting house,* a Methodist meeting house, a 
court house, a jail, Free Masons hall — an elegant build- 
ing with lonick pilasters in front, an academy — not at 
present in use, but employed as a private school. Each 
of the societies of the Friends has a school ; beside which 
there are seven other schools in the town, and a number 
kept by women. The Congregational meeting house 
has a tower, eighty feet in height, which commands a 
fine prospect of the town, the island, and the surrounding 
sea. Strangers fail not to visit this tower. 

Another object to interest their curiosity is a museum, 
which lias been begun by Mr. Matthews, an English- 
man, and which promises soon to become respectable. 
It already contains many valuable articles ; among which 
are several pieces of amber, that have been picked up on 
the shore of the island ; and specimens of fishes, and 
parts of fishes, particularly those of the whale kind. 

Another object, which deserves attention, is a clock 
constructed by Mr. Walter Folger, and of which the fol- 
lowing is a description in his own words : " The clock, 
beside what is usual in clocks, exhibits the rising and 
setting of the sun, which is represented by a flat plate 
moving behind the dial plate : the dial is open so far as 
to admit the sun's being seen as long as it is above the 
horizon in Lat. 41° 16'. There are sliding plates, that 
close the opening on each side, and serve as an horizon : 
their motions are so regulated, as to cause the sun to 
make his appearance at the time he does in the heavens 
every day in the year, and set at the time the sun should 
set. The moon is represented by a silver ball, one half 
of which is made black : it appears, is seen, and disap- 
pears behind the dial in the same manner the sun does, 
rising at the time the moon does in the heavens, and set- 
ting at the time the moon sets. The moon turns on its 

* Since the above was written, a second Congregational meeting house has 
been erected at Nantucket. 


axis once in a lunation, and by that means appears with 
all the different phases the moon appears with. The 
motion given to the horizons, that regulate the rising 
and setting of the moon, is more complicated than that 
of the sun. It takes the time of eighteen vears and two 
hundred and twenty-five days to perform a revolution of 
one of the wheels, which is continually in motion. The 
date of the year is shown by the clock : the date chan- 
ges on the first day of the year : one wheel for the pur- 
pose of showing it will take a hundred years to turn once 
round. The motion of that wheel is not a continued 
motion, but rests for the space of ten years. The time 
the sun rose and set may be seen by the clock at any 
time of the day ; also the sun's declination and place in 
the ecliptick ; and the moon's declination." 

The streets and lanes of the town are irregular, but of 
convenient breadths : they are not paved ; and the soil I 
being sandy, they are very heavy in dry weather. House 
lots in the town sell from a hundred to two hundred dol- 
lars a square rod. Rents are low : few exceed a hun- 
dred dollars a year. The greatest part of the houses are 
owned by those who live in them. There are three fire 
clubs and five engines. The number of inhabitants, 
which is fast increasing, may in the present month off 
August be estimated at six thousand seven hundred and! 
thirty. In the month of March the qualified voters were 
twelve hundred and forty-six whites, and twenty-nine | 
blacks. In number of houses, of inhabitants, and wealth, 
Nantucket may be classed as the fourth town in Massa- 
chusetts : it falls very little short of Newburyport. 

Commerce and Shipping. 

There are no importers in Nantucket ; but the shop- 
keepers procure their goods from Boston and New York, 
chiefly from the former. Provisions for the vessels are 
obtained in Boston and Connecticut. Flour and Indian 
corn are brought in coasters from New York, Philadel- 
phia, and Baltimore. 

The following is a list of the number of vessels be- 
longing to Nantucket July 27th. 1807. 


Tons. <,)r>ths. 

46 Ships containing 10,525 „ 34 

8 15 rigs 1,036 „ 68 

24 Schooners 1,858 „ 60 

42 Sloops 2,387 „ 63 

120 Total 15,808 „ 25 

Fourteen of the vessels are employed in the cod fishery, 
viz. one brig, seven schooners, and six sloops. Seven- 
teen schooners and thirty-six sloops are coasters to differ- 
ent parts of the United States. Five of the brigs are 
merchant-men ; and two of the ships, which are in the 
same service, sail to Canton. 

Hunting of Seals. Whale fishery. 
Two of the brigs go to Patngonia after sea elephant 
oil ; and three of the ships are engaged in killing seals at 
various islands of the Southern Ocean. The rest of the 
ships are employed in the whale fishery ; viz. eleven on 
the coast of Brazil ; eleven at the Cape of Good Hope ; 
one on the coast of New Holland ; and eighteen in the 
Pacifick Ocean. The sealing voyages to Patagonia last 
about a year; and those to the Southern Ocean, three 
years. The whaling voyages to the coast of Brazil last 
about ten months ; to the Cape of Good Hope, fifteen 
months; to the Pacifick Ocean, above two years; and 
to New Holland, two years and a half. Ships in this ser- 
vice, with proper repairs, may be preserved twenty years. 
Whale oil is worth at Nantucket a hundred dollars a ton ; 
spermaceti oil, a hundred and fifty dollars ; and head 
matter, two hundred and seventy-five dollars. The oil 
is chiefly sold in the United States, from Boston to 
Charleston, South Carolina. Whale bone in a right 
whale, in the proportion of ten pounds to a barrel, is 
worth six cents a pound. The larger whalemen have 
three boats and twenty-one men, of whom nine are com- 
monly blacks ; and the smaller, two boats and sixteen 
men, of whom seven are blacks. The ship owners fur- 
nish the provisions of every sort, and every thing relating 



to the voyage, and draw three fifths of the returns. The 
men draw different proportions of the returns, according 
to their stations : the captain draws one sixteenth, where 
there are sixteen men ; and one eighteenth where there 
are twenty-one men : the smallest boy, in the first in- 
stance, draws a hundredth ; and in the second instance, 
a hundred and twentieth. The following paper will 
show what each person drew, where there were twenty- 
one men ; and it will be easy to determine from it the 
shares where there are sixteen men. 

Settlement of the Voyage of the Ship Lion : arrived in June, 1807 : 
was absent two years. 

To Amount of Charge $36 
To sundry Accounts, clear- 


By 37,358 




ing Ship 
and Boy] 

&.c. (no charge 
Captain, Mate, 


By 16,868 

By 150£ 



J 7849.73 





The share < 

3f the Captain 

A - - 

2072 13 


A - 



Second Mate tjV 



2 Ends Men 

T l s each 



5 Men 

yV each 



Cooper - 
5 Blacks - 

sV each 



310 82 


1 do. 

¥ J o on 400 Barrels 


1 do. 




1 do. 

A - - 



1 do. 

¥ V on all but 400 Ban 

els 318.10 

er 24252.74 

Banks. Insurance Offices. 
There are at Nantucket two banks and two insurance 
offices, each of which has a capital of a hundred thousand 


dollars. The greatest part of the shares in the four are 
owned on the island. The banks divide five per cent, 
and the insurance offices, ten per cent, semiannually. 

There are nineteen sets of works for the manufacture 
of spermaceti candles, which are in operation from the 
beginning of October to the beginning of June. On a 
medium, they manufacture each fifty tons of oil in a year ; 
and turn out about ten thousand pounds of candles, 
which are worth forty-eight cents a pound. They are 
sent to the various parts of the United States. 

There are ten rope walks, which manufacture each 
about twenty tons of cordage in a year. There is also 
a twine manufactory ; but it is small. 

The great number of casks, which are used by the 
whalemen and others, are all made in the town. The 
whale oil is generally put into hogsheads. 

The whale boats also are all built at Nantucket. A 
whaleboat is twenty-seven feet long, is made of cedar 
boards half an inch thick, carries five men to row and 
one man to steer, is built by five or six workmen in three 
days, and costs fifty dollars : before the revolution the 
cost of it was thirty dollars. 

The manufacture of marine salt was begun ; but on 
account of the fogs, which are so prevalent at Nantucket, 
it was found to be unprofitable, and was therefore discon- 

The other manufactures are those which are common 
in Massachusetts,* and are not of much importance. 

Diseases. Longevity. 
The diseases of the island are not very different from 
those of the Main. The pulmonary consumption is said 
not to be as common. This may perhaps proceed in part 
from the difference in dress, especially among the females : 
the fact is, that the women, during the chilly months, 
are more warmly clad than in other parts of New Eng- 

* See Dickinson's Geographical and Statistical View of Massachusetts 
Proper, p. 66 — 75. 


land. — There are many persons on the island above sev- 
enty years of age. Two women, Elizabeth Allen and 
Lydia Pinkham, are in their ninetieth year. Jethro Star- 
buck died 1769, set. 99. Lydia Swain died about eight 
years ago, aet. 93. Mary CorT died about thirty years 
ago, set. 97. Priscilla Colman died about forty years 
ago, sat. 95. Her husband, John Colman, died, aet. 97. 
There is no instance of any one on the island ever attain- 
ing the age of a hundred. 

Religious Denominations, 
The Quakers, of whom there are about four hundred 
families, constitute the largest body of the inhabitants. 
It was through the testimony of John Richardson, an 
Englishman, who came to Nantucket in June, 1701,* 
that the first society of Friends was gathered. Friends 5 
monthly meetings were established at Nantucket in 1708. 
The number of the Quakers is probably diminishing ; 
for many are driven from their society by the strictness 
of their discipline. Not more than one half of the males, 
and two thirds of the females, who attend the Friends' 
meetings, are members of the society. — The Congrega- 
tionalists are more than two hundred families. — The 
Methodists are upwards of a hundred families : a hun- 
dred and twenty-four church members belong to their 
society. This denomination, which has lately been in- 
troduced, has been beneficial to the town, as many, who 
had formerly no religion, now attend the Methodist 

Manners and Customs, 
The Quakers, being the largest and most respectable 
body, have happily given atone to the manners and cus- 
toms of the other denominations. The same neatness 
and simplicity in dress, the same frugality, industry, and 
hospitality, which distinguish that excellent society of 
christians, prevail in a good degree among the rest of the 
inhabitants. The people, who breakfast at seven, and 

* See Life of John Richardson. Philadelphia. 1783. 


dine at twelve, are busily engaged the whole day in some 
useful employment; and hence there are few persons 
among them, who do not obtain a comfortable subsist- 
ence, and who do not appear cheerful and contented. 
Strangers, who visit the island, generally leave it with a 
favourable impression on their minds of the character of 
the inhabitants. It seems however to be universally al- 
lowed, that they no longer retain their former purity of 
morals ; but that during the last twelve years in particu- 
lar, a spirit of bitterness has been introduced among 
them ; that the people no longer live together like a fam- 
ily of brothers ; but that they hate, and revile, and per- 
secute each other. The causes of this melancholy change 
ought not to be mentioned. It is hoped, that when the 
present generation, with their prejudices and rancour, 
shall have passed off the stage, the generation which suc- 
ceeds will be restored to the sincerity, the good faith, the 
unsuspecting candour, and the brotherly affection of for- 
mer times. There is reason for this hope, because the 
present inhabitants, notwithstanding their degeneracy in 
one branch of morals, still preserve most of the good hab- 
its of their fathers. 

Historical Dates, 

1660. May 10. Wanachmamak and Nickanoose, 
head sachems of Nantucket, sold to Thomas Mayhew 
and others the land lying from the west end of the island 
to a pond called by the Indians Wagutuquab, and from 
that pond upon a straight, line unto a pond situate on Mo- 
numoy Harbour or Creek, and from the north-west cor- 
ner of the pond to the sea. This territory includes the 

1661. Jan. 3. Coatue Point was granted by the same 
sachems to Edward Starbuck. 

1661. July 15. At a meeting of the proprietors held 
at Nantucket, it was determined that each man of the 
owners should have liberty to choose his house lot at any 
place not before taken up, and each house lot should con- 
tain sixty rods square. 



1664. July 7. Pakapenesee sold to a company of 
proprietors Nanahumas Neck, north of Hummock Pond. 
Other parts of the island were purchased of inferior sa- 

Philip, being at Nantucket, declared that he had no 
claim to the land of Nantucket ; but only power, in 
point of government, over some Indians not belonging 
to the island. 

1671. June 28. A patent was granted by Francis 
Lovelace, Governour of New York, which recites, that 
Nantucket was first purchased of James Forett, agent to 
William Earl of Stirling, by Thomas May hew and 
Thomas his son, and by them, July 2d, 1659, conveyed 
to several of the inhabitants, who have likewise purchas- 
ed the Indians' right to the lands ; and which the Gov- 
ernour, in the said patent, confirms. 

1678. June 1. The town at Wesko, that is, the pres- 
ent town, was laid out in five squadrons, to be each of 
them eight rods wide, and eighty rods in length, with 
convenient streets and high ways : each squadron con- 
tained four lots, being two rods wide each. From that 
time the town commenced. 

1684. June 5. Nantucket, in a patent, was confirmed 
to the inhabitants freeholders by Thomas Dongan, Lieut. 
Gov. of New York under the Duke of York. 

1687. June 7. Sherburne was incorporated into a 
town by Thomas Dongan, Gov. of New York. 

The Indians. 
When the English first came to Nantucket, it was well 
inhabited by Indians. There were two tribes on the island, 
one at the west, and the other at the east end. The west- 
ern tribe is supposed to have found its way thither from 
the Main, by the way of Martha's Vineyard, Muskeget, 
and Tuckanuck Islands. The eastern tribe probably 
came directly across the Sound, which it might be indu- 
ced to do, as in particular states of the air, Nantucket is 
visible from the southern shore of the county of Barnsta- 
ble. But there was a tradition or fable among them, 
that an eagle having seized and carried off in his talons 

LXocJo i o 


a papoos, the parents followed him in their ennoo till 
they came to Nantucket, where they found the hones of 
their child dropped hy the eagle.* 

The Indians of Nantucket were a people who were 
destitute of most of the arts of life. They were acquainted 
with roasting, but not with boiling. Though they had all 
the materials on the shore ; yet they could not, like the 
Narragansets, coin wompompeag. They cultivated no 
plants, except maize, beans, squashes, and tobacco. To 
each family was assigned a portion of land, equal to about 
a quarter of an acre, which they broke up as well as they 
could with rhe rude tools that they possessed, called in 
their language mattoks, assisting each other in a very 
friendly manner. They could now and then kill a bird ; 
and there were a few deer: goat skins, but not the ani- 
mal itself, were found by the English on the island. Fish 
could be obtained in the harbours, and on the coast; and 
shell fish were abundant. During the winter however, 
they frequently suffered the extremities of famine. Their 
clothes were sometimes skins, but for the most part coarse 
mats, made of grass. 

The two tribes were hostile to each other. Tradition 
has preserved a pleasing instance of the force of love. 
The western tribe having determined to surprise and at- 
tack the eastern tribe, a young man of the former, whose 
mistress belonged to the latter, being anxious for her 
safety, as soon as he was concealed by the shades of night, 
ran to the beach, flew along the shore below the limit of 
high water, saw his mistress a moment, gave her the 
alarm, and returned by the same route before day-break : 
the rising tide washed away the traces of his feet. The 
next morning he accompanied the other warriours of the 
tribe to the attack : the enemy was found prepared ; and 
no impression could be made on them. He remained 
undetected, till several years after peace being restored 
between the two tribes, and the young man having mar- 
ried the girl, the truth came to light. 

* Mr. Alden, in his Memorabilia of Yarmouth, gives an Indian fable, which 
differs somewhat from this. See Coll. of Hist. Soc. V. 50. 1st Series. 


The first Englishman ,who settled at Nantucket, was 
Thomas Macy. He was accompanied by two young 
men, who came for the sake of shooting the wild fowl ? 
with which the island abounded. They found the land 
covered with wood. The Indians, who received them 
with kindness and hospitality, were astonished at the ef- 
fect of the fire arms, by which more birds could be killed 
in a day, than they could destroy with their arrows in a 
month. Afterwards, when more Englishmen came, the 
land began to be ploughed. The Indians would with de- 
light, for whole days together, follow the traces of the 
ploughshare ; and they earnestly intreated the English to 
plough their land for them. Their request was complied 
with. The Indians were religiously punctual in reward- 
ing them for their labour. The first portion of corn col- 
lected in the autumn was laid by in baskets, to pay the 
English for their ploughing ; another parcel was reserved 
for seed. Neither of these portions would they touch in 
winter however severe the famine might be ; so honest 
and careful were they at that period. But in process of 
time, when their morals were corrupted by their com- 
merce with the whites, they became thievish, negligent 
and slothful. They w T ould frequently steal from the En- 
glish ; and their corn fields were overrun with weeds. 
The introduction of ardent spirits among them gradually 
thinned their numbers ; and at length the fever, which 
attacked them in 1763, almost entirely swept them away. 
At present there are only two Indian men and six Indian 
women left on the island. 

After the whale-fishery was introduced, the Indians 
were employed in that service ; and they made excellent 
oarsmen, and some of them were good endsmen. So 
useful have men of this class been found in the whale- 
fishery, that the Indians having disappeared, negroes are 
now substituted in their place. Seamen of colour are 
more submissive than the whites ; but as they are more 
addicted to frolicking, it is difficult to get them aboard 
the ship, when it is about to sail, and to keep them aboard, 
after it has arrived. The negroes, though they are to be 


prized for their habits of obedience, are not as intelligent 

as the Indians ; and none of them attain the rank of ends- 

Soon after the English had settled on the island, at- 
tempts were made to convert the Indians to the faith of 
the gospel ; and in a course of years all of them became 
nominal christians.* But their morals do not appear to 
have been much improved by their conversion. They 
Were however, during every period, generally friendly to 
the English, who, though they were sometimes alarmed, 
never experienced any thing from them really hostile. 
Those who made converts of the Indians were the Con- 
gregationalists and the Baptists: it does not appear that 
any of them became Quakers; whose religion, being so 
simple and intellectual, without either ceremonies or mu- 
sick, had no attractions to a nation of savages. 

Of former Descriptions of Nantucket. 
These Notes are not given as a complete description 
of Nantucket, but only as a supplement to the accounts, 
which are already before the publick. The reader, who 
wishes for further information, is referred to the II Id. 
Vol. of these Collections, 1st. Series, where he will find 
four valuable papers, written by inhabitants of the island, 
and containing many things omitted in these Notes. He 
is also requested to procure, if he can, the Letters of an 
American Farmer, by Hector St. John de Creve Cceur, 
which afford the most interesting: and entertaining account 
of this island. It is proper however to advertize him, 
that against the Letters of the American Farmer two ob- 
jections may be made. One is, that his pictures, though 
striking likenesses, arc always flattering likenesses : eve- 
ry face glows with the blush of sensibility, and is irradi- 
ated with the beams of happiness. The other objection 
is, that he is frequently erroneous in minute and unim- 
portant circumstances: he gives the contour and charac- 
ter of the face exactly, though, as was said before, in too 

* For an account of the progress of the gospel among the Indians of Nan- 
tucket, see 1st. Hid. and Xth. Vol. of Hist. Coll. and Matth. Mayhew's Nar- 
rative, p. 29. 


favourable a light ; but he makes strange mistakes in the 
sleeve of a coat, or the strap of a shoe. If the reader has 
good nature enough to pardon these two faults, he will 
peruse the Letters of St. John with perpetual delight.* 

A Description of Duke's County. Aug. 13th, 1807. 

DUKE'S COUNTY, a small county in the state of Mas- 
sachusetts, is situate south of the county of Barnstable, 
south-east of the county of Bristol, and west of the coun- 
ty of Nantucket. Its distance from Boston is about 
eighty miles; and the road, which leads to it, passes 
through Plymouth and Sandwich to Falmouth, whence 
a ferry boat conveys the traveller to Holmes's Hole. 
The county is composed of the islands of Martha's 
Vineyard, or Martin's Vineyard, and Chappaquiddick, 
which are separated from each other by a narrow strait, 
of the Elizabeth Islands, and of Noman's Land. It lies 
between the latitudes of 41° 14/ and 41° 31', and be- 
tween the longitudes of 70° 22' and 70° 55' W. from 

Martha's Vineyard. 

The principal island, where the courts are held, and 
which contains the meeting houses, school houses, and 
the greatest number of inhabitants, is Martha's Vine- 
yard. I shall begin with this island ; and in describing 
it, there will be a necessity of mentioning several things 
which belong to the county in general. 

Martha's Vineyard is nineteen miles in length from 
east to west. Its greatest breadth is ten miles, from the 
West Chop in Tisbury to the beach south of Oyster 
Pond : in the narrowest part it is two miles wide : its 
mean breadth may be about five miles. 

* Since these Notes were collected, a Description of Nantucket, by Joseph 
Sansom, Esq. of Philadelphia, has been published in the Vth. Vol. of the Port 
Folio, p. 30. This Description is written in a popular style, and is an accurate, 
as well as an amusing paper. It has obliged the author of these Notes, in tran- 
scribing them for the press, to omit several things which he intended to have 


Beginning north, proceeding east, and following the 
coast round the island, we first enter the harbour of 
Holmes's Hole, formed by the West and East Chops; 
the first of which is two miles and a half, and the second, 
two miles from the head of the harbour. These points 
are two miles and a half apart. There are flats, which 
make off a little way from each side ; but no shoals to 
obstruct the entrance. The depth of water is from eight 
fathoms to three and a half, rising gradually ; the bottom 
excellent holding ground, bluish clay. Vessels can an- 
chor at any distance from the shore in the harbour, which 
is secure against all winds, except those which blow from 
N. N. E. to E. N. E. From twenty to seventy sail of 
vessels, bound to Boston bay or to the eastward, and 
which have put in here, are frequently seen at the same 
time in the harbour, waiting for a fair wind. About a 
thousand or twelve hundred sail anchor in it in the course 
of a year. Several excellent pilots reside in the village 
near the harbour, and at the Old Town ; but none of them 
are furnished with branches: in consequence of which the 
unsuspecting stranger is frequently imposed upon. Com- 
mon tides rise in Holmes's Hole two feet and a half. The 
beaches are a deep sand, or sand mixed with gravel and 
small stones. Shells are found in great abundance round 
the harbour ; some of them as deep as five feet in the 
ground. If they were left there by the Indians, the 
place must formerly have been thickly inhabited ; but 
they seem to be too numerous to be attributed to this 
source. A lagune, called Wickataquay Pond, communi- 
cates with Holmes's Hole by an opening, which is only 
four rods wide, and five feet deep at high water. It is 
supposed formerly to have been wider and deeper, and to 
have been a part of the harbour. The lagune is about 
three miles long, and from a quarter of a mile to a mile 
and a half wide. In several places it is forty feet deep. 

From the East Chop to Starbuck's Neck, at the en- 
trance of Old Town Harbour, are five salt water ponds, 
communicating with the sea by small openings : a narrow 
sandy beach separates them from the sound. One of 
these ponds, called Sangekantacket, is half a mile wide, 


and above three miles long. This part of the shore is in 
the form of a curve. 

Old Town Harbour is the strait between Martha's 
Vineyard and Chappaquiddick Island. It is composed 
of two parts. The Outer Harbour extends from Cape 
Poge to Starbuck's Neck, and is four or five fathoms 
deep. From this neck the harbour " winds like the 
shell of a snail," and constitutes the Inner Harbour, 
which is about half a mile wide. The depth is from 
three to four fathoms, the bottom soft, generally sandy, 
in some places muddy. In entering it, a ship must keep 
W. from Cape Poge half a mile distant, in six or seven 
fathoms of water. It must run S. S. W. two miles and 
a half, shunning the sand flats which extend half a mile 
E. S. E. from Starbuck's* Neck. This will bring it to 
Chappaquiddick Neck. It must then run W. into the 
Inner Harbour, close to Chappaquiddick Point, where 
the shore is very bold. This harbour is safe and excel- 
lent, and is esteemed one of the best in the United States. 
It is so much better than the harbour of Nantucket, that 
the whalemen of that island are obliged to come to 
this place, to take in their water, and to fit out their ships. 
The excellent water of Edgartown is conveyed to them 
by troughs, which run over the wharves, at the end of 
which the ships lie, and by hoses is poured into the casks 
in the holds. If the ships return from their whaling 
voyages in the winter season, they are compelled to come 
to this port, and to discharge their cargoes into lighters, 
which carry them over the bar of Nantucket harbour. 

The head of Old Town Harbour is Matakeeset Bay, 
which communicates with the ocean by a strait, fifty rods 
wide, and four feet deep at high water. The strait is de- 
nominated Washqua Outlet, and it lies between Wash- 
qua Point on the east, and Waqua Point on the west. 
This outlet is continually altering in its breadth ; and 
there is always in it a rapid tide. About the year 1 792 it 
was entirely blocked up with sand, and remained shut 
during six months ; at the end of which it was again 
opened by a north-east storm : it was never shut before 
or since. The beach, which extends west from Waqua 


Point, and which is the harrier hetween Matakceset Bay 
and the ocean, is from fifty to sixty rods wide, and ahout 
three miles loii£. 

Thence, as you proceed west, the south shore is near- 
ly straight to the commencement of the peninsula of Gay 
Head. A string of ponds, separated from the ocean by a 
narrow sand beach, called the South Beach, which is not 
more than ten or fifteen rods wide, extends from Mata- 
kceset Bay to Chilmark Great Fond. They are divided 
from each other by narrow necks, some of which arc only 
ten rods wide; and the sum of all their breadths is not 
more than a mile. The first, second, and third ponds 
are made to communicate with Matakeesct Bay, and 
with each other, by means of artificial canals. The third 
pond, which is called Great Pond, is two miles long, and 
one mile wide. The sixth pond is the Oyster Pond, 
near the Tisbury line : a canal from it into the ocean is 
opened two or three times in a year, and is again filled 
up by south-east storms. Newtown Pond in Tisbury is 
a mile and a half long, and has a natural communication 
with the sea. The ponds between it and Edgartown are 
of a smaller size. West of Newtown Pond is a small 
pond in Chilmark; and then succeeds Chilmark Great 
Pond, which consists of two parts, connected by an arti- 
ficial creek : the length of these two parts is two miles, 
east and west. The sea is continually encroaching on 
the South Beach ; or rather, as it still retains the same 
breadth, is pushing it north into the ponds, the salt marsh, 
and upland, on which it borders. 

About a third of a mile east of the west end of Chil- 
mark Great Pond, the shore is formed of cliffs of clay, 
which extends two miles, to the beach that leads to the 
peninsula of Gay Head. The clay is generally blue and 
of the indigo cast; but it is intermixed with red clay, or 
red ochre, a small quantity of yellow clay, or yellow 
ochre, and a small quantity of white clay. The indigo 
substance is mixed with the same kind of black wood, 
which we shall again mention, when we come to Gay 
Head. Very small streams run down the cliff; and 
there was a spring there a few years ago, seventy feet 


above high water mark, and thirty below the summit of 
the cliff, containing excellent water, but it is now blocked 
up. Much of the sand, below the cliff on the beach, 
is black, and has a great proportion of iron ore, which is 
attracted by the magnet. The same kind of sand is 
found on other parts of the beaches of the island. There 
is also sand of an orange colour. This part of the shore, 
from certain marks, is known to have lost a half a mile 
in breadth in the course of eighty or ninety years. Large 
stones of granite, which have fallen from the upland, as 
it has been broken down, lie on the strand : one in par- 
ticular, weighing about a hundred tons, is remembered 
by persons now living to have descended from the sum- 
mit of the cliff. A tawny coloured stone, which is also 
seen at Gay Head, is observed here. On the strand 
there are rocks of pudding stone, and many pebbles 
made smooth by the rolling of the surf. Marine shells 
and the teeth of fish have frequently been taken from 
the cliff, ten or fifteen feet below the summit. 

The beach or isthmus, which leads to Gay Head, has 
the sea on the left hand, and Stone Wall Pond, which is 
connected with Menemsha Pond, on the right. The 
shore here turns to the south, extends to Squipnocket 
Point, is composed of sandy cliffs, and is about fifty feet 
high. This bending of the land forms Squipnocket 
Bite, in which vessels may anchor, on a muddy bottom, 
half a mile from the shore, in a north-west wind, which 
blows directly into Menemsha Bite, on the other side of 
the peninsula. At Squipnocket Point are clayey cliffs, 
which contain a large proportion of red ochre. Thence 
to Gay Head the shore is a sandy beach ; and its direc- 
tion west of north. There is a large pond within the 
peninsula, called Squipnocket Pond, which is close to 
the ocean, from which it is separated only by a narrow 
beach. By means of an artificial canal, lately dug by the 
Indians, for the purpose of admitting alewives to pass 
into Squipnocket, it is made to communicate with Me- 
nemsha Pond. 

Gay Head, the north-w r est point of the peninsula, is 
about a hundred and fifty feet high. A light house ? 


which stands on it, elevates a light fifty feet more above 
the level of the sea. It is attended by a faithful man ; 
but it affords a dim light only; the cause of which is, 
that the lantern is too small. The mother of the keeper 
of this light-house, Mrs. Remember Skiff, aged ninety- 
three, is the oldest person on the island. She is cheer- 
ful and affable ; and retains her sight, hearing, and mem- 
ory. During the past twelve months, she has knit above 
fifty pair of stockings.* At Gay Head is the Devil's 
Den ; which, notwithstanding the terrour of its name, 
has nothing formidable in its appearance. It is a de- 
1 Ipression in the hill, in the form of a bow], except that it 
. is open on the side that is toward the sea, through which 
Jit is not difficult to descend to the strand. If it was on 
1 (the top of a mountain, it might be called a crater. In 
dthis cavity, according to an Indian fable, many years 
sjbefore the English came to Martha's Vineyard, a giant, 
j or tutelar deity, named Maushop, resided. Here he broiled 
•the whale on a tire made of the largest trees, which he 
j pulled up by the roots. Though a malignant spirit has 
s ijno\v taken possession of his den, yet the first occupier 
e i|was a benevolent being, and he kindly supplied the Jn- 
;t idians with whales and other fish. After separating No- 
,| iman's Land from Gay Head, metamorphosing his chil- 
, t dren into fishes, and throwing his wife on Saconet Point, 
, [where she still remains a misshapen rock, he went aw r ay 
h nobody knew whither. f Perhaps the report, that volca- 
)f inick flames have been seen to ascend from the Devil's 
, Den, is as fabulous as the story of Maushop. This at 
e Beast is true, that they have never been observed by the 
,. 'intelligent inhabitants; who wonder that learned men, 
Jwho have visited the island, should so easily be imposed 
.ipon by the credulous vulgar. 

A On both sides of the Den, the cliff is composed of 
io pay and other substances, red, yellow, blue, indigo, 
;g i>lack, and white ; and to those who are on board a ves- 
Jjjel, sailing along the shore, especially soon after a rain, 

* She was alive in December, 1814. 
is i t See Memoirs of Am. Acad. II. 133, and Coll. of Hist. Soc. I. 139plst Ser. 


and when the sun shines on it, it is a brilliant and 
beautiful object: Hence is derived the name of Gay 
Head. The red clay is denominated red ochre ; but it 
is a pigment of an inferiour quality, and does not adhere 
well to the wood on which it is laid. The yellow part 
of the cliff is partly sand, partly clay covered with efflo- 
rescences of copperas, and a small part yellow ochre. 
The indigo portion is mixed with a black substance, I 
which looks like coal, but which is scarcely combusti- 
ble. In many pieces the fibres of wood can plainly be I 
discerned ; and what may be called large sticks, covered i 
with a coat which resembles bark, have sometimes been \\ 
taken out of the cliff. Sometimes the black substance 
is a complete petrification, but still retains the shape of a 
piece of wood. Neither the blue nor the white clay 
predominate ; but the latter, which is the most valuable 
article that the cliff affords, may be obtained in sufficient I 
quantities. It is excellent for hearths and backs of fur- J 
naces, for moulds of cannon, and for refining sugar ; and j 
it is sent to Taunton, Boston, and other places. Stones 
impregnated with iron are found among the clay, and are 1 
scattered along the beach. Here and there pyrites may j 
be obtained ; and the two shells of the poquau (venus [ 
mercenaria) petrified and adhering together, with the 
hinge complete in its characteristical marks, have been 
dug out from among the clay, many feet below the sum- 
mit of the cliff. As the parts of the cliff are continually}' 
breaking to pieces, falling down, and washing into the^ 
sea, the appearances of it are perpetually varying. Sev- 
eral very small rills run down the cliff; and a well, which 
is dug on the side of the bank, and a little below the 
summit, affords water which has an aluminous taste. 
Large rocks of granite are on the shore, under the cliff; 
there are a few small stones of slate ; and a few of quartz. 
Beside which there are two sorts of stone on the shore, 
one of a tawny, and the other of a dull reddish colour, 
both of which are indurated clay. 

From the light house the shore tends east, a little 
southerly, to Wawaytick Creek, which runs from Me- 
nemsha Pond : whence the shore tends north-east. This! 


landing of the land (onus Menemsha Bite, where there 
is good anchorage, when the wind is from \Y. by S. to 
E. by N. a half a mile from the shore, on a muddy bot- 
tom. From the light house to the ereek the shore is a 
sand) beach. Menemsha Pond separates the peninsula 
of Gay Head from the rest of Chilmark. 

The shore between Wawaytick Creek and Lumbert's 
Cove consists of clayey cliffs, intermixed with sandy 
dills. Large stones or rocks are in the cliffs : many 
have (alien down, and lie along the shore ; and render a 
landing in several places impracticable. The cliffs ot clay 
are broken into rude forms ; but deep gullies, and sharp 
ridges, compose their general features. Wind, rain, and 
the dashing of the sea are gradually causing them to as- 
sume new appearances. In one instance a change sud- 
denly took place. About ten years ago, a piece of 
ground, above an acre in extent, and near a cliff, sunk in 
• la moment to the perpendicular depth of more than seven- 
dflty feet. It went down with a noise resembling that of an 
s earthquake ; but was seen by no one, as it happened (lur- 
king the night. At the same time a part of the beach, at 
in the boundary of high water, rose to the height of twenty 
in I feet, and composed a mingled mass of sand, clay, and 
ae (stones. Several years before the land sunk, cracks were 
ei (observed in the ground, about ten rods off. As the land 
]there is high, the sunken place still remained about ten 
feet above the strand. Between it and the ground which 
was raised, was a narrow passage or alley, which preserv 
ed the usual sandy appearance of the beach. This place 
icliis near Roaring Brook, somewhat more than two miles 
th|N. N. W. from Chilmark meeting house. In the course 
itefiof ten years, the raised spot has been entirely washed 
ifjiaway by the sea, and the sunken place is much altered in 
rtjljits form. 

)K The shore curves between Paul's Point and Konickey 
JjCliff, and forms Lumbert's Cove ; which is well shelter- 
Bed against every wind, except those which blow from 
jttkiW. S. \V. to N. N. E. The Middle Ground, a shoal 
|Kej|in the Vineyard Sound, at no great distance from the 
[Inshore, somewhat breaks the force of the northerly winds. 



Vessels anchor from fifty rods to half a mile from the 
shore, in three, four, and five fathoms of water, on a 
sandy bottom, good holding ground. Great James Pond, 
a small pond, communicates with the cove. Konickey I 
Cliff consists of clay ; and there is found here the same 
kind of black substance, which is seen at Gay Head. 
Several persons who have visited Martha's Vineyard 
suppose, that this substance indicates the vicinity of a 
coal mine ; whilst others imagine that it is nothing but 
pieces of charcoal, made either by a volcano, or by 
Maushop, when he was cooking his whales. From Ko- 
nickey Cliff, east, to the West Chop are beaches of sand. 
About half way between these two points is Tashmoo 
Pond, which runs directly from the shore, is three quar- 
ters of a mile wide on the Sound, from which it is sepa- 
rated by a beach, and two miles long. It terminates in a 
point south, and by an artificial creek, called Chappa- 
quonset, discharges itself into the Sound. 

We have now completed the circuit of Martha's Vine- 
yard. The shoals by which the island is surrounded, 
we shall not, as we have not sufficient information on the 
subject, undertake to describe. It is well known to sea- 
men, that they are numerous and dangerous. Of the di- 
rection of the tides it may be proper to say a word. The 
flood tide makes up between Gay Head and the Eliza- 
beth Islands, and sets to the eastward. The same flood! 
tide makes up between Muskeget Island and Cape Poge, 
is very rapid, and sets to the eastward. The flood tide; 
continues on northward and eastward to Massachusetts 
Bay. The ebb tide, of course, sets the contrary way. 
At Point Judith, the flood tide sets to the westward, 
through Long Island Sound. 

Beside the lagunes and ponds near the sea, of which 
an account has been given above, there are a few small ! 
ponds at a distance from the shore. One of them, near 
the boundary line between Tisbury and Chilmark, in the 
north-east corner of the latter township, covering about 
an acre of ground, and situate on land seventy feet above 
high water, is so deep, that its bottom has not yet been 
found. Another pond of fresh water in Edgartown, near | 


the Tisbury line, is on land about a hundred and twenty 
feet in height. It is about twenty rods long, eight or nine 
wide, and live feet deep. Il has never been known to be 
dry ; and as there is no water either salt or fresh within 
about four miles of it, it seems to be placed here by a be- 
nevolent Providence lor the refreshment of the thirsty an- 
imals, by which it is surrounded. Attempts have been 
made to sink a well near it, but without success. Of 
this pond a marvellous story is told, that in a wet summer 
it is two feet lower than in a dry summer, and that the 
remarkable fact has been confirmed by the observation 
of more than a hundred years. But after careful inquiry, 
the author has reason to believe that this is a fabulous 
story. Those, who during a hundred years have con- 
veyed it from one mouth to another, have probably been 
too much pleased with the wonderful tale, to give them- 
selves the trouble to examine into its truth. But a physi- 
cian of the island, who, in the exercise of the duties of 
his profession, has had frequent occasion to pass by the 
pond, assured the author, that this pond was like other 
ponds, that its water was lowest in a dry season, and 
highest after copious rains. 

Martha's Vineyard is well supplied with ponds ; but 
brooks are few in number. In Edgartown there are 
none ; and not many in Chilmark. The largest brooks 
are in Tisbury : one runs from the north-west; another 
from the west ; and both empty themselves into New T - 
town Pond, their mouths being not more than a hundred 
rods apart. A small brook discharges itself into Lum- 
ber's Cove. 

Swamps are more numerous ; but they are chiefly 
found in the western part of the island, there being not 
:t (many in Edgartown and Tisbury. None of the swamps 
« in Chilmark are large. Several of them have been clear- 
M \cd and converted into fresh meadows ; but the greatest 
i f jpart of them are filled with bushes and small trees. Some 
u! 'of them have springs of good water, a few of which give 
Nrise to brooks ; and others of them contain peat ; which 
■ [ as w r ood has grown scarce, begins to be much used. 


The wells in the eastern and middle parts of the island 
are not deep, the water in them being on a level with the 
sea. In Tisbury they are from fifteen to twenty feet in 
depth. With a few exceptions, the water in them is soft 
and of a good quality, and will wash as well as rain water. 
x4bout a mile from the village of Old Town there is a 
tract of ground, a mile in width, on both sides of a large 
swamp, where the water is hard. The water of many of 
the wells at Holmes's Hole is also hard, as they contain 
iron ore. The sandy beaches in every part of the island 
abound with fresh water, which can be obtained by dig- 
ging a few feet. 

The air is somewhat warmer, but more disagreeable^ 
during the winter, than in Boston. Boisterous winds are 
frequent ; and rain more common than snow : there are 
not at this season six snows, which do not terminate in 
rain. The summer heat is more temperate : there are 
warm days, but few hot nights. The hottest part of the 
day is generally from nine to eleven in the morning, when 
there is less wind than in the afternoon : the sea breezes, 
which commonly spring up about eleven, cool the air. 
Fogs are frequent, but not unwholesome. The air, es- 
pecially in the summer, and when the wind is south, is 
moist. Table salt can with difficulty be preserved in a 
dry state. 

The greatest part of Martha's Vineyard is low and lev- 
el land. Round Old Town Harbour there are a few ele- 
vated spots, which rise forty or fifty feet above the sea ; 
and the land, where the above mentioned small pond is 
placed, is supposed to be a hundred and twenty feet in 
height. A plain extends from Starbuck's Neck eight 
miles, two miles of which are in Tisbury, and is from 
five to six miles wide, and about ten feet above the level 
of the sea. This plain comprehends the greatest part of 
Edgartown. The level land continues through the east- 
ern and southern parts of Tisbury and Chilmark, with 
here and there a small elevation and depression. Round 
Holmes's Hole the land has the appearance of hills of a 
moderate elevation. From their summits the land sub- 


sides a little, and continues a plain to Ed gar to wn and 
Tisbury. The hills, which form the high land of the 
island, begin a mile north-east of Lumbert's Cove, where 
they are three quarters of a mile wide ; run in a chain 
parallel with the Sound ; rise to the height of two hun- 
dred and fifty feet, and expand to the breadth of two or 
three miles ; as the island becomes narrower, stretch 
across it to the south shore ; are interrupted by Menem - 
sha and Stone Wall Ponds ; and terminate in (Jay Head. 
These arc the only hills which deserve the name : they 
are the back bone of the island, clayey and stony. The 
north-western and western parts of Tisbury, and the 
northern and western parts of Chilmark are on this 
high land. Many of these hills afford an extensive pros- 
pect of the ocean, the Sound, the Elizabeth Islands, the 
shore of Falmouth, and the country beyond the islands. 
The scene is enlivened by vessels, which are continually 
passing. There are several pleasant vallies between the 
hills ; and some of them in Chilmark, about a mile and two 
miles from the Sound, afford iron ore, near runs of water 
and swamps.* It sells for ten or eleven shillings a ton on 
the Sound ; and considerable quantities of it have been 
exported to the forges on the Main, where it is esteemed, 
when it is mixed with other ores. The stones and rocks, 
which lie on these hills, are granite ; many of them are 
large; and some of them, of singular shapes. Several, in 
Chilmark, at a distance, might be mistaken for houses. 
One has a roof like a barn ; one is almost a perfect cone, 
and is called the Sugar Loaf; and others of a smaller size, 
but weighing several hundred pounds, are hollowed out 
in the form of a bowl. The author has seen two of 
these stones, which are used for troughs, the largest of 
which will hold six gallons : They are entirely the work 
of nature. 

The soil of Martha's Vineyard is good or bad, nearly 
in proportion as the land approaches to, or is removed 
from the hills. The soil of Edgartown is not as good as 
that of Tisbury and Chilmark : it is sandy and dry, but 
not unfavourable to the growth of corn. The soil of 

* See Coll. of Hist. Soc IX. 257. 



Tisbury is in general a heavy, gravelly loam ; a portion 
of it is sandy, and a smaller portion inclining to clay. 
More than one half of these two townships is covered 
with shrub oak and bitter oak, is of little or no value, 
and is not enclosed. The soil of Chilmark is clay inter- 
mixed with sand, the clay predominating. There are 
several spots which are sandy. Both the clayey and the 
sandy places are stony. The plain on the south side of 
the township is a loamy soil. These several soils in 
Chilmark were naturally good ; but they have been much 
worn and abused by bad husbandry. Snow seldom lies 
long ; but the ground is generally uncovered during the 
winter. The violent winds, which so generally prevail 
here, blow away the soil, which has been loosened by al- 
ternate frosts and thaws, till at length it is carried into 
the sea. Gay Head, which is reserved to the Indians, 
contains the best land on the island. 

The land produces, without manure, ten or twelve 
bushels of Indian corn to an acre, in Edgartown and 
Tisbury, and from twelve to fifteen bushels, in Chil- 
mark ; and from three to six bushels of rye to an acre, 
in the two former of these places, and from five to eight, 
in the latter. Corn is commonly raised without manure 
in Edgartown and Chilmark ; but manure is generally 
used in Tisbury. When the ground is manured in 
Tisbury, it produces from fifteen to twenty bushels of 
Indian corn, and about seven bushels of rye to an acre. 
In Chilmark, land which is manured will yield from 
twenty to twenty-five bushels of Indian corn to an acre, 
and from ten to twelve bushels of rye. Sufficient of 
these two grains are grown for the consumption of the 
inhabitants ; and some Indian corn for exportation. Some 
of the land is favourable to oats and barley ; they are not 
however raised in any considerable quantities, though 
even in Edgartown an acre yields from fifteen to twenty 
bushels. Little or no wheat is grown. Indian corn 
weighs about fifty-six pounds to a bushel. The land is 
generally horse-hoed with a harrow, not with a plough. 
Garden vegetables and potatoes are raised sufficient for 
the consumption of the inhabitants. The land is manur- 


ed for potatoes ; and the produce is forty or fifty bushels 
to an acre. Seaweed has of late been much used : it is 
laid on the potatoes, and covered with earth. The land 
is made to yield great quantities of pumpkins, which are 
green, thick shelled, and of a good taste. 

There is more grass land in Chilmark than in the 
other two townships. Upland English mowing, in this 
place, yields about eighteen hundred to an acre ; the salt 
marsh, a ton ; and the black grass marsh, a ton and a 
half. This black grass is frequently overflowed by the 
water of the ponds, which it surrounds, and much injur- 
ed. For the sake of drawing off the water, a passage 
from them into the sea is opened during the summer ; 
but it is liable to be shut again with the first southerly 
gale. Another kind of grass, called creek stuff, grows 
on the borders of the ponds, and the greatest part of it 
in the water. It is a coarse sedge, and is worth about 
one third of English hay. — In Tisbury there are no up- 
land English meadows, except those which are made by 
manure : they are of small extent, and produce about a 
ton to an acre. Bordering on the small rivers and brooks, 
which run into Newtown Pond, there are about seventy 
or eighty acres of fresh meadow, which affords hay of a 
better quality than common fresh meadow hay : the pro- 
duce is about a ton and a half to an acre. There is very 
little salt marsh, creek stuff, or black grass, within the 
limits of the township. — In Edgartown there are about 
a hundred and forty acres of English mowing land ; a 
hundred and thirty, of fresh meadow ; and a hundred 
and seventy, of salt marsh. Very little of the English 
mowing land deserves the name, the greatest part of it 
being strips of land on the borders of the salt marsh, 
between it and the upland. It produces a fine grass, 
resembling spear-grass, and from a ton to a ton and a half 
to an acre. The proper English upland mowing ground 
yields about fifteen hundred to an acre. The fresh mea- 
dow is on the borders of the ponds, is of a good quality, 
and produces about a ton to an acre. The salt marsh 
yields not more than a ton to an acre ; and much of it, 
not more than five hundred : the grass is short sedge, 


and is of a good quality. Some of the marshes of late 
have produced black grass, and yield a great burden. — 
The best hay of the island is of an excellent quality ; and 
affords more nutriment, than hay which grows at a great- 
er distance from the sea. — Not much butter and cheese 
are made in Edgartown and Tisbury : in Chilmark there 
is a greater quantity ; but of the former, not more than 
two thirds ; and of the latter, not more than one quarter, 
sufficient for the consumption of the inhabitants. 

Flax is grown in Chilmark, formerly enough for the 
use of the inhabitants ; but at present not enough. A 
black speck has lately been seen on it, which kills the 
bark, and greatly injures the flax. Less flax is raised in 
Tisbury, and still less in Edgartown. 

There are on the island several small orchards, the 
greatest part of which are in Tisbury. They afford ap- 
ples sufficient for the use of the inhabitants, both in sum- 
mer and in winter ; but very little cider is made. The 
price of a bushel is from twenty-five to fifty cents. The 
most common sorts are the greening and the pig-nose. 
The latter, which is peculiar to the island, somewhat re- 
sembles a Newtown pippin, but is smaller and of a better 
taste. It is eatable in September, and may be preserved 
till May. These orchards bear fruit, when the trees are 
very young and small. There is now in Tisbury an or- 
chard, containing trees well filled with apples, which 
have been planted three years last spring, and were graft- 
ed the autumn preceding, when they were only two 
years old. On one of the trees, which is the most pro- 
ductive, the number of fair apples which remain, — for 
many have fallen off, — has been counted, and it is found 
to be a hundred and thirty-seven. The circumference 
of the tree in its trunk is four inches and a half; and its 
height four feet two inches. — The other fruit trees are 
the common red cherry, which formerly produced fruit 
in plenty, but of late years the trees have become barren ; 
and a few peach trees, which bear an autumn fruit of lit- 
tle value. 

The wild fruits are wild cherries; beach plums, in 
plenty ; gooseberries ; grapes, in plenty ; craneberries, 


abundant at Gay Head, and a few in other parts of the 
island ; whortleberries, three species, and blackberries 
in plenty ; a few raspberries and strawberries ; hazel nuts ; 
and bayberries, from which many pounds of wax are an- 
nually made. A great variety of plants, which may be 
used in medicine, are also to be found here. 

Very little wood land is left in Edgartown and Chil- 
mark : in Tisbury there is more than in both the other 
townships, about two thirds of the whole island. The 
trees are principally of white and black oak, and are 
about thirty feet high: few exceed fifty feet. In Chil- 
mark there is not half fuel enough of wood for the con- 
sumption of the inhabitants; and in Edgartown the 
greatest part of the fire wood which is used is brought 
from other places, chiefly from Buzzard's Bay, Waquoit, 
and Coxit : the price of a cord is five or six dollars. 

The roads of the island, except on or near the hills, 
where they are stony, are pretty good. One extends from 
Edgartown to within six miles of Gay Head. This road 
passes through Tisbury, from which there is a road to 
Holmes's Hole ; and from this second road branches a 
third, which leads to Lumbert's Cove. There is a 
fourth road from Holmes's Hole to Edgartown. Many 
of the houses, particularly in Chilmark, have no roads 
leading to them. All the houses are within a mile or 
two of the sea coast : the internal parts of the island will 
probably always remain without inhabitants. — Where the 
land is enclosed, it is in the eastern part entirely fenced 
with posts and rails, which are chiefly brought from Buz- 
zard's Bay. As many spots however are not worth en- 
closing, and are destitute of water, they are left in com- 
mon. In the western part of the island, the land in gen- 
eral is fenced with stone walls. The stones are large, flat 
pieces of granite, and can be laid in such a manner, as to 
admit spaces between them ; by which labour is saved. 

Beside domestick animals, the quadrupeds which are 
found on Martha's Vineyard are these which follow : the 
skunk ; the musquash ; the mink ; four or five species 
of ground mice ; the mole ; the rabbit : four or five 
otters have been killed during the past ten years, and are 


supposed to have swum from the Elizabeth Islands across 
the Sound. There are no deer, foxes, nor squirrels. 

Of amphibious reptiles there are the mud turtle and 
the various species of pond turtles. 

There are also the toad, the tree toad, and the various 
species of frogs, except the bull-frog. 

The only snakes found on the island are the black 
snake ; the variety of striped snakes ; the small green 
snake ; the small black snake, with a white ring round 
his neck ; the milk or house snake, speckled like a rattle- 
snake ; all harmless. 

The birds, which frequent this and the adjacent islands, 
are the crow ; the hawk ; the owl ; the king bird ; the 
swallow; the martin; five or six kinds of curlews ; as 
many of plovers, some of which breed on these islands ; 
the ground sparrow ; the black bird ; the bob o'lincoln ; 
the lark ; and other small birds, among which has been 
seen the humming-bird ; the wood-pecker, two species, 
the red-headed, and the speckled or whafler ; the wood 
duck; the heath hen; both scarce ; the whippoorwill ; 
the heron ; the black duck, of which many breed on 
these islands ; the teal ; the blue bill ; the broad bill ; 
the gray duck ; the red-headed duck ; the white-bellied 
duck ; both excellent, very fat, and of a fine flavour, ap- 
pear in spring and autumn, and are plenty ; the whist- 
ler ; the sheldrake ; the wild goose ; the brant ; the 
shoal duck ; the white winged coot ; the little black 
coot ; the old wife ; the loon, of different species ; the 
gull, in abundance. This is not a complete list of the 
birds ; for many more might be enumerated, the names 
of which are unknown to the author. 

Of insects and worms no exact account can be obtain- 
ed ; but they are supposed not to differ much from those 
on the Main. The sand flea is abundant on the beach : 
carcases left there are soon devoured by them. Snails, 
the shells of which are about as large as a cent, are found 
in the woods. The same kind of locust, which has been 
observed in the woods of Sandwich and Falmouth, is al- 
so seen here ; and it is said, appears regularly after an in- 
terval of fifteen years. There are found at sea the squid 


and the man-of-war ; the former excellent bait for bass : 
and the latter resembling a bladder, and when touched, 
blistering the hand. 

Fishes on the coast, in the harbours, lagunes, and 
ponds, are numerous, and of many different sorts. But 
the whale, which was formerly so abundant on the coast, 
has almost disappeared, except the humpback and fin- 
back, which in the spring are frequently seen on the 
south of the island. Two have been taken during the 
course of the last twenty years. The porpoise is com- 
mon, and frequently enters the harbours. — The shark of 
the different species, except the bone shark, is in abun- 
dance : many of them are caught for the sake of their liv- 
ers ; and during the past two years, their fins and tails 
have been dried in the sun for the China market, where 
they bring a good price. The sturgeon is sometimes 
caught, and principally in Cape Poge Pond. The dog- 
fish is abundant. The sting-ray, the skaite, and the 
goose fish, or monk, or fishing frog, are common. — The 
puff fish, or swell fish, or bellows fish, is a cartilaginous 
fish. It is seven inches long ; and when it is swimming 
and in no apprehension of danger, its proportions are those 
of a sculpion nearly. The skin is thick, and is armed 
with spines, a quarter of a line in length, and half of a 
line apart. The back is of a tawny colour ; and toward 
the tail there are several slate coloured spots : the belly 
is white. It has breathing holes, but no gills. Its mouth 
is two lines wide ; and has two teeth above, and two be- 
low. The eyes are large, and of a beautiful green : there 
is a fin behind each of them. It has a dorsal fin, near 
the insertion of the tail, and a very small anal fin : the 
tail is not forked. When an enemy approaches, it swells 
into the form of an oblate spheroid, its diameter being 
equal to twice its length. This swelling takes place in 
the under part of the fish ; for there is a thin membrane 
inside of the skin of the belly ; and another membrane 
separates the body and entrails of the fish from a bag 
which extends from the mouth to the tail. This ba«- has 
a communication with the mouth, through which water 
or air is pumped in ; and a valve under the tongue opens 


and shuts at the pleasure of the fish, and when shut, pre- 
vents it from passing out. When the fish is in its natural 
element, it pumps in water : it keeps in the harbours ; 
and when it is swollen, it is too large to be swallowed by 
the small fish which usually frequent them. It can thus 
escape its foes in the water ; but it cannot preserve itself 
from its foes on the land. Its most cruel enemies are 
boys, who frequently catch it, and make it swell for their 
diversion. They scratch it on the belly ; it pumps in 
air, and swells immediately ; they strike it violently with 
a club or stone, when it bursts like a bladder, with a noise 
as loud as the report of a pistol. — The pig-fish is of the 
size and form of a sculpion, but with a head not so large 
and bony. The grunter is of the same size : when it is 
taken out of the water, it makes a noise like the grunting 
of a hog, and soon dies. — There are two species of eels ; 
one of which is called the silver eel. This fish is not 
slimy. If it is caught and laid in the sand, it soon buries 
itself in it, and finds its way to the water ; and it is sup- 
posed that it penetrates the narrow beaches, which sepa- 
rate the ponds from the sea, and of which several are not 
more than fifty feet wide. It is fat, and is esteemed as 
good as the common eel : by means of pots it is taken in 
the ponds in October and November, and at no other 
time. The common eel is very abundant in all the har- 
bours, lagunes, and ponds : fifteen barrels^ when they 
are running from Old Town Harbour into a pond com- 
municating with it, are taken with a net, in one night. 
The sea bass is caught in every season except winter. The 
common bass is obtained through the whole year: it is 
found not only in the sea, but also in the lagunes, espe- 
cially in the winter. Cod and haddock are caught in the 
spring : the first is good ; but the last is poor and small, 
not weighing more than from a pound and a half to four 
pounds. The rock cod is taken in autumn : the hake, in 
spring. The halibut, very large and fat, and much better 
than in Boston Bay, is caught only in the spring, from 
the first of April to the middle of May. The pollock, 
which is not plenty, is taken only in the spring. The 
mackerel passes the Sound in the spring, but does not 


come near Martha's Vineyard, and returns to the south- 
ward on the east side of Nantucket. The herring enters 
the harbours in the autumn and winter ; but has not 
been much attended to : this fishery might probably be- 
come a source of profit. The alewife enters Old Town 
Great Pond by an artificial canal, which it is necessary to 
clear out every year : it runs up and spawns during the 
night. A thousand barrels, computing six hundred fish 
to a barrel, are every year taken in this canal, and when 
pickled, sell for three or four thousand dollars. From 
three to five hundred barrels are annually caught in New- 
town Pond ; a few are taken in a creek, which runs into 
Lumbert's Cove ; and still more at Chappaquonset. 
Chilmark Great Pond might also afford a profitable fishe- 
ry of alewives, if a communication was opened from it 
into the sea ; but it has not yet received much attention. 
The pond perch is small and lean. The sea perch is 
very large and excellent : it is caught in the spring. 
The smelt is taken at the same season. The but or 
plaice, which has its mouth on the same side as the hali- 
but, is caught during the whole year. The torn cod 
does not appear here ; but the flounder is known. The 
black fish, called the crow fish at Nantucket, is caught in 
the Sound and harbours in May and June. The skapaug 
in shape somewhat resembles the roach : it has a fin be- 
hind each gill, two ventral fins, the anal fin extending 
some length, the dorsal fin running nearly the whole 
length of the back, the tail forked : it is taken in the har- 
bours and Sound from May to September. The tataug 
is taken in the harbours and lagunes, in spring and sum- 
mer : it is not plenty. The cunner, called the perch in 
Boston Harbour, is taken in spring and summer. The 
mumchimmee, a small fish, four or five inches long, re- 
sembling an eel in shape, is caught in summer. The 
squittee, or drummer, is taken in the Sound, but princi- 
pally in the harbours and lagunes, in summer. The man- 
hadon is caught, with seines only, in summer and au- 
tumn. Beside which there are the bill fish and the gar ; 
the latter opening a small mouth ; the former opening its 



mouth like a snipe ; being in other respects like each 

Of shell fish, lobsters are caught only in Old Town 
Harbour, near the wharves, and are very scarce. There 
is the large crab, called here the blue claw. The king 
crab is in plenty. Small crabs are in abundance, particu- 
larly the sidling crab, five or six thousand of which are 
frequently seen together. 

The oyster is found in Newtown Pond, and in two oth- 
er ponds on the south shore, one of which is in Edgar- 
town, and the other in Tisbury. It is fresh to the taste ; 
but it is improved in its relish and rendered fatter, by 
digging a canal through the beach, and letting the salt 
water flow into the fresh water ponds. As the southerly 
winds soon fill up the canal, the digging must be renew- 
ed four or five times in a year. The poquau* is found 
in Old Town Harbour, at Cape Poge, and in Menemsha 
Pond : great quantities are exported. It is taken up 
with iron rakes in deep water ; and in shallow water it is 
picked up by the hand. The siki, or common clam, is 
found on the borders of the lagunes and in several other 
parts of the island. It attains its full size in two years. 
Much examination has convinced us, that it has not the 
power of locomotion ; but the poquau is able to cover it- 
self with sand, and to move itself forward, though very 
slowly. Two thousand dollars worth of clams, at nine 
dollars a barrel, have been sold at Edgartown in the pres- 
ent year. They also begin to be taken at Menemsha 
Pond, and we believe in other places, and sold for bait. 
The razor shell and the muscle are scarce. The small 
scallop is in great abundance. The small scallop is able 
to move itself upwards to the surface of the water ; this 
motion is effected by opening and shutting the shells al- 
ternately. — The periwinkle is univalve and spiral, and 
grows to the size of seven or eight inches in length. It 
lies in sand or gravel, which is intermixed with mud. 
At the opening of the spiral shell, there is a flat, oval shell, 
which the worm has the power of projecting forwards and 

* Called the quahaug in the county of Barnstable. 


drawing inwards, by moving the muscles which adhere 
to it. By this means it is capable of advancing forwards 
with a slow motion. The Author of nature makes a 
wonderful and copious provision for the propagation of 
this worm. Its spawn is a yard in length, or more, and 
consists of little cists or cases, covered with a skin resem- 
bling parchment, of the form of somewhat more than a 
half circle. The cists are nearly flat, are three quarters 
of an inch in diameter, lie one above another, their flat 
surfaces being a line apart, and are connected by a string, 
which touches the chord, or their straight side. Each 
cist contains about twenty spawns or eggs, and there are 
fifty or more in a string; so that each worm spawns at 
least a thousand eggs. It fixes one end of the string in 
the mud, throws out the spawns, and leaves the other end 
to float in the water. The cist at first contains a viscous 
liquor with some dark specks ; but the shells soon begin 
to be formed in it : here they grow one year ; at the end 
of which the cist opens, and they fall into the mud. 
Storms and other accidents break off and destroy the 
greatest part of the cists ; so that very few of the eggs, 
perhaps not one in five hundred, attains the perfect state 
of the animal. The periwinkle is sometimes eaten ; but 
it has a strong, sweetish, and disagreeable taste. — There 
are beside these testaceous worms, the sweet meat, or 
half-deck, and several others, the names of which are un- 

It is not easy to obtain an exact account of the number 
of domestick animals. Valuations, it is true, are often 
made ; but these, it is well known, are always short of 
the truth. On Martha's Vineyard, including those on 
Chappaquiddick, the horses and colts have been estima- 
ted at four hundred ; the neat cattle, one year old and 
upwards, at twenty-eight hundred ; and the swine, at 
eight hundred. Six hundred animals of the beef kind, 
part of which is sent to market, some of it to Nantucket, 
are perhaps killed every year. Many goats were former- 
ly kept on the island ; but they were of little profit to 
their owners, and have been greatly injurious to the pres- 
ent generation, by preventing the growth of trees on that 


vast plain of bitter oaks, which lies between Edgartown 
and Tisbury. These mischievous animals are still to be 
found in the same places, but their number is unknown. 
Of the number of sheep there are different estimates. 
One man raises it as high as twenty thousand ; another 
supposes it to be half that number; whilst another says, 
that it does not exceed nine thousand. The following- 
data will enable us to approach near the truth. Eleven 
thousand seven hundred pounds of wool have this year 
been purchased for exportation ; the same number of 
pounds are annually manufactured into stockings, mit- 
tens, and cloths, chiefly flannels and blankets ; making in 
.the whole twenty-three thousand four hundred pounds. 
The sheep, one with another yield a pound and a half of 
wool annually : there must be then fifteen thousand six 
hundred sheep. The number of pairs of stockings knit 
for sale by the women of the island, in a year, are about 
fifteen thousand ; of mittens, three thousand ; and of 
wigs for seamen, six hundred. The stockings, which 
bring fifty cents a pair, and the mittens, one third of that 
sum, are sold to the traders on the island, and in New- 
Bedford, and paid for in goods. A pound of wool makes 
two pair of stockings. The wool, which is not manu- 
factured, is principally purchased by persons who come 
for it from Connecticut, and who also carry away poquaus 
and dry fish : they pay for it about thirty cents a poundo 
The sheep run at large during the whole year, chiefly on 
the commons : many hundred of them perish miserably 
by the famine and cold of winter. When it is killed and 
dressed, a sheep weighs from thirty to forty pounds : the 
tallow weighs from four to six pounds : the mutton is 
very sweet and tender. Few lambs are killed, but many 
sheep ; about a thousand of which are sent from the 
county, including the Elizabeth Islands and Noman's 
Land, in the course of a year, principally in the autumn, 
to Nantucket and other places. 

To prepare the wool for the manufacturers there is in 
Chilmark a carding machine, at which five thousand 
pounds are carded annually. Connected with it is a full- 
ing mill, at which, in the year 1805, three thousand two 


hundred yards of cloth were pressed. In the year 1790, 
above four thousand yards were dressed at the same mill. 
There is in Tisbury another mill, at which about seven 
or eight hundred yards are dressed in a year. 

Beside these mills there are, for the grinding of corn, 
four windmills in Edgartown, one of them on Chappa- 
quiddick ; one windmill and three watermills, in Tisbu- 
ry ; and five watermills, in Chilmark. These watermills 
are very small, and grind only two or three bushels of 
corn in a day. 

Next in importance to the manufacture of wool is that 
of salt. There are in Edgartown three sets of salt works, 
containing twenty-seven hundred feet ; and in Tisbury, 
five sets, containing eight thousand nine hundred feet. 
This manufacture is increasing ; and probably in three 
or four years there will be more than double the present 
number of feet. 

The other manufactures are not of much importance. 
There are tanners, sadlers, and hatters, a few ; and me- 
chanicks, as many as are necessary. The rest of the in 
habitants are either seamen or farmers. In Edgartown 
the young and middle aged men are seamen, and are em- 
ployed in fishing and foreign voyages ; and sail princi- 
pally from other ports. The elderly men are employed 
in cultivating the land. The same thing may be said of 
Holmes's Hole. But in other parts of Tisbury and in 
Chilmark, though several of the young and middle aged 
men go to sea, yet a majority of the inhabitants obtain 
their subsistence from tilling the soil. 

The diet of the inhabitants is simple and not expen- 
sive. They eat fresh meat, when they kill sheep in au- 
tumn, and more frequently in the villages of Old Town 
and Holmes's Hole, than in other parts of the island ; salt 
beef and pork is their food a great part of the year. Fish 
is more common at the two villages, than in the south 
part of Tisbury and in Chilmark ; but it is too cheap to 
be highly prized, and is not as much eaten as might be 
expected. It is not unusual for a dinner to be without 
either meat or fish, except perhaps an alewife or a salted 
cod. Beer and cider are scarcely known : the common 


drink is water, or tea or coffee, which constitute a part of 
the dinner in seven eighths of the families on the island. 
Molasses and water, especially when a little ginger is put 
into it, is a beverage which is highly valued : spirits and 
water are given as a treat: wine is seldom seen. The 
entertainment, to which company is invited, is tea in the 
afternoon, when bread and butter, pies, cakes, and in 
particular gingerbread, are presented. 

The inhabitants are frugal-, but not inhospitable. 
Strangers are treated by them with attention and kind- 
ness. Among other virtues which may be observed in 
them, the people, and in particular the women, are re- 
markable for their industry. As to religion, the majority 
of the inhabitants are Congregationalists. They were 
almost universally so a few years ago ; and the people 
lived on the most friendly and respectful terms with their 
ministers, whom they venerated and loved as fathers. 
But a party spirit and angry divisions now disturb the 
peace of several parts of the island. As however these 
unhappy effects have proceeded in part from good, or at 
least from innocent, causes, such as the love of what is 
believed to be truth, ardent zeal in what is thought to be 
evangelical religion, and a desire of making proselytes, it 
is to be hoped that they will in time subside ; and that 
to union of sentiment, a valuable blessing it must be con- 
fessed, but which it is in vain to expect long in a free 
country, will succeed a virtue still more valuable, chris- 
tian candour. These divisions were occasioned by the 
introduction of the Baptists, who were a very small num- 
ber before 1 803 : but in that year they began to increase^ 
and in 1805 they were incorporated into a religious soci- 

The evil resulting from a discordance of sentiment is 
the more sensibly felt, because the towns are not large, 
and even if all the inhabitants of each one were united in 
opinion, would not be more than competent to the sup- 
port of a single pastor. For the evil in this view of it, 
we have not reason to think that there will soon be any 
remedy ; because the number of families in the county 
appears to be decreasing: in 1790 it was five hundred 



and fifty-eight; but in 1800, only five hundred and thir- 
ty-three. There has been, it is true, a small increase 
since 1800; but a war, or any similar calamity, would 
soon lessen the population again. The following Table 
exhibits the number of Houses, Families and Religious 
Denominations in each town, as obtained by an exact 
enumeration, which has been made in the present month 
of August, 1807. 


Edgartovvn in- 
cluding Chap- 



Elizabeth Islands 




No. of 

No. of 























1 Quaker, 

I Quaker. 
1 Rom. Cath* 

4 Methodists. 

Note, the inhabitants of the Elizabeth Islands and No- 
man's Land are at too great a distance to attend publick 
worship at Martha's Vineyard ; for which reason the 
number of their Religious Denominations is not put into 
the Table. 

This want of increase in the population of Martha's 
Vineyard is owing in part to the hazardous nature of the 
employments, in which some of the people are engaged ; 
but still more to the frequent emigrations, which are 
made from the island. The climate is judged by those, 
who have had the longest experience of it, to be not un- 
favourable to health and longevity. The most fatal dis- 
ease is, as in other parts of New England, the consump- 
tion. Other prevalent diseases are the dropsy, rheuma- 
tism, nervous and hypochondriack disorders. Fevers, 
the dysentery, and gout are not common. Many of the 
inhabitants live to old age, and preserve their vigour to 
the last. Some of these observations will be confirmed 


by the following Results of Tables kept in Edgartown 
and Chilmark. 

Died in Edgartown from Jan. 1st. 1761, to Dec. 31st. 

Under 1 year 79 

Between 1 and 5 50 

5 10 4 

10 20 12 

20 30 34 

30 40 18 

40 50 22 

50 60 13 

60 70 16 

70 and upwards 59 

307 Total. 
Fifty-six persons, not included in the above, either 
drowned at home, lost at sea, or destroyed by casualties 
on board vessels : three perished by other accidents. 
Beside whom, in the years 1779 and 1780, a large num- 
ber were lost at sea, or died in prison ships. 

Died in Edgartown from Jan. 1st. 1785, to Dec. 31st. 
Under 1 year 35 males. 26 females. 61 total. 

i 1 and 10 




10 20 




20 30 




30 40 




40 50 




50 60 




60 70 




70 80 




80 90 




90 100 




113 + 151 = 264 
Forty-five males, not included in the above, died of ma- 
lignant fevers abroad ; thirty-five were either drowned 
at home, or lost at sea ; and one was burnt to death : to- 
tal eighty-one males, who were all, except four or five, 


under thirty years of age. Of the females, who died be- 
tween the ages of ten and thirty, the greatest number 
perished by consumptions. Not one young man has 
died of this disease since the year 1785. The annual 
number of births, during the past twenty years, has been 
about thirty-three. The whole number of marriages in 
twenly-six years and a half is two hundred and forty 
one : one third of the marriages of the women, during 
this period, have been with men who were not inhabit- 
ants of the town. 

Died in Chilmark from Jan. 1st. 1788, to Dec. 31st 













139 total, of whom 
77 were males, and 62 females. Of the diseases, which 
were the causes of the deaths, 26 were consumptions ; 
4, pleurisy ; 3, dropsy ; 2, apoplexy ; 2, palsy ; 5, dys- 
entery ; 5, bilious fevers; 2, yellow fever; 1, atrophy; 
1, mortification in the bowels ; 1, diabetes : the rest are 
unknown. Beside the above, fifteen young men were 
lost at sea, or died abroad of contagious diseases. The 
number of births, during this period of nineteen years, is 
152 males, 150 females, 29 sex unknown; total 331. 
The number of marriages during the same period, is 88. 
49 of the married couples have removed from the town. 
Of the children, born within this period, 50 have died, 
and 99 removed from the town. About 80 other per- 

Under 1 


Between 1 



























sons have also migrated from the town, and about 20 
come in to it. 

As Martha's Vineyard receives not many accessions 
of inhabitants from abroad, the names of its families, 
which have sprung from the original settlers of the island, 
are few in number. Thirty-two names comprehend 
three quarters of the population. The following Table 
exhibits these names, and the number of families belong- 
ing to each. 

No. of Fam 


No. of Fam. 


No. of Fam. 

















































Of these names the most distinguished is MayheWe 
Thomas Mayhew, the founder of the family, deserves 
to be ranked with Bradford, Winthrop, and the other 
worthies, who established or governed the first English 
colonies in North America. The little band of adven- 
turers, whom he boldly placed on an island, amidst nu- 
merous bodies of savages, have not become a large and 
flourishing people ; his fame consequently is less ; but 
his toils, his zeal, his courage were equally great. In 
prudence and benevolence he stands pre-eminent. Whilst 
on his part he abstained from all acts of violence and 
fraud against the Indians, he gained such an ascendency 
over their minds, that they on their part never did him 
or his people the least injury, or joined in any of the wars, 
which their countrymen on the main land waged against 
the English. He seemed to come among them, not like 
a robber to dispossess them of their lands, not like a 
conqueror to reduce them to slavery, but like a father, to 
impart to them the comforts of civilized life, and the 


blessings of the gospel of peace. Perhaps he had little 
success in this benevolent attempt : but his merit is the 
same ; nor is he to be censured as extravagant for an un- 
dertaking, which the experience of almost two centuries 
has hardly yet convinced his successors is fruitless. — His 
son, Thomas Mayhew junior, was a young gentleman 
of liberal education, a good classical scholar, and emi- 
nent for his talents and knowledge. He was the first per- 
son who undertook to convert the Indians to the chris- 
tian religion. In this pious work he laboured diligently 
a number of years ; but in 1657 he was lost at sea, when 
he was only in the thirty-seventh year of his age. The 
writers of that period speak of him with great respect, 
and lament his death as a publick calamity. — Thomas 
Mayhew junior left three sons, Matthew, Thomas, and 
John. Matthew, the eldest, upon his grandfather, the 
governour's death, in the year 1681, succeeded him in 
his civil and military honours. In 1694, he published a 
small book, entitled A Brief Narrative of the success 
which the Gospel hath had among the Indians of Mar- 
tha's Vineyard, &x. This work, which was written in 
the age of the Mathers, has much of the spirit of creduli- 
ty, for which that renowned family was so remarkable. 
It contains however several facts ; and those parts of it, 
which are fictitious, are at least amusing. The following 
extract is given as a specimen. " I can also inform of 
an Indian povvaw, who, although he was not accounted 
religious, yet said he was a christian ; who being ques- 
tioned by some English of such matters reported of him, 
acknowledged, that designing to kill by witchcraft a cer- 
tain Indian, who accidentally lodged in the house with 
him and his brother, while he went out to enchant a 
hair, his brother, who before lay from, now contrary to 
his knowledge lay next to, the fire, it being their then 
custom to lie bareback to the fire ; he, when he came in, 
nothing doubting but that it was his enemy, directed 
the enchanted hair to the back of his supposed enemy, 
which immediately entering his body, killed him ; but 
in the morning it proved to be his brother. The thing 
was well known ; and this powaw seemed with great re- 


morse and sorrow to acknowledge the same to such of 
our English, who inquired of him concerning that mat- 
ter." * This Matthew Mayhew, who was a preacher to 
the Indians! as well as a magistrate, died in 1710. J 
Thomas, his brother, was one of the justices of the court 
of common pleas, and died at Martha's Vineyard in the 
year 17 15. J — John, the youngest brother, applied himself 
entirely to the work of the ministry. He was a man of 
great prudence and an excellent understanding ; and he 
preached not only to the English at Tisbury, but to the 
Indians in various parts of the island. After labouring 
among them fifteen years, he died Feb. 3d. 1689, in the 
thirty-seventh year of his age.|| — Experience Mayhew, 
son of John, in the year 1694, began to preach to the In- 
dians. He was a man of superior endowments of mind ; 
and was so perfectly acquainted with the Indian lan- 
guage, that he was employed by the commissioners of 
the society for the propagation of the Gospel, to make a 
new version of the Psalms and the Gospel of John : he 
executed the work in collateral columns, English and 
Indian, with great accuracy, in 1709.11 In 1727 he 
published his Indian Converts; to which is added some 
Account of English Ministers on Martha's Vineyard, by 
Mr. Prince. The Indian Converts is a well-written and 
entertaining book ; but to those who are acquainted with 
the present state of morals and religion among the Indians 
on the island, or who remember what they have been 
during the past fifty years, it will appear a strange 
work ; and they will think that the author is either de- 
scribing the natives of some other place, or that the char- 
acter of their own Indians has entirely changed since 
the days of their fathers. Accordingly the Indian Con- 
verts is by several inhabitants of Martha's Vineyard 
viewed, not as a piece of history, but as a work of 
the imagination. One gentleman, great grandson of 
Matthew Mayhew mentioned above, and who is esteem- 
ed for his intelligence and candour, speaks of it in these 
terms: " Experience Mayhew's Indian Converts gained 

* Matth. Mayhew's Nar. 44. t Gookin. Hist. Coll. IX. 4. 

t Prince's Account of English Ministers, p. 302. || Id. p. 305. IT Id. p. 307. 


him considerable celebrity abroad ; but [the accounts 
contained in it] were considered by his contemporaries on 
the Vineyard as greatly exaggerated." But in vindica- 
tion of the book and character of Mr. May hew it may be 
alleged, that he himself makes the highest claims to ve- 
racity. " The first thing I shall assert, says he in his 
preface, is my own fidelity and concern for truth in this 
performance. I know well that no lie of mine can be 
necessary for the honour of God, or the manifestation of 
his grace ; and I can truly say, that I have not in this 
history imposed on others any thing, which I do not my- 
self believe." It may also be alleged, that the united 
ministers of Boston bear witness to the truth of the his- 
tory, in their attestation prefixed to the volume. Among 
other things they say : " The author of this history is a 
person of incontestable veracity." And further : " We 
again say, his truth may be relied on, his fidelity is irre- 
proachable." This attestation is given by men of re- 
spectable characters and stations in society, who well 
knew that they were responsible for their testimony, and 
who lived at the time when the book was published. In 
1744, Experience Mayhew printed another book, enti- 
tled Grace Defended, which has been highly commend- 
ed by those who have read it. He died in the year 1756. 
His sons were many. — Joseph was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1730, and was chosen tutor in 1739. He was 
a man of superior abilities and learning. — Nathan was 
graduated in 1731. Jonathan was graduated in 1744. 
This is the great Dr. Mayhew, a man whose splendid 
abilities would adorn any age, or any country. — Zechari- 
ah, another of his sons, was a missionary, and continued 
to preach among the Indians till within a few years of his 
death, which took place March 6th, 1806. — Another 
member of this illustrious family was the late Dr. Mat- 
thew Mayhew, grandson of the first Matthew, a gentle- 
man of uncommon powers of mind and of exquisite wit 
and humour. He was in all respects an excellent man ; 
and he sustained the highest offices in the county. — The 
family has been almost as much distinguished for longev- 
ity, as for talents. The first Thomas Mayhew died at 



the age of ninety ; Experience, at the age of eighty-four ; 
John, grandson of the first John, at the age of eighty-nine ; 
and his brother Jeremiah, at the age of eighty-five ; Dr. 
Matthew Mayhew, at the age of eighty-five ; and Zech- 
ariah, at the age of eighty-nine. 

The late Dr. West of Boston, who was born at Martha's 
Vineyard, might also be mentioned among the names 
which do honour to the island. 

For the sake of avoiding repetitions, we have arranged 
almost every article of our description under the general 
head of Martha's Vineyard. But as the island is divided 
into three townships, it is proper that some notice should 
be taken of each in particular. The townships are Ed- 
gartown, to which the island of Chappaquiddick is annex- 
ed ; Tisbury ; and Chilmark, which comprehends the 
Elizabeth Islands and Noman's Land. 

Edgartown, sometimes called Old Town, is in the 
eastern part of the island. The length from the East 
Chop to the South Beach is nine miles : the breadth, 
from east to west, and exclusive of Chappaquiddick, is 
five miles. It is separated from Tisbury partly by 
Holmes's Hole and the lagune which communicates with 
it. There is a pleasant village near the harbour, consist- 
ing of eighty houses, which are in general two stories in 
height, and are neat and well finished. There is a de- 
cent court-house, a jail including a house of correction, 
a meeting house without a steeple, a school house, in 
which a hundred and twenty-seven children from seven 
to seventeen years of age are instructed. There are three 
other school houses in different parts of the township. A 
house lot, containing a quarter of an acre, near the har- 
bour, sells for three hundred dollars ; and for between 
ten and fifty dollars, at a small distance. A farm of two 
hundred acres, with proper buildings on it, would sell 
for two or three thousand dollars. Land on which the 
sheep feed is worth four dollars an acre. Old Town 
Harbour has naturul advantages, which are capable of 
rendering the village near it alarge and flourishing town ; 



but not more than ten sail of vessels, containing in the 
whole four hundred and sixty-six tons and a half, are 
owned in it. Of these vessels two are fishermen, five are 
coasters, one is a pilot boat, one sails to the West Indies, 
one, a smack, carries fish to New York. Running into 
the harbour there are four small wharves, at which ves- 
sels may unlade their cargoes. — There is another village 
in Edgartown, on the eastern side of Holmes's Hole, con- 
taining not more than fifteen houses. — The family of 
Enoch Coffin, Esq. of this town was distinguished for 
longevity. He died in the year 1761, aged eighty-three, 
and left ten children : Love died aged eighty-eight ; 
Hephzibah, aged ninety ; Elizabeth, aged seventy-three ; 
Abigail, aged eighty-eight ; John, aged eighty-two ; 
Enoch, aged ninety ; Deborah, aged eighty ; Benjamin, 
aged seventy-five ; Daniel, aged seventy ; Beulah is now 
living, in her eightieth year. There are in the town four- 
teen males, and thirteen females, between seventy and 
eighty ; and six males, and seven females, above eighty 
years of age. 

The church was gathered in 1641,* and Thomas May- 
hew junior ordained pastor: He died 1657. Thomas 
Mayhew, the father, preached to the Indians and white 
people after the death of his son. Jonathan Dunham f was 
ordained in 1694. Samuel Wiswall was ordained 1713 : 

* As this appears to have been the year before the Mayhews came to the 
island, the author wrote to the Rev. Mr. Thaxter for an explanation, and re- 
ceived from him the following answer, in a letter, dated Dec. 12th, 1814. 
" The account, which I gave you of the gathering of the church in this town, 
was taken from either a preface or an appendix to a sermon, preached at the 
ordination of Mr. Newman, by experience Mayhew, and is probably correct. 
I have searched the records of the town : they are transcribed from a former 
record, and go no further back than 1661. It is said, the old record was for 
reasons now unknown destroyed. It is beyond a doubt true, that several years 
before the Mayhews had a grant of Martha's Vineyard, there were a number 
of families settled on the island ; of which 1 gave you the traditionary account. 
I am confirmed in this by the division of the town : The Mayhews and their 
associates had twenty-five shares ; and others were called half share men ; 
and made the number of shares forty-two. These half share men, it is pre- 
sumed, were settled here, when the Mayhews obtained the grant. It is highly 
probable that the Mayhews, at least the younger, had been on the island some 
time before the grant was obtained. He was a zealous preacher, and undoubt- 
edly collected a church in 1041. Experience Mayhew must have had evidence 
of the fact ; otherwise, it is presumed, he would not have said it." 

t See Cotton's Account of the Church in Plymouth, in Coll. of Hist. Society. 
IV. 127. 1st. Series. 


He died Dec. 23d, 1746. For his character see Harris's 
Account of Dorchester in Coll. of Hist. Soc. IX. 184. 
John Newman was ordained 1747, and dismissed 1758. 
Samuel Kingsbury was ordained 1761 : He died 1778. 
Joseph Thaxter, the present pastor, was ordained 1780. 

Chappaquiddick Island. 
The island of Chappaquiddick, which is on the east 
side of Old Town Harbour, is, including Cape Poge, six 
miles long, and three miles broad. The land is sandy, 
but is of a better quality, and has not been so much worn 
as the opposite land in Edgartown. There are about fif- 
ty acres of wood : the trees are white and black oak, and 
are from ten to fifteen feet in height. There are three 
hundred acres of shrub oak. The east and north parts 
are level ; but the west part of the island rises into hills 
sixty feet high : Sampson's hill in the centre is seventy 
feet high. A sandy beach extends north from Washqua 
Point, where it joins the main island by a narrow neck, to 
Cape Poge, being about twenty rods wide. Within it 
west is Cape Poge Pond, a lagune of salt water, which is 
from three rods to three quarters of a mile wide. A nar- 
row strip of salt marsh, with here and there an interrup- 
tion, lines it on both sides. The lagune affords an inex- 
haustible supply of poquaus and eels : vessels, which are 
chiefly from Connecticut, frequently enter it, and procure 
poquaus from the natives. The beach widens at Cape 
Poge, and surrounds sixty acres of arable land. On it 
stands a light house built of wood, which shows one light, 
sixty feet above the level of the sea. From the cape the 
beach turns in the form of a hook, and leaves a passage 
into the lagune, sixty feet wide, and two fathoms deep. 
Chappaquiddick Neck, which is of the extent of thirty or 
forty acres, and fifty feet high, protects the inner harbour 
from the north-east wind. A low, flat beach, called 
Chappaquiddick Point, runs from it north-west, and ap- 
proaches the wharves of Old Town, at the distance of 
forty rods. Over this narrow strait a ferry boat passes 
from one island to the other. — There is a rock on the 
north-west part of Chappaquiddick, which possesses a 


strong magnetick quality : it attracts the needle of the 
compass, and fixes it south-west and north-cast. Pieces 
broken from it retain the quality but a short time. — On 
the island are thirty-seven dwelling houses, and thirty- 
eight families of whites, who are included in the number 
of families belonging to Edgartown. Ten of these fam- 
dies are of the name of Fish or Fisher. Several of them 
live near Washqua Point, and are justly celebrated as 
bold and skilful pilots. Ships in storms get within the 
dangerous rips which lie off the island, and there appears 
to be no retreat. These men are constantly on the watch 
for them. The sea rolls like moving mountains on the 
shore, and the surf breaks in a terrible manner. As the 
waves retire, five or six of them lift a whale-boat till they 
reach the surf, and then jump into it w T ith inconceivable 
rapidity. The boat frequently fills with water ; and they 
are obliged to come to the land, to bale the water out, 
and to carry the boat down again. When at last they 
are so fortunate as to float on the surge, to a person stand- 
ing on the shore they seem to mount up to the sky, and 
then suddenly to sink into the deep. With hard rowing 
they reach the ship, which oftentimes is at the distance of 
seven or eight miles. They come the messengers of 
safety ; for with perfect ease they carry the ship into the 
harbour of Edgartown, where it is secure against every 

Tisbury, from the West Chop to the South Beach, is 
ten miles long, and four miles and a half wide from east 
to west ; the length of its western line is seven miles and 
a half. Its court-house is eight miles and a half from the 
court-house in Edgartown. The court-house and Con- 
gregational meeting-house are in the south-west part of 
the township. At Holmes's Hole there is a village con- 
sisting of about seventy dwelling houses, a meeting-house 
built partly for the Baptists and partly for the Congrega- 
tionalists, and two school-houses. Two more school- 
houses are in other parts of the township. The village 
is beginning to flourish ; and several new buildings have 


lately been erected, A house lot of a quarter of an acre 
sells for two hundred dollars : the rent of a house is six- 
ty dollars a year. At Chappaquonset also and Lumbert's 
Cove, there are small collections of houses. — Belonging 
to the port of Holmes's Hole are eleven vessels, whose 
amount of tons is four hundred and fifty-two and two 
thirds : seven of them are coasters ; three, pilot boats ; 
and one, a fisherman. A line of telegraphs extends from 
Boston, and terminates at the West Chop. 

John Mayhew began to preach at Tisbury in the year 
1673, but was not ordained. Josiah Torrey was ordain- 
ed in 1701. Nathaniel Hancock, in 1727. George Da- 
man, in 1760 ; and was dismissed about 1779. Asarelah 
Morse was installed in 1784; and dismissed at his re- 
quest April 5th, 1799. The present minister is Nym- 
phas Hatch, who was ordained Oct. 7th, 1801. He 
preaches one Sunday in three at Holmes's Hole. 

The minister of the Baptist church is Abishai Samp- 


West of Tisbury is Chilmark, which is ten miles in 
length from north-east to south-west, and from two miles 
to five in breadth. The distance between its meeting- 
house and Edgartown court-house is twelve miles. This 
meeting-house, three school-houses, and an alms-house 
constitute its publick buildings. It has no vessels belong- 
ing to it; and the number of its inhabitants appears to 
be decreasing. 

Ralph Thacher was the first minister of Chilmark : the 
time of his ordination is unknown : he was dismissed at 
his request 1714. In 1715 William Holmes was ordain- 
ed : he was the author of several pieces which appeared 
in print, was a man of worth, and died in the ministry. 
In 1746 Andrew Boardman was ordained ; and died of 
the small pox in 1777. The present pastor, Jonathan 
Smith, was ordained Jan. 23d, 1788. 

The Elizabeth Islands. 
The Elizabeth Islands are separated from Martha's 
Vineyard by the Sound ; from the county of Bristol, by 


Buzzard's Bay ; and from Falmouth, by a strait called 
Wood's Hole. Vessels bound from Nantucket to New 
Bedford go through this strait, where the current is rapid, 
and the navigation difficult. In Buzzard's Bay the navi- 
gation is also difficult, as it contains many rocks and 
shoals. The depth of water in this bay is from six to 
twelve fathoms. 

Beginning north-east, the first island is Nanamesset. It 
is a mile and a quarter long, and a half a mile broad, and 
contains three hundred and sixty acres, fifty acres of which 
are wood land : the soil is as good as that of Nashaun. 
This island constitutes one farm, which is sufficient to 
keep twenty cows and a hundred sheep. There is on it 
one dwelling house, containing two families ; and about 
nine hundred feet of salt works, built in the year 1805. 
In the southern and western part of the island there is a 
high hill, called Mount Sod, the base of which on the 
shore is stone, intersected with veins of clay. 

The next island, Onkatomka, or Unkateme, has no 
dwelling house on it, is three quarters of a mile in length, 
and half a mile in breadth, and contains ninety-one acres. 
It is separated from the island of Nanamesset on the 
south-east by a harbour, called the Hadleys, which af- 
fords good anchorage for vessels drawing not more than 
twelve feet of water. On the south-south-east it is sep- 
arated from Nanamesset by a gut, which affords twelve 
feet of water, except at the southward, where there are 
shoals that extend about fifteen rods from the Ram Isl- 
ands. On the south-west it is separated from Nashaun 
by a shoal, which is almost dry at low water, but which 
at half tide is navigable for boats, through the gut, into 
Buzzard's Bay. 

Between Nanamesset and Nashaun, toward the Sound, 
there are two small islands, called the Ram Islands : they 
divide the gut into three branches, which, on the south, 
communicate with the Sound, and are navigable for 
boats, except at low water. 

South-west from Nanamesset, and divided from it by 
the gut, is Nashaun. There is a small harbour under it, 
at its north-east end, communicating with Onkatomka 


gut, and affording good anchorage for vessels, drawing 
not more than twelve feet of water, which may be brought 
within twenty feet of a wharf, built in the year 1803. 
This island is seven miles and a half long, and a mile and 
a quarter broad, and contains five thousand five hundred 
and sixty acres. There are on it four farms, four dwel- 
ling houses, at which are milked from forty-five to fifty 
cows. The soil in the eastern part is a sandy loam and 
good ; in the western part it is light, and not so good. 
The principal part of the mowing land is at the east end ; 
but bodies of salt marsh lie on the southerly side of the 
island. Nashaun is well wooded : the other Elizabeth 
Islands, except Nanamesset, have no wood. About three 
fifths of the trees are beach : the remainder of the wood 
is white and black oak, hickory, and a little pine. About 
one half of the island is in wood and swamps ; and in the 
swamps grows white cedar. Some fire-wood is sold, and 
transported from the island. Very little ship timber re- 
mains, not more than three hundred tons ; but it is of a 
superior quality. Tarpawling Cove, about the middle 
of the island, and opening to the south-east into Vine- 
yard Sound, affords good anchorage in a clayey bottom. 
Small vessels can approach the shore at the distance of 
twenty rods, where there are from two fathoms to two 
and a quarter : at thirty rods distance there are three 
fathoms ; and the water gradually deepens into the Sound. 
This cove is sheltered from all winds, except those which 
blow from E. S. E. to S. It is expected, that on its 
southerly side a light house will be erected by the gov- 
ernment of the United States. On the other side of the 
island is a small cove, called Kittle Cove, which opens 
to the north-west into Buzzard's Bay. These islands 
are the property of James Bowdoin, Esq. whose stock on 
them consists generally in summer of about a hundred 
and twenty head of horned cattle, sixteen hundred sheep, 
seven hundred lambs, and twenty horses ; and in winter, 
of a hundred head of horned cattle, seventeen hundred 
sheep, and twenty horses. About a thousand acres at 
the west end of Nashaun are set off into three farms, on 
which are generally kept three hundred sheep, forty head 


of horned cattle, and ten horses, exclusive of the above 
mentioned stock. The milk obtained from the cows is 
for the most part converted into cheese, which has a high 
reputation. On Nashaun there are about three or four 
hundred deer : seventy were killed the last autumn. 

At the distance of half a mile north from Nashaun, in 
Buzzard's Bay, are three small islands, called Wepecket's 
Islands, the largest of which is not a quarter of a mile 
long. On one of them are kept in summer from fifteen 
to twenty-five sheep. 

West of Nashaun, and separated from it by a strait, 
called Robinson's Hole, is Pasque ; which is a mile and 
three quarters long, and a mile broad, and contains a 
thousand and two acres. The soil is light, and more 
stony than the other Elizabeth Islands ; and of a quality 
inferiour to that of any of them. There are on it two 
families. The number of sheep is unknown : it proba- 
bly does not exceed five or six hundred. Robinson's 
Hole is about twelve feet deep ; and the channel is very 

South-west of Pasque, and separated from it by Quicks's 
Hole, is Nashawenna. This island is three miles and a 
quarter long, and a mile and a quarter broad ; and con- 
tains fifteen hundred and sixty five acres. There are on 
it six families and a thousand sheep. A ship from sea, 
bound to New Bedford, enters Buzzard's Bay, either at 
its mouth, or through Quick's Hole. In this strait there 
are from three to eight fathoms of water, good anchorage, 
but a rapid current. The ship enters the Hole on the 
east side, on account of a spit which makes out from the 
west side. It keeps in the middle of the strait, till it has 
passed through it, leaving a rock, called the Lone Rock, 
on the left hand. It runs north, till it gets into five fath- 
om, hard sand, which will be west of a rock, named the 
Black Rock, six miles from New Bedford. It then runs 
N. N. W. for the town. On the north side of Nashaw- 
enna is a cove, in which the water is shoal. 

Cuttyhunk lies west of Nashawenna, from which it is 
separated by shoal water, and is two miles and a half long, 
and three quarters of a mile broad. It contains five hun- 


dred and sixteen acres ; and has on it two families, six 
hundred sheep, and sixteen cows. The soil of this island 
and of Penequese is rich, and is the best land in the Eliz- 
abeth Islands. Cutty hunk has cliffs of clay, which are 
continually breaking down, and of consequence the island 
is diminishing. The other Elizabeth Islands are also 
wasting gradually. " At the west end, on the north 
side, is a pond of fresh water, three quarters of a mile in 
length. In the middle of its breadth, near the west end, 
is a rocky islet, containing near an acre of ground." * 
On this islet Dr. Belknap, in 1797, had the satisfaction 
of finding the cellar of a store house, which was built by 
Gosnold, when he discovered the Elizabeth Islands in 
1602. It is a vestige of the first work performed by Eu- 
ropeans on the New England shores. Here they first 
penetrated the earth ; here the first edifice was erected. 
Only two centuries have passed away ; and from this 
humble beginning have arisen cities numerous, large, and 
fair, in which are enjoyed all the refined delights of civil- 
ized life. 

North of Cuttyhunk is Penequese, which is three quar- 
ters of a mile long, and half a mile broad. It is of the 
extent of ninety-seven acres ; and on it are three families 
and a hundred and fifty sheep. 

Three quarters of a mile east of Penequese is Gull Isl- 
and, which is not a quarter of a mile in length. 

The Elizabeth Islands are stony. Stones lie on the 
upland, and along the beaches, as in the opposite beaches 
of Chilmark ; but the shores are not iron bound, like 
those of Marblehead. There is here and there a sandy 
beach, particularly at Tarpawling Cove. — Cows are kept 
on all the islands ; but they are most noted for their sheep, 
which are larger, better fed, more effectually sheltered, 
and which have finer and more abundant fleeces, than 
those which are on Martha's Vineyard. One with anoth- 
er a sheep yields two pounds of wool annually. The 
w T ool, except a small quantity which is manufactured by 
the inhabitants, is sold, and carried principally into Con- 

* Belknap's Biog. II. 114- 


necticut. — The fishes are the same as those of the vicini- 
ty ; but lobsters, which are scarce at Martha's Vineyard, 
are caught in great abundance at all the Elizabeth Isl- 
ands. — Though these islands pay more than one third of 
the tax of Chilmark ; yet in proportion to their extent 
they are thinly peopled. They have no grist mill, no 
school, and no church ; but such are their natural advan- 
tages, and so easily can the means of subsistence be ob- 
tained, that they are capable of supporting a much larger 
number of inhabitants. At Tarpawling Cove, in partic- 
ular, if lots of land were sold to industrious and enter- 
prising settlers, a village might without difficulty be rais- 
ed up ; and it would probably soon rival the villages of 
Holmes's Hole and Edgartown. 

Noman > s Land. 
The last island to be mentioned is Noman's Land ; 
which is four miles from Squipnocket Point, and six and 
a half from Gay Head. This island is a mile and three 
quarters long, and three quarters of a mile broad, and 
contains about six hundred and fifty acres. The land is 
composed of hills of a moderate elevation, and of several 
small swamps. There are no trees ; but there are bush- 
es in the swamps, some of which afford peat. The soil 
of the upland is warm, and in general inclining to gravel, 
and is used for the feeding of sheep, of which there are 
about six hundred. Beside two dwelling houses, there 
are twenty huts, which shelter the pilots, who go to the 
island, principally in the winter, to look out for vessels 
which are coming on the coast ; and the fishermen, who 
frequent it in spring and autumn, for the purpose of catch- 
ing the cod and other fish which are found in its neigh- 
bourhood. The fish taken by them are excellent table 
fish ; about five hundred quintals annually. 

The history of Duke's County might constitute a sepa- 
rate paper for these Collections, and would best be sup- 
plied by an inhabitant of Martha's Vineyard, who can 
easily have access to its records, and who has an oppor- 


tunity of making himself acquainted with the traditions, 
which are treasured up in the memories of its aged men. 
All that the author of this Description can do, is to give 
a few facts and dates, which have fallen in his way. 

These islands were discovered by Bartholomew Gos- 
nold in the month of May, 1602. He landed on No- 
man's Land, which he called Martha's Vineyard, passed 
round Gay Head, which he named Dover Cliff, anchored 
in Vineyard Sound, probably nearMenemsha Bite, and 
built a store-house and began a fort at the island of Cut- 
tyhunk, to which he gave the name of Elizabeth, in hon- 
our of the queen. " For what reason, and at what time, 
the name of Martha's Vineyard was transferred from the 
small island so called by Gosnold, to the large island 
which now bears it, are questions which remain in ob- 

The next year, in the month of June, Martin Pring en- 
tered the harbour of Edgartown, which he called Whit- 
son Bay, and anchored under the shelter of Chappaquid- 
dick Neck, to which he gave the name of Mount Aid- 
worth. Here he spent several weeks collecting sassafras ; 
but about the beginning of August, the Indians appear- 
ing inclined to hostility, he sailed from the island, and 
returned to England. A particular account of these two 
voyages would be entertaining ; but it is unnecessary to 
give it here, as every reader can find it in Dr. Belknap's 
popular work. This ingenious author conjectures, that 
the appellation of Martin's Vineyard, which is common 
in the old writers, was derived from the christian name 
of Captain Pring.* 

In the first volumef of the Biography of the same au- 
thor, will be found the interesting adventures of Epenow, 
an Indian of Martha's Vineyard, who had been treacher- 
ously taken from his own country, and who by his inge- 
nuity obtained a ship to convey him home, in the year 
1614. In the year 1619, " Captain Thomas Dermer, at 
Martha's Vineyard, met with this Epenow, who sus- 
pecting that his intentions were to carry him back to 

* Belknap's Biog II. 113. t P. 357. 


England, conspired with his countrymen to seize him 
and his companions, several of whom were killed in the 
fray : Dernier defended himself with his sword, and es- 
caped, though not without fourteen wounds."* This is 
the last time that the soil of Martha's Vineyard was stain- 
ed with human Wood ; for from that day to the present, 
no Indian has been killed by a white man, nor white man 
by an Indian. 

At the beginning of the year 1623, however, the peo- 
ple of Plymouth received information, that the Indians 
of Martha's Vineyard and others had joined in a conspir- 
acy with those of Massachusetts to extirpate the Eng- 
lish.f But the principal conspirators at Massachusetts 
being slain, such a terrour was struck into the minds of 
the other Indians, that they forbore to execute any act of 

Afterwards, in what year is unknown, but before the 
arrival of Thomas Mayhew, eight or ten English fami- 
lies settled in Edgartown. They first landed at Pease's 
Point, which is part of Starbuck's neck. The ship in 
which they came was bound to Virginia, but fell by ac- 
cident into this port ; and being short of provisions, these 
families preferred remaining and taking their chance with 
the Indians, to proceeding on the voyage. Four of 
their names have been handed down to us, — Pease, Vin- 
cent, Norton and Trapp, the three former of which still 
remain on the island. They landed late in the autumn, 
and were supplied during the first winter with fish and 
corn by the Indians. These hospitable natives led them 
to Great Pond, and showed them their manner of taking 
fish, which was as follows : A passage was opened from 
the sea into the pond, and through it the fish entered. 
There are many coves in this pond. At the entrance of 
the coves, the Indians placed hurdles under water, in a 
horizontal position ; and when the fish had run over them 
into the coves, they went in their canoes, lifted the hur- 
dles upright, by which means they prevented the escape 
of the fish, and with their spears stuck them in the mud. 

* P. 3C2. t Winslow's Relation, 49. 




This event has been preserved by tradition both among 
the natives and whites ; but has not before appeared in 
any printed book. 

Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and the Elizabeth 
Islands were not included in any of the New England 
governments. William, Earl of Stirling, in consequence 
of a grant from the crown of England, laid claim to all 
the islands between Cape Cod and Hudson's River. 
James Forett, agent for the Earl, on the 10th of October, 
1641, granted to Thomas May hew of Watertown and 
Thomas Mayhew, his son, Nantucket and two small isl- 
ands adjacent, and on the 23d of the same month, Mar- 
tha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands ; with the same 
powers of government which the people of Massachusetts 
enjoyed by their charter.* The elder Thomas Mayhew 
had been a merchant at Southampton in England ; and 
when he first came to America, he followed the same em- 
ployment. He settled himself at Watertown, where he 
had a good farm and profitable mill ; but meeting with 
losses in his business, he sold his property in Massachu- 
setts, and determined to emigrate to a new colony. f Ac- 
cordingly, having obtained the grant of Martha's Vine- 
yard, in the year 1642, he sent his son and several other 
persons thither ; and they established themselves at Ed- 
gartown, the east end of the island. The father himself 
soon after followed, and became the governour of the col- 
ony. J Gookin supposes that he was the first English- 
man who was settled on the island ; but this supposition 
is erroneous, as he was preceded by the families whom we 
have mentioned above. 

In the year 1644, by an act of the commissioners of 
the United Colonies of New England, Martha's Vine- 
yard was annexed to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts.^ 
It is not known whether this was done at the request of 
the inhabitants, nor how long the connexion continued. 
If it was an act of usurpation on the part of the commis- 
sioners, the royal authority in England was at that time 
too weak to correct the evil. 

* Hutch. 1. 161. t Gookin, IX. 1. X Prince's Account, 180. § Hutch. I. 137. 

Mr. Mayhew having established himself peaceably on 
the island, undertook, with the assistance of his son, to 
civilize and christianize the native inhabitants. Of the 
attempts, which were made to convert the Indians to the 
faith of the gospel, we shall not speak, except so far as 
may be necessary to show with what prudence and mod- 
eration Mr. Mayhew conducted himself in his intercourse 
with the natives. The sachems of these islands were ab- 
solute in their government ; but they were subject in cer- 
tain respects to the sagamore of the Wamponoags,* to 
whom they were obliged to do homage and make annual 
presents. This subjection was irksome to their minds ; 
and they were ready to repel any new attempt to impose 
an additional yoke upon them, or to withdraw their sub- 
jects from the obedience which was due to their princes. 
When therefore they perceived the English missionaries 
among their people, they became jealous that in their an- 
imated harangues, they were aiming to attach them to 
their own persons, and that under the pretence of religion 
they were invading the authority of the sachems. 

Mr. Mayhew observing this jealousy and the causes of 
it, took an opportunity of addressing the sachems in the 
following terms : That by an order from the king of Eng- 
land he was to govern the English who inhabited these 
islands ; that his royal master was in power superior to 
any of the Indian sagamores ; but that he was just as well 
as powerful ; that therefore he would not in any manner 
invade their jurisdiction ; but on the contrary, assist 
them if necessary ; that religion and government were 
distinct concerns ; and that the sachems might retain 
their authority, though their subjects were christians. By 
such prudent speeches, he soon brought them to enter- 
tain a good opinion of the christian religion. 

When afterwards the number of christian Indians in- 
creased, he prevailed upon them to admit the counsels of 
judicious christians in their controversies, and in cases of 
more than ordinary consequence to introduce a jury for 
trial; promising his own assistance to the sachems, 

* Gookin, II. 4. 


whose assent was always to be obtained, though they 
were not christians. Thus in a few years he established 
a happy administration of justice among them, to their 
great satisfaction ; and records were kept of all their pro- 
ceedings in their several courts, by those who had learn- 
ed to write, and who were appointed to the office. 

By his prudent conduct and arguments, he convinced 
the sachems themselves of the distinguishing excellence 
of the English government; and in his administration, 
he gave them so fair an example of its happiness, as not 
only filled them with a strong desire of adopting the same 
form themselves, but even induced them voluntarily to 
make a publick acknowledgment of their subjection to 
the crown of England ; though at the same time they 
were careful to have it understood, that they retained their 
authority as subordinate princes. 

In his administration he was always ready to hear and 
redress their grievances, on the first complaint, without 
the least delay ; by which means he wisely prevented 
any unfavourable impressions being made on their minds, 
through a neglect of justice. Whenever he decided any 
causes between them, he not only gave them equal jus- 
tice with the English, but he also took pains to convince 
them that what he determined was right. He would not 
suffer any one to injure them either in their goods, lands, 
or persons. They always found in him a protector and a 
father : by the dignity of his manners, he excited their 
reverence ; and by his condescension and benevolence 
he secured their affection. In consequence of this dis- 
creet and virtuous conduct, no difference took place be- 
tween the English and natives on these islands, as long 
as he lived among them, which was near forty years. 
The Indians admired and loved him as a superior being, 
who always did what was right, and who had no other 
object than to make them happy.* 

Such is the praise bestowed on Mr. May hew by a 
writer, who lived not long after his death. Perhaps it 
will appear too much like the language of panegyrick ; 

* Prince's Account, 293. 


but the author is esteemed judicious and temperate ; and 
his representation is not contradicted by the testimony oi' 
any preceding or succeeding writer. 

In 1664 the Duke of York received from his brother 
Charles II. a grant of New York and several other terri- 
tories ; among which were Martha's Vineyard, Nan- 
tucket, and the islands adjacent, which had been previ- 
ously purchased of Henry, grandson and heir of William, 
Earl of Stirling, who resigned and assigned them to the 
Duke. These islands in consequence became a part of 
the province of New York ; and it appears, that notwith- 
standing the grant to Thomas Mayhew, the Earl of Stir- 
ling, and his successor the Duke of York, retained the 
jurisdiction of them. The titles to real estate were con- 
firmed by the governour of that province : and according 
to a tradition, of the accuracy of which however there 
may be some reason to doubt, the inhabitants of Martha's 
Vineyard not only chose their governour and all other 
officers, but also made their own laws. It was whilst 
these islands were connected with New York, that 
they were made a county by the name of Duke's county. 
July 8th, 1671, both Edgartown and Tisbury were in- 
corporated by Francis Lovelace, governour of New 
York. Before the incorporation, Tisbury was called 

At this time the peace of the colony of Plymouth was 
in great danger of being disturbed by the Indians within 
its limits. To prevent therefore the hostile spirit from 
extending itself to Martha's Vineyard, Mr. Mayhew, ac- 
companied by some chosen Englishmen, visited all the 
Indian towns, and prevailed on the inhabitants solemnly 
to promise, that they would, if required, fight against the 
enemies of the King of England and his subjects. Af- 
ter this he went to New York, and obtained from the 
governour there a commission to govern the Indians on 
Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands. When 
he returned, he sent for all the sachems and chief men, 
and made them acquainted with the commission which 
he had received. With gratitude they and many others 


who were present, as well those who were not christians 
as those who were, promised submission to the govern- 
our's act ; and every person, holding up his hand, sol- 
emnly engaged to advance the worship of God.* 

In the year 1675, the war, which like a black cloud 
had hovered during four years over New England, burst 
with fury on the country. Almost all the Indian nations 
on the Main were united against the English. Alarm 
and terrour were diffused on every side ; and the white 
inhabitants suffered their minds to become unreasonably 
exasperated against all the Indians without distinction, 
and even against their christian friends. Of this jealous 
spirit were several persons at Martha's Vineyard, who 
with difficulty could be restrained by Mr. Mayhew and 
others, associated in the magistracy with him, from at- 
tempting to disarm the Indians by whom they were sur- 
rounded, and whose number greatly exceeded that of the 

For the satisfaction of these jealous persons Capt. 
Richard Sarson was sent with a small party to the west 
end of the island, where least dependence was to be pla- 
ced on the Indians, because they were nearest the conti- 
nent, and were the last who had embraced Christianity. 
He made known to them the suspicions of some of the 
white inhabitants, and returned with this wise and ami- 
cable answer : That the surrender of their arms would 
expose them to the power of the Indians, engaged in the 
present war, who were not less enemies to them than to 
the English ; that they had never given occasion for the 
jealousy which now seemed to be entertained of them ; 
that if by any means, without hazarding their safety, they 
could afford further proof of their friendship and fidelity, 
they would readily do it ; but that they were unwilling 
to deliver up their arms, unless the English would pro- 

* Coll. of Hist. Soc. VI. 196. 
t Mr. Prince says that the Indians were twenty times as numerous as the 
English : but as this would make the latter only fifteen families, — because we 
are told by Mr. Mayhew himself, that he had often counted the Indian fami- 
lies, and that in the year 1674, they amounted on Martha's Vineyard and 
Chappaquiddick to three hundred, — this author, who is generally accurate,, 
may be considered here as having made use of a hyperbolical expression. See 
Gookin, IX. 4. 


pose another method, which would be more likely to en- 
sure their preservation. With this answer they sent a 
writing, which was drawn up in their own language, and 
in which they declared : That as they had submitted 
freely to the crown of England, so they were resolved to 
assist the English on these islands against their enemies, 
whom they accounted as much enemies to themselves, 
as to any other of the subjects of the king. This paper 
was subscribed by persons of the greatest note and pow- 
er among them. 

The governour, Mr. May hew, was so well satisfied 
with the answer which was sent, that he employed the 
Indians as a guard, furnishing them with the necessary 
ammunition, and giving them instructions how to con- 
duct themselves for the common safety, in this time of 
imminent danger. So faithful were they, that they not 
only rejected the strong and repeated solicitations of the 
natives on the Main, but when any landed from it, in 
obedience to the orders which had been given them, they 
carried them, though some of them were their near rela- 
tions, before the governour, to attend his pleasure. The 
English, convinced by these proofs of the firmness of 
their friendship, took no care of their own defence, but 
left it entirely to the Indians : and the storm of war, 
which raged on the continent, was not suffered to ap- 
proach, but these islands enjoyed the calm of peace. 
This was the genuine and happy effect of Mr. Mayhew's 
wisdom, and of the introduction of the christian religion 
amonsf the Indians.* 

By the charter of William and Mary, which arrived in 
1692, these islands were taken from New York, and an- 
nexed to Massachusetts. During the season of anarchy 
and confusion which preceded this event, the Indians be- 
haved in a peaceable manner ; and on one occasion in par- 
ticular forebore to resent the injuries, which were inflict- 
ed on them bv some of the English, who were unre- 
strained by law and government.f 

* Matth. Mayhew's Nar. 34. Prince's Account, 295- 
\ Matth. Mayhew's Narrative, 36. 


In the year 1695, Martha's Vineyard, the Elizabeth 
Islands, and Noman's Land were by the legislature of 
Massachusetts separated from Nantucket, and made a 
distinct county, with the ancient name of Duke's County. 
From this date till the present time we have few events 
to record. During the period the white inhabitants have 
become possessors of the greatest part of the land, and 
have gradually increased in their number, whilst the In- 
dians have gradually wasted away. 

The western end of Martha's Vineyard, called Nash- 
ouohkamuck by the Indians, was the last which was set- 
tled by the English. There was however a town here 
before the close of the seventeenth century. Whilst it 
was under the government of New York, it was called 
the manor of Tisbury ; but it was known by the name 
of Chilmark as long ago at least as 1698.* March 28th, 
1705, the first town meeting was held in this place ; and 
in 1707 it first sent a representative to the general court. 
It was incorporated by the name which it now bears, Oc- 
tober 30th, 1714. 

By a census which was ordered in 1763, and taken in 
1764, there were found in Duke's County three hundred 
and twenty-eight dwelling houses, three hundred and 
ninety-four families, two thousand three hundred white 
inhabitants (of whom 924 were in Edgartown, 730 in 
Tisbury, and 646 in Chilmark) forty-six negroes, and 
only three hundred and thirteen Indians. 

From this period to the revolutionary war, the island 
was in a flourishing state. The land was well stocked 
with cattle and sheep, fifteen or sixteen sail of whalemen 
were owned by the inhabitants, and the cod-fishery, which 
was carried on in a number of small vessels, was a profit- 
able business. In March, 1776, when another census 
was taken, the families were found to have increased to 
four hundred and eighty-two, and the white inhabitants 
to two thousand eight hundred and twenty-two, of whom 
1020 were in Edgartown, 1033 in Tisbury, and 769 in 
Chilmark : there were fifty-nine negroes ; but the In- 
dians were not enumerated. 

* Coll. of Hist. Society, X. 131. 


With the war began a series of calamities. The ves- 
sels of the inhabitants were all taken and destroyed ; their 
young men were captivated, and many of them died on 
board prison ships. They were plundered of their cattle 
by the enemy : General Gray, in the month of Septem- 
ber, 1779, carried off at one time a hundred and twenty 
oxen and ten thousand sheep, leaving on the island only 
about four thousand of the latter. To induce the people 
the more readily to surrender their cattle, the sheep were 
appraised at two dollars, and the oxen at sixty dollars a 
head. Two years after an agent was sent to England ; 
but he could obtain payment for no more than one third 
of the sum which was due. From the depressed state, 
occasioned by these losses, the island has not yet recover- 
ed. The cattle and sheep have indeed been restored to 
their former numbers ; but the whale fishery has entirely 
ceased; and the cod fishery has hardly begun to revive. 
There was however a small increase of population during 
the war; for in the year 1783, the families were enume- 
rated at five hundred and twenty-two, and the white in- 
habitants at three thousand and fifty -six. Since that pe- 
riod, the number of inhabitants has not much varied. In 
1790, it was, exclusive of Indians, three thousand two 
hundred and sixty-five ; and in 1800, three thousand one 
hundred and eighteen.* The number of inhabitants 
may this year, 1807, be estimated at three thousand one 
hundred and thirty. 

The Indians. 
The Indian name of Martha's Vineyard, according to 
Gookin, was Nope ; but according to all others of the 
old writers, it was Capawock. Gookin, who appears to 
have taken pains to ascertain facts, and in whose Collec- 
tions there is an air of simplicity and truth, is not to be 
charged with having invented this word Nope ; but the 
probability is, that the island had two names. At the 
time in which it was discovered bv the English, it was 

* By the census of 1810, the number of inhabitants is three thousand two hun- 
dred and ninety. 


full of inhabitants ; and as they continued to be nume- 
rous, when it was first settled by the English, it may be 
concluded that it was not visited by the pestilence of 
1617. Not less than three thousand Indians, it has been 
generally estimated, were on the island, when it was en- 
tered by Mayhew. As it seems capable of supporting 
scarcely a greater number of white inhabitants, who oc- 
cupy much less space than savages, it may be asked, 
whence did so many of these children of nature derive 
their subsistence ? From the account which has been 
given of Martha's Vineyard, it will be easy to answer this 
question. The truth is, that its harbours, coves, lagunes, 
and ponds afford an inexhaustible supply of food. They 
could obtain the shell fish, which lie in such profusion 
on its shores, without the exercise of much invention ; 
and they had discovered several ingenious methods of 
entrapping the eels and other fish, which swim in its wa- 
ters. The island besides was not destitute of game ; 
and innumerable birds haunted its woods and coasts, 
which would sometimes be pierced by the arrows of the 
Indians ; not to mention that the sandy soil was peculiar- 
ly favourable to the cultivation of squashes, beans, and 
maize. It was a knowledge of these things, which in- 
duced so many of the savages to press to these islands, 
and the parts of the sea coast which resemble them : they 
appear barren to those, who think that no country is 
fruitful, where the fields are not green ; but to an Indian 
they were the most fertile parts of America. That Mar- 
tha's Vineyard then was capable of sustaining a multitude 
of inhabitants, is evident ; and that this was the fact may 
with some degree of probability be inferred from the 
great number of proper names in common use. There 
was not a hill, a cove, a point of land, or a pond, howev- 
er small, which had not its own appellation. Many of 
these names are familiar to the white inhabitants ; and 
many more, which have become obsolete, are still to be 
found in deeds of land and ancient books. Words follow 
the steps of men ; and where a country by distinct names 
is subdivided into many minute parts, there is always 
reason to suppose that it has a numerous population. 


But though there is no room for doubting the testimo- 
ny of the writers who assert, that when these islands were 
first settled by the English, they were well filled with in- 
habitants, yet it appears, that the people began to waste 
away, soon after the whites appeared among them. In 
1643, and at several other times they were visited by a 
general disease.* This was probably the yellow fever, 
which was, with the consumption, the disorder, of which 
they commonly died.f In 1674, they were reduced to 
five hundred families, or about fifteen hundred souls. 

Like the other savages of New England, they were in 
a low state of civilization ; and they had attained few of 
the arts, which contribute to the comfort of human life. 
Their houses were small, mean, and generally filled with 
smoke ; and their weapons of war were feeble and point- 
less, as is evident from the stone heads of their arrows, 
which are still frequently picked up. They were how- 
ever a hospitable and tractable people. When therefore 
the younger Mr. Mayhew attempted to introduce the gos- 
pel among them, they received him with kindness, and 
with readiness listened to his exhortations. The won- 
derful progress which the christian religion, through the 
zeal of this eminent evangelist and his worthy successors, 
made in Martha's Vineyard, surprised and delighted the 
pious of that age ; and they failed not to note with mi- 
nute attention its various circumstances. Hence the 
most ample narratives of the conversation of these Indians 
have been given to the publick ; so that however barren 
all other parts of the history of the island may be, we 
have no reason to complain here of any want of events. 
As one of these accounts has already been published in 
these Collections,! and as every history of New England 
gives the same story, and some of them in a very inter- 
esting manner, the reader of this Description will not ex- 
pect that its author will go over the same ground again. 
It will be sufficient for him to state in general terms, that 
the younger Mr. Mayhew laboured in this benevolent 

Prince's Account, 2S2. f Coll. of Hist. Soc. I. 140. 1st. Ser. 

+ Gookin's IXth chap. 



work, with diligence and fervour, till his death ; that it 
was then assumed by his father ; and after him by his 
son ; and that it has been carried on in the same family 
to the present day : that in less than thirty years almost 
every Indian on the island had become a professed chris- 
tian ; that at first they were only catechumens ; but that 
they were formed into a church in 1659, from which 
another church arose in the year 1670. 

The Indians were converted to the christian faith ; and 
attempts were made to reduce them to a state of civiliza- 
tion. But " they who have been conversant with the In- 
dians will often repeat, how unprofitable the labour hath 
been either to civilize or convert them. Much mon- 
ey hath been expended to little or no purpose ; and eve- 
ry method to educate them has failed. They who met 
with most success, such as Mr. Eliot and Mr. Mayhew, 
had they lived longer, would have wondered to see how 
soon their disciples returned to their former ignorance 
and stupidity; or how little difference was made in the 
face of the wilderness : if it blossomed for a while and 
yielded some little fruit, the season was short ; and what 
was not covered with weeds proved a cold, barren soil." * 

The Mayhews, however pious and benevolent, did not 
much benefit the Indians ; but the English derived the 
most essential advantages from the ascendency which 
was gained over their minds: they were disarmed of 
their rage : they were made friends and fellow subjects. 
At length thev ceased to be formidable from another 
cause : their numbers dwindled away, their courage 
abated, and they sunk into a mean and depressed people. 
The progress of their decline to the year 1764 is exhib- 
ited in the following Table. 

Number of Indians in Duke's County at five different 

A. D. 


A. D. 


A. D. 




1 I698f 








These are words of Dr. Eliot. 

t See Coll. of Hist. Soc. X. 131 


The present state of these Indians has not much to 
excite attention or interest curiosity. Beginning east, 
the first collection of them is found at Chappaquiddick. 
On this island they have a track of land reserved to them, 
containing ahout eight hundred acres. They are much 
intermixed with white and negro Wood, very few of them 
being pure Indians ; and they have been improved in 
their industry and general habits by the intermixture. 
Several of them live in framed houses, are good farmers, 
and are tolerably neat in their persons and habitations. 
The old men only are farmers, and are assisted by the 
women who sow and hoe the corn : the young men are 
seamen. Their lands are not enclosed ; but their cattle 
are kept with a tedder. They are destitute both of a 
meetinghouse and a minister;* but they have the privi- 
lege of attending the pastor of Edgartown. Their num- 
bers, which are probably increasing, are sixty-five, of 
whom nine are strangers intermarried with them. The 
framed houses are ten ; the wigwams two. 

Near Sangekantacket, adjoining the lagune, at a place 
called Farm Neck, there was formerly a large town of 
Indians ; and twenty persons of a mixed race still re- 
main, who live in six houses, are divided into six fami- 
lies, and retain near two hundred acres of land. 

At West Chop in Tisbury there is one Indian family, 
consisting of five persons. 

In the north-west part of Tisbury there is a tract of 
land, called Christiantown, assigned to the Indians, who 
are placed under guardians. They consist of nine fami- 
lies and thirty two souls, of whom one male and six fe- 
males are pure : the rest are mixed, chiefly with whites. 

The great body of the Indians is at Gay Head. They 
have here a tract of excellent land, containing three thou- 
sand acres, reserved to them. It is destitute of trees ; 
but there are many swamps, some of which afford peat, 
and others springs of good water. The land is broken 
into hills ; and there are no roads. The Indians have 
twenty-six framed houses and seven wigwams. The 

* Since the above was written, Frederick Baylies has been appointed mis- 
sionary to these Indians. 



framed houses are nothing better than mean huts : some 
of them have two apartments ; but the greatest part of 
them, not more than one. There are three barns, and 
two meeting houses, which are small buildings, not more 
than twenty feet square. The number of families is 
thirty-four ; and of souls, a hundred and forty-two : be- 
side whom about a hundred Indians are absent from Gay 
Head ; some of whom are children put out to service in 
English families ; and others w 7 hale-men ; making the 
whole number of proprietors, men, women, and children, 
about two hundred and forty. Every native, whether he 
lives off or on the island, is considered as a proprietor ; 
and every child born to him is entitled to a right, which 
is equivalent to the pasture of three sheep. No sheep 
are kept; but a cow is reckoned equal to six sheep: an 
ox, to eight ; and a horse, to ten. Formerly a child's 
right was six sheep. Of the Indians nine men are pure, 
and still more of the women ; the rest are intermixed, 
chiefly with negroes : the mixed race is better than the 
pure Indians. Almost all of them have cows ; and a few 
of them, oxen : they own as many as twenty horses. A 
part of their land is every year let to the whites ; and the 
income is appropriated to the support of their poor. The 
Indians raise very little corn, but have pretty good gar- 
dens. They annually sell a hundred or two hundred 
bushels of craneberries, which grow in great plenty in 
their craneberry bogs. The rest of their subsistence is 
derived from fishing ; and from the sale of clay, which 
they dispose of on the spot for three dollars, and when 
they carry it to market, for five dollars a ton. Small as 
their numbers are, they have two preachers; one of whom 
is a Baptist ; the other, a Congregationalist ; and both of 
them, Indians. Beside the houses at Gay Head, there is 
one Indian house and three wigwams in Chilmark ; all 
the inhabitants of which, except a woman living in one 
of the wigwams, have rights at Gay Head, and are inclu- 
ded in their numbers. The Indians in this part of the 
island are generally unchaste, intemperate, without fore- 
thought, and many of them dishonest. They are how- 
ever more industrious, and neater in their persons and 
houses, than is common for Indians. 



J Number of Negro Slaves in the Province of the 
f ! Massachusetts-Bay, sixteen years old and up- 



] THE YEAR 1755. 

d ,; _______ 

p : Suffolk. 

' ] Dorchester 
• ! Roxbury 
; j Weymouth 
I J Hingham 
I Dedham 

I j Hull 
; j Medfield 




Need ham 

Med way 























































































Fern. I Tot. 

3 12 

12 21 






Wo burn 















































































N. Braintree 
Rutland Dist. 































South Hadley 














New Salem 

Males. Fem. Tot- 







































Duke's Coun. 











N. Yarmouth 






















[The above has been copied from the original Returns 
sent to the Secretary's Office, by the Assessors of the 
several towns. Where there are blanks, the Returns 
have either been lost or were not made.] 

To the Committee of Publications. 


xjlGREEABLY to my promise, I send you no- 
tices of a few towns in New Hampshire. They were 
collected on a hasty journey, through a part of that State, 
during the last summer. This circumstance will account 
for the paucity of facts , but such as they are, they were 
derived from respectable and intelligent sources, and I 
think may be relied on. Considering your work as in- 
tended for a depositary of facts merely, I have not felt 
myself at liberty to wander in the fields of imagination 
nor to make any attempts at glowing description, but 
have confined myself to sober, simple detail. If you 
should think my humble labours of any value, I shall be 
fully repaid for them, and shall be stimulated to greater 
diligence on future excursions. C. L. 

Dec 24, 1814. 

Note on Lancaster, N. H. June 27th. 1814. 

Situation, boundaries. .LANCASTER is a post town 
in the county of Coos.* It is situated in latitude 44° 

29' N. 

* The county of Coos was taken from Grafton county ; and was incorporated 
June, 1805. 



Its distance from Portsmouth is about one hundred 
and twenty-five miles, N. W. ; from Concord about one 
hundred and twenty-four miles ; from Haverhill about 
forty-six miles ; and from the Canada line about forty- 
five miles. 

It is bounded as follows ; from the northwesterly cor- 
ner, which is on Connecticut river, and is also a corner 
of Northumberland, it extends south, fifty-five degrees 
east, about seven miles, joining four miles and an half on 
Northumberland, and about two and an half on Kilken- 
ny ; thence south, sixty-nine degrees west, ten miles to 
Dalton line, bounding on Barker's location nearly six 
miles, on Jefferson a few rods, and the remainder of the 
way on Whitefield ; thence north, twenty-six degrees 
west, two and an half miles to Connecticut river, bound- 
ing on Dalton ; from thence up said river to the corner 
first mentioned eight miles on a straight line, ten by the 

Face of the country, soil, &c. Lancaster is situated 
in the vicinity of lofty mountains, but is not itself moun- 
tainous. There are three hills of a considerable elevation, 
in the southerly part of the town, which have the name 
of Martin meadow hills. 

A range of mountains lying to the north-east, in the 
towns of Northumberland, Percy, and Kilkenny, are dis- 
tinctly seen from this place, and form the back-ground 
of a very beautiful picture. They formerly served to 
guide the hunters to Connecticut river, and are called 
"land pilot hills." 

The soil is productive ; the intervales on the Connec- 
ticut and Israel rivers are particularly rich and fertile. 
The quantity of wheat is from eight to twenty, or (it is 
said) thirty bushels an acre; corn, thirty bushels; grass 
from one to three tons ; potatoes from one hundred and 
fifty to four hundred bushels. 

It is principally a grazing township ; but a large por- 
tion of the land is as yet uncleared.f 

* This description of the boundaries of Lancaster, with a largo portion of the 
information contained in this article, was furnished me by the Rev. Mr. Willard, 
minister of the place. Vir pius, intelligens, facetus, et hospitalitatem sectans- 

t Mr. Willard, in a MS. letter, gives the following account of the method of 
clearing the land. " We fall the timber, as it is expressed, in June. In Septem- 


The price of upland is from two to ten dollars ; of in- 
tervale about twenty dollars. 

The principal kinds of wood are spruce, maple, and 
birch ; but there is also beech, elm, bass, pine, and a 
small quantity of red oak. 

There is at present but little fruit besides that which is 
the spontaneous growth of the soil. There are a few 
orchards of apples, but no cider has been made. 

Market. The principal market is Portland. The in- 
habitants usually carry their produce once a year. Wag- 
gons, however, go at other times. The price of carriage 
is one dollar a hundred weight in winter, and two dollars 
in summer. 

Mineral. Iron ore has been found in small quantities, 
but no other mineral. 

Rivers and ponds. Connecticut river,* as has already 
been stated, forms a part of the boundary of this town ; 
and here, as in all its course, imparts richness and fertili- 
ty to the soil. 

Israel river, which takes its rise on the western side of 
the height of land, and empties into the Connecticut, is a 
river of considerable magnitude, and of great import- 
ance. It furnishes extensive intervales, and many valua- 
ble mill seats. It is said to bear the christian name of a 
hunter, whose brother John, his associate in his expedi- 
tion to this quarter, has given his name to another river 
in the vicinity. 

There is one pond of an oval form, two miles in length, 
and one mile in breadth, which has the name of Martin 
Meadow pond, from Martin, a hunter; another, called 
Little pond, which communicates with the above, and a 

ber following, if a dry time, we put fire into the piece, which in a great measure 
consumes the limbs and small stuff. The timber is then cut of suitable length, 
piled into heaps and burned off. When the land is thus cleared, early the spring 
following we sow wheat and grass seed, and harrow it in faithfully. Sometimes, 
however, we plant our new land with potatoes or corn, without any ploughing ; 
the potatoes are planted in large hills. Corn and potatoes thus planted require no 
houghing, except to cut down the fire weed which prevails in all newly burnt 
lands. In this mode of planting we often obtain large crops. The year follow- 
ing, we seed down the land, as above described." 

* Connecticut is said to signify long, and to have been applied by the Indians 
to this river on account of its length. 


third small pond, without any name. There is also a 
number of small ponds near the margin of the river. 

Bridges and ferry. There is one bridge and one fer- 
ry over Connecticut river ; one bridge over Israel river, 
and one bridge of considerable length, over Alder brook : 
besides several smaller ones. 

Mills. There are two grist mills, two saw mills, an 
iron mill, and a carding machine. 

Manufactures. The manufactures are all of a domes- 
tick nature. There are fifty-eight looms in operation in 
the town. 

Distilleries. There are three distilleries which distil 
gin and whisky from grain and potatoes. The propor- 
tion of grain to potatoes is about sixty bushels to one 
thousand. The quantity distilled during the last year 
(1813) was about five thousand three hundred gallons. 
The whisky is sold in Portland for about sixty-seven 
cents a gallon ; the gin at a dollar.* 

Quadrupeds. Among the wild quadrupeds, are the 
wolf (canis lupus) ; red, black, and gray fox (vulpes) ; 
wild cat (felis lynx), larger than in the southerly part of 
New England, but not so fierce ; skunk (viverra puto- 
rius) ; otter (mustela Intra) ; martin (mustela martes) ; 
weasel (mustela vulgaris) ; ermine (mustela erminea) ; 
bear (ursus arctos) ; racoon (ursus lotor) ; woodchuck 
(monax de Buffon ; ursi vel mustelse species) ; mice, of 
various kinds, (sorex murinus, sorex araneus, &c.) ; 
porcupine (hystrix dorsata) ; rabbit (lepus cuniculus) ; 
beaver (castor fiber) ; musquash (castor muschatus, vel 
castor vel mus zibethicus f ) ; mink (mustela) ; grey, 
red striped and flying squirrel (sciurus cinereus, sciurus 
flavus ? sciurus volans vel sciurus volucella) ; moose 
(cervus alces, vel cervus tarandus ?) formerly plenty, 
but now scarce ; deer (cervus dama ?). 

* The number of distilleries, in this part of the country, has increased within 
a few years, to an astonishing and most alarming degree. The writer of this arti- 
cle was informed by Mr. Adams, a distiller in Lancaster, that, a very few years 
ago, there were only two distilleries between Peacham, in Vermont, and the Can- 
ada line, a distance of about forty-five miles, but that now there were fifty. 
In the towns of Peacham and Danville only, he said, there were twenty. 

t Castor muschatus is the name given to this animal by Mitchell, castor zibe- 
thicus, by Cutler, mus zibethicus is the musk rat of Linnseus. Under the genus 
castor, in Linnseus, there is no such animal. 


The tame quadrupeds are such as are common to New 

A greater attention, than formerly, is paid to the rais- 
ing of sheep, and the flocks have been improved by a 
mixture with the merino breed. 

Birds. Among the birds that are found here, are the 
eagle, various species, (falco) ; owl (strix) ; king bird 
(lanius tyrannus) ; raven (corvus carnivorus, Bart, cor- 
vus corax, Lin.) ; crow (corvus corone, Wilson) ; blue 
jay (corvus cristatus) ; hang bird (oriolus icterus) ; red 
winged black bird (oriolus pheniceus, Lin. ; sturnus niger 
alis superne rubentibus, Catesby) ; crow black bird 
(graculaquiscala) ; cuckoo (cuculus americanus? cucu- 
lus carolinensis, Wilson) ; woodpeckers, various species 
(picus) ; kingfisher (alcedo alcyon) ; humming bird 
(trochilus colubris) ; ducks of various kinds, viz. black 
duck (anas nigra maxima ?) broad bill duck, wood duck, 
(anas arborea) ; dipper (anas albeola) ; whistler (anas 
clangula ?) ; shell drake (anas tadorna ?) ; northern di- 
ver or loon (colymbus septentrionalis) ; crane (ardea can- 
adensis) ; lopt heron (ardea ) ; stake-driver or bit- 
tern (ardea stellaris ? ardea minor, Wilson) ; wood-cock 
(scolopax rusticola) ; wood snipe (scolopax fedoa) ; 
waterhen (alea arctica ? vel fulica chloropus ?) quail 
(tetrao virginianus) ; partridge (tetrao marilandus) ; wild 
pigeon (columba migratoria ?) ; lark (alauda alpestris) ; 
robin (turdus migratorius) Old England robin (turdus 
pilaris ?) ; thrasher (turdus orpheus ?.) ; cross bill (loxia 
curvirostra ; curvirostra americana, Wilson,) ; snow bird 
(passer nivalis) ; boblincoln (emberiza oryzivora) ; yel- 
low bird (fringilla tristis ; carduelis americanus, Briss.) ; 
sparrow (fringilla) ; catbird (muscicapa carolinensis) ; 
blue bird (motacilla sialis) : wren (motacilla troglo- 
dytes) ; swallows of various kinds, (hirundo) ; martin 
(hirundo urbica, vel hirundo agrestis) ; whip-poor-will 
(caprimulgus minor americanus, Catesby ; caprimulgus 
vociforus, Wilson.*); peverly.f 

* This bird has been confounded by Kalm and Linnaeus with the caprimulgus 
europceus, both making them only varieties and not a distinct species, which they 
undoubtedly are. See Brewster, Ed. : Cyclopedia, Vol. 3d. page 498. 

t The peverly Mr. Willard supposes to be peculiar to this part of the country. 
In his MS. letter before referred to, he thus describes it : " It is about the size 


Fishes. The rivers and ponds do not abound with 
fish. Formerly, salmon and shad were taken in the 
Connecticut at this place, but their passage has been ob- 
structed by locks and canals on the river. There are, 
however, various kinds of smaller fish, viz. eel (muraena 
anguilla) ; perch (perca fluviatilis) ; shiner (perca nobi- 
lis ?) ; pout (silurus felis) ; trout (salmo trutta) ; sucker 
(cyprimus catestomus, Forster,) ; dice ; bill fish ; 
pumpkin seed, or flat fish, &x.* 

Taverns and stores. There are two taverns ; and four 
stores. At this time, however, but little business is 
done, except in one store. 

Trades. In addition to the trades commonly found in 
our country towns, there are goldsmiths, cabinet makers, 
saddlers, and clothiers here. 

Invention. A man, by the name of White, pretends 
to have discovered the method of converting pot metal 
into steel. Whether his pretension is well founded or 
not, and if it is, whether his discovery will be of any real 
utility, is yet to be proved. 

Academy and schools. There is an academy here, 
which was incorporated in 1808. The town is also di- 
vided into five school districts. The salary of a school 
master, in some districts, is fifteen dollars a month and 
board, or twenty-one without board ; in others, ten dol- 
lars and board. 

Social Library. There is a social library, which con- 
sists of about one hundred volumes. 

Professional men, &c. One of the judges of the Court 
of Common Pleas resides here. There are also two jus- 
tices of the peace (besides the above,) two lawyers, and 
two physicians. 

and colour of a common sparrow, thicker set, however, with a longer tail. The 
male, and I believe the female, has a white stripe each side of the head almost 
meeting at the bill, and again on the hind part of the head. It is noted for be- 
ginning its song in a solemn, grave manner aud ending in a quick and lively 
strain. It has its name from one of the sounds it makes in singing. 

* A number of the quadrupeds, birds, and fishes in the above lists, are not 
mentioned by Belknap, unless they are given under other names. In the Linnean 
name?, as given by Belknap, there are several typographical errours in the two 
last editions of his history of New Hampshire, which are the only ones I have 


Two who, at the time, were inhabitants of this town, 
have been graduated at Dartmouth college, and one, a 
native of the town, at Middlebury ; viz. Joseph Warren 
Brackett, James Brackett, and Ilubbard Wilson. The 
two former are lawyers of high respectability in the state 
of New York, one in the city, the other in the interiour. 
The latter is a school master in Lancaster, and a student 
at law. 

Courts of justice. Lancaster is the shire town of the 
county. The Supreme Judicial Court holds its session 
here on the fourth Tuesday of May : the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas on the Tuesday preceding the last Tuesday in 
February, and on the first Tuesday in September ; the 
Probate Court on the Friday following the last Tuesday 
in July. 

History. Previously to their incorporation, Lancas- 
ter, Northumberland and Stratford, in New Hampshire, 
and Lunenburg, Guildhall, and Maidstone in Vermont, 
all lying on Connecticut river, were designated by the 
Indian name Coos, * which signifies crooked f and was 
originally applied to that part of the Connecticut on 
which these towns are situated. 

The charter of Lancaster was granted by Governour 
Benning Wentworth, and is dated July 5th, 1763. The 
town was incorporated at the same time. It was origi- 
nally divided into seventy-six shares. The Governour 
reserved two shares for himself, one for the Society for 
propagating the gospel in foreign parts, one for a glebe 
for the church of England, one for the first settled min- 
ister, and one for the support of a school. The other 
seventy shares were granted by charter to David Page 
and sixty-nine others. 

The first settlers were David Page, J and a few other 
persons from Petersham in the state of Massachusetts. 

* This word is pronounced by the Indians as if it contained only one syllable. 

t An idea of the serpentine course of the river here, where it constitutes the 
boundary between New Hampshire and Vermont, may be formed from the fact 
that a person may stand in New Hampshire, fire across Vermont, and lodge his 
ball in New Hampshire again. 

X The father of Mr. Page was an Englishman, and the first settler of Lunen- 
burg, Worcester county, Massachusetts. His farm was on the south side of a 


They came here within a year after the charter was ob- 
tained. At that time, the surrounding country, to a 
great extent, was a wilderness, and these enterprising ad- 
venturers were subjected to innumerable privations, and 
to excessive hardships. There was no settlement near 
them, and for several years there was no mill, where their 
corn could be ground, within a less distance than 
Charleston, No 4, a hundred and ten miles. 

On the seventeenth of July, 1794, about thirty years 
after the settlement of the town, a congregational church 
was gathered here, and on the eighteenth of September 
following, the Rev. Joseph Willard was installed as the 
minister.* He is the son of the Rev. Dr. Willard of 
Stafford, Connecticut, was graduated at Harvard Univer- 
sity in the year 1784, and was first settled at Wilbraham, 
in Hampden (then Hampshire) county, Massachusetts. 

The churches present at the installation were, Roches- 
ter, Rev. Joseph Haven, Fryburgh, Rev. William Fessen- 
den, and Conway, Rev. Nathaniel Porter. Mr. Haven 
made the first prayer, and preached. Mr. Porter made 
the ordaining prayer, and gave the charge. Mr. Fessen- 
den presented the right hand of fellowship, and made the 
concluding prayer. 

The first deacons were Jonas Baker, and Samuel 

Mr. Willard's salary is eighty pounds a year. He has 
also a farm of three hundred and fifty acres, as the first 
settled minister. A part of his salary, (about two thirds) 
is paid in grain. 

Since the settlement of Mr. Willard, eighty-five have 
come for the first time to the Lord's table. The num- 
ber of children admitted to the church by baptism, has 

range of hills called Turkey hills which was formerly the name of the town it- 
self. (Mr. Flint's MS. letter ; see also Historical Collections, Vol. 1, new series, 
page 183 ) From Lunenburg, he removed to South Carolina, but returned again 
on the death of his wife there. The son was at first a farmer in Lunenburg, and 
afterwards a trader in Petersham, but failed in business and removed to Lancas- 
ter. Both father and son were dignified with the title of Governour, either on 
account of the respectability of their characters, or from the circumstance of 
their having been the founders of colonies. The latter left a son, who is still 
living in Lancaster. 

* At this time, there were thirty-six families in the place. 


been one hundred and ninety-three. About two thirds of 
the children in the town are supposed to be unbaptized. 

The number of marriages, by the minister, has been 
fifty-eight. Many are married by justices of the peace. 

The deaths in each year have been as follows. In 
1794, after July, none ; 1795—1 ; 1796—1 ; 1797—2 
1793—1; 1799—4; 1800—1; 1801—3; 1802—5 
1803—8; 1804—5; 1805—6; 1806—6; 1807—5 
1803—15; 1809—5; 1810—7; 1811—12; 1812—6 
1813 — 28 ; most of them of a prevailing fever ; three in 
the army ; 1814, to June, 7. 

Four or five years ago, a Baptist society was formed. 
It consists of about twenty families. They have no 
meeting house, and no stated preaching. 

The number of inhabitants in 1775 was 61 ; in 1790, 
161; in 1800,440; in 1810,717. 

The valuation in 1 804 was $ 2. 75 ; in 1812, #3. 51 ; 
in 1814, #3.18. 

This town unites with Jefferson and Bretton Woods in 
sending a representative to the General Court. By the 
last census Jefferson contained 197 inhabitants ; Bretton 
Woods, 12. In 1800, the number of inhabitants in Jef- 
ferson was 112; in Bretton Woods, 18. 

The situation of Lancaster is exceedingly pleasant. 
From its hills, and on the banks of its rivers, the views 
are highly picturesque and beautiful. 

The church, which is a neat building, with a handsome 
tower, is on an eminence at a little distance from the vil- 
lage. The compact part of the town is built on an exten- 
sive plain, and contains many handsome houses. 

It is a flourishing place. Its inhabitants are in gene- 
ral correct and orderly. Its political character is federal. 

A Geographical Sketch of the Town of Bath, 
Grafton County, New Hampshire, Sept. 1814. 
By Rev. Mr. David Sutherland. 

.t)ATH, like all the towns in the vicinity, was originally 
calculated to contain six miles square. Its length 




however exceeds its breadth by a quarter of a mile. It 
is bounded on the north by Lyman ; on the east by 
LandafF; on the south by Haverhill; on the west by 
Ryegate, Vt. 

Rivers. The Amonoosuc runs in a southwesterly di- 
rection. It receives in its course the wild Amonoosuc, 
which runs to the west. Connecticut river passes be- 
tween Bath and Ryegate. Here is the head of boat 
navigation on that beautiful river. It is interrupted by a 
very majestick fall of water, at which a dam is erected, 
and several mills built. The Amonoosuc has a very 
useful and convenient fall at the village, calculated to 
accommodate machinery to any extent. 

Mountain. At the southwest corner of the town, 
Gardner's mountain arises by a very bold ascent from 
the confluence of Connecticut and Amonoosuc rivers, 
and runs a north course through the whole town, sepa- 
rating the inhabitants, who have no communication but 
by one pass in the mountain. Its height is generally 
five hundred feet. There are beside large swells of 
land, none of which has obtained the name of mountain. 

Bridges and ferries. At the principal village there is 
a considerable bridge over the Amonoosuc, of three hun- 
dred and fifty feet in length — was rebuilt in 1807. 
There is a ferry across Connecticut river at the falls. 

Roads. The great road from the lower to the upper 
Coos passes through this town. It is in excellent order. 
The other publick roads are generally kept in good 

The soil is very various, and produces differently, ac- 
cording to cultivation and situation. Wheat will proba- 
bly average twelve bushels per acre ; corn, twenty-five ; 
rye, fifteen ; oats, twenty ; potatoes, one hundred ; grass, 
one ton. Sometime ago there were two distilleries ; 
one of them happily is discontinued, and the other pro- 
duces about four hundred and fifty gallons of gin and 
whisky in the year. 

There are nine school districts, and as many school 
houses. They are all English schools. The salaries of 
females are from eight to twelve dollars ; of male teach- 
ers, from sixteen to twenty-four dollars. 


The principal kinds of wood that is produced natural- 
ly are pine, maple, beech, birch, and cedar. The sur- 
plus produce is carried to Boston, Salem, and Portland, 
and bears the market prices at these places. There is 
very little fruit raised, except the apple ; and even that 
was neglected till recently ; so that there are only about 
three hundred barrels of cider made annually. One 
sixth part of the town is intervale ; the other parts up- 
land. From an inspection of the town books, the quan- 
tity of land it contains appears to be twenty-eight thou- 
sand one hundred and twelve acres, of which only two 
thousaud seven hundred and seventy-six are given in as 
improved land ; although from appearances one would 
judge that more than one half was cleared. There are 
three lawyers and two physicians ; four stores, and three 
publick houses. There are eight men of liberal education. 
Only two young men have been sent to college from 
Bath. These are now members of Dartmouth. The 
number of inhabitants at the last census was 1315. At 
present the number is 1351. 

Except the woolen, cotton, and linen cloth manufac- 
tured in each family for its own use, there are no manu- 
factories. Saw-mills are nine in number; grist-mills, 
three ; one clothing mill ; one mill for sawing stones in- 
to whitestones and hones, both of which, particularly the 
latter, are of an excellent quality. 

On Gardner's mountain there are various appearances 
of iron and silver ore. A strata of rock has been open- 
ed near the lower village, the most of which will dissolve 

; on immersing it in warm water. Alum and copperas have 

; been made from it. 

The original charter was obtained by a clergyman of 
the name of Gardner, who with a small company took 
possession in 1766. Not complying however with the 

; terms of the charter, another was obtained at a subse- 

; quent period. The contention between the claimants 
under these charters constitutes the only thing noticeable 

I in the history of the place. The second charter finally 

: prevailed. The inhabitants have come from Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, and the southern parts of New Hamp- 

| shire. They are generally a sober, industrious people. 


The gospel was preached at a very early period of the 
settlement of the town by a Mr. Cleaveland. After- 
wards Mr. Eastabrooks ministered most acceptably in 
holy things. Mr. Sutherland,* the present minister, and 
the only one ever settled in the place, was installed in the 
year 1805. The council was composed of pastors and 
delegates from Haverhill, Oxford, Bradford, Newbury, 
Peacham, and Thornton. The sermon by Rev. Noah 
Worcester, Messrs. Dana, Kellog, Lambert, Leonard, 
Worcester, and Smith had the other parts. Salary, four 
hundred dollars, payable in money. 

The first church that was organized was formed in 
1788, on the presbyterian plan. In 1791 it was dissolv- 
ed, and one was formed on the congregational plan, em- 
bracing nineteen members. Fourteen years afterwards, 
at the installation of a pastor, its number was twenty- 
one. In the year 1811, a revival of religion occurred, 
which added seventy-seven members. Its present num- 
ber (Sept. 1814) is one hundred and thirty-three. The 
covenant of the church has no distinctive character, being 
in substance the same that is used in the calvinistick 
churches of New England. Baptisms will average thir- 
teen annually ; deaths, twenty ; births, fifty ; marriages, 
twelve. There is only one congregation in the town that 
assembles regularly. There are a few methodist profes- 
sors in the place, who invite their preachers sometimes 
to spend a sabbath among them. We have likewise a 
few of the baptist persuasion who are so liberally minded 
as to unite in the fellowship of the church. 

P. S. Land is very differently estimated. Building 
spots in the village are sold at the rate of four hundred 
dollars per acre, whereas some uncultivated land may be 
purchased at two dollars per acre. The average price of 
arable land may be ten dollars. We have an excellent 
supply of freestone for hearths, mill stones, and under 
pinning, beside plenty of grey stone for fences. There 
is only one pond in town, occupying a space of one hun- 
dred acres, called Perch pond, from the fish of that name 
with which it abounds. Trout, dau, and suckers are 

* Mr. Sutherland is a native of Edinburgh. 


caught in the rivers. The number of sheep is three 
thousand five hundred and nineteen, a few of which are of 
the merino kind. 

Note on Plymouth, N. H. June 29, 1814. 

X LYMOUTH is a post town, and a half shire town of 
the county of Grafton in the state of New Hampshire. 
It is seventy miles N. W. from Portsmouth, the capital 
of the State, and thirty-one miles from Haverhill, the 
other half shire town of the county. 

It is bounded on the east by New Holderness, from 
which it is separated by the river Pemigewasset ; on the 
west by Rumney and a part of Hebron ; on the north by 
Compton, and on the south by Bridgewater. 

The size of the town is about five miles square, but 
its form is very irregular. 

It is divided into upland and intervale. The propor- 
tion of intervale to upland is about one quarter. The 
upland is mountainous. 

Its soil is tolerably good, and is in general well culti- 
vated. In good seasons, the average quantity of wheat 
to an acre is fifteen bushels ; * of corn, thirty bushels ; 
of grass, a ton. Oats and potatoes are raised in great 

The price of land is from eight to seventy dollars per 

The prevailing kinds of wood are beach, maple, birch, 
hemlock, and white pine. 

The fruits are apples, plums, cherries, and currants. 
The quantity of cider, made by individual farmers, is 
from five to one hundred barrels. 

Maple sugar is made in small quantities ; and a dis- 
tillery which was formerly employed in manufacturing 
essences from hemlock, checkerberry, &x. has been re- 
cently perverted to the purpose of distilling whisky. 

* The wheat has of late been much injured by the Hessian fly. 


There are two grist mills, and one saw mill From 
some circumstance or other, however, most of the corn 
is ground at Compton. 

The principal markets for the sale of produce are 
Portsmouth, Boston, and Portland. 

The town is well watered. Beside numerous smaller 
streams, there are two rivers, Pemigewasset and Baker's, 
both of which are of considerable magnitude and im- 
portance. They take their rise in the height of land be- 
tween the Connecticut and Merrimack, called the eastern 

Pemigewasset is the principal branch of the Merri- 
mack, which is formed by the confluence of this river 
and the Winipiseogee river (issuing from Winipiseogee 
lake) about twenty-six miles below Plymouth. " The 
general course of the Pemigewasset river, from its 
source, is south, about fifty miles. It receives, on its 
western side, Baker's river, a stream issuing from New 
Chester pond, and another called Smith's river, besides 
many smaller ones. On its eastern side, it receives a 
stream from Squam ponds, with several large and 
small brooks. In its long descent from the mountains, 
there are many falls, and its banks are very steep and 
rugged." * There is a ferry over this river to New Hol- 
derness. The fare, for a single horse chaise, is ten 
cents. Baker's river is about forty miles in length. 

Salmon are sometimes caught in these rivers. Trout 
and perch are found in great plenty. 

A company has lately been formed here for promo- 
ting the improvement of the breed of sheep. Several 
merinos have been introduced, and the number of half- 
blooded merinos is now very considerable. 

It has been mentioned that Plymouth is a half shire 
town. The Supreme Judicial Court holds its sessions, 
by two or more judges, at this place and Haverhill alter- 
nately on the fourth Tuesday of December. By one 
judge or more at Haverhill on the third Tuesday of May, 
and at Plymouth on the first Tuesday of November. 

* See Belknap's Hist, of N. H. last ed. Vol. III. p. 45, and seq. 


The Court of Common Pleas sits at Haverhill the last 
Tuesday of February, and at Plymouth the second Tues- 
day of September. The court house is a small build- 
ing, one story, and unpainted. 

There are four justices of the peace in this town, and 
three lawyers. Of the latter, two were educated at 
Dartmouth College, and the other at Rhode Island. 

There are three physicians, neither of whom has re- 
ceived a liberal education. The memory of Dr. John 
Rogers, who has lately deceased, is fondly cherished. 
He was the son of a former minister of Leominster, was 
graduated at Harvard University in 1776, and was held 
in high estimation for his skill as a practitioner and his 
excellence as a man. 

Four, who were natives of this town, have been edu- 
cated at Dartmouth College, viz. Jonathan Ward, a son 
of the first minister; James Hobart, a son of one of the 
first settlers ; Benjamin Darling, and Samuel Fletcher. 
Mr. Ward is the minister of Alna, in Lincoln county, 
Massachusetts. Mr. Hobart is the minister of Berlin, 
in Orange county, Vermont. Mr. Fletcher is studying 

A laudable attention is paid to the education of chil- 
dren. The town is divided into eight school districts. 
A male instructer, who is usually a student at Dartmouth 
College, is employed in the winter, and a female in the 
summer. The salary of a school master is from twelve 
to fifteen dollars a month and board ; of a school mistress, 
one dollar and a half per week, and board. The price of 
board is about one dollar fifty cents. 

There is an incorporated academy here, but it has no 
funds, and at present there is no instructer. 

There is nothing particularly remarkable in the history 
of this town. It was incorporated in the year 1763. It 
was first settled in August, 1764, by Zechariah Parker, 

Jotham Cummings, David Webster, Hobart, 

Brown, and Marsh ; all of them originally from 

Massachusetts, but last from Hollis and other towns in 
New Hampshire. David Webster is still living. Jo- 
tham Cummings died April 14th, 1809, eet. 69. Zech- 


eriah Parker died January, 1814, set. 74. The others 
died long ago. 

The ecclesiastical history is brief. The inhabitants are 
principally congregationalists. There are a few " par- 
ticular baptists," and a few " free will baptists," but 
neither of them has been formed into a regular society. 
There is a small society of methodists, but they have no 
" meeting house." 

The Rev. Nathan Ward, who had not received a libe- 
ral education, was the first congregational minister, and 
was ordained at Newburyport, for the church in this 
place, in the year 1767.* His first religious impressions 
were received from Mr. Whitefield. He died in June, 
1805, having been dismissed several years before his 
death, (about nine years) on account of his age and in- 
firmities. His successor is the present minister, the 
Rev. Drury Fairbank, f who originated in Holliston., 
Massachusetts, was graduated at Rhode Island College, 
and was ordained in this place, January 1st, 1 800. The 
churches present on the occasion were, Holliston, Rev. 
Timothy Dickinson ; Concord, Rev. Asa M'Farland ; 
Thornton, Rev. Noah Worcester ; Boscawen, Rev. 
Samuel Wood; Salisbury, Rev. Thomas Worcester; 
Sanbornton, Rev. Joseph Woodman ; Hebron, Rev. 
Thomas Page ; Andover, Rev. Josiah Babcock. The 
first prayer was made by Mr. Babcock ; the sermon was 
preached by Mr. Dickinson ; the ordaining prayer was 
made by Mr. Page ; the charge was given by Mr. 
Woodman ; the right hand of fellowship was presented 
by Mr. Worcester of Thornton ; and the concluding 
prayer was made by Mr. M'Farlane. Mr. Fairbanks 
salary is three hundred and thirty three dollars, thirty- 
three cents, and the use of a glebe of fifty acres. 

The church covenant was drawn up by Mr. Powers, a 
former minister of [the then united societies of Piermont 
and] Haverhill. It is strictly calvinistick. 

* According to Dr. Belknap, who has given a table of the towns in New 
Hampshire, with the times of the settlement of their ministers, Mr. W. was set- 
tled in '65, but Mr. Fairbank, the present minister, thinks the above date the 
true one. 

t From Mr. Fairbank I received a great part of the information contained in 
this article. 


There have been two houses erected for publick wor- 
ship. The first was a log house, one story, with benches 
instead of pews for the accommodation of the worship- 
pers. This remained till it was extremely inconvenient 
and uncomfortable, but as there was a difference of opin- 
ion with respect to the location of a new church, they 
could not obtain a vote to erect one. The affair was set- 
tled by the conflagration of the old house, which was de- 
signedly set on fire. The present house was raised about 
twenty-six years ago, but was not finished till lately. 

Since the settlement of Mr. Fairbank, about eighty 
have partaken of the Lord's supper for the first time, and 
about one hundred have received the ordinance of bap- 
tism. The marriages, by the minister, are from six to 
eighteen annually. The number of deaths in each year 
during the last thirteen years and an half, according to 
Mr. Fairbanks record has been as follows : In 1 800 — 12 
1801—7; 1802— 14; 1803— 12; 1804—9; 1805—8 
1806—6; 1807—7; 1808—14; 1809—20; 1810—10 
1811—4; 1812—10; 1813—19; 1814 to July— 16. 
Those who have died this year were taken away nearly 
at the same time by a prevailing fever. 

The number of inhabitants in 1775 was 382 ; in 1790, 
625 ; in 1800, 743; in 1810, 937. The town sends a 
representative to the General Court. The present rep- 
resentative is William Webster, Esq. who is also Coun- 
ty Treasurer, and the landlord of a very good inn. 
There is but one other tavern. 

The town is not very compactly built. There is 
nothing striking in the appearance of the place ; the 
houses are decent, but not elegant ; the character of the 
surrounding scenery is wild and not uninteresting. The 
church is a neat building, with a steeple, but without a 
bell. It stands on a hill near the centre of the town, and 
commands an extensive prospect. 

Note on New Holderness, N. H. June 30th, 1814. 

NEW HOLDERNESS is a township of Grafton 
county, in the State of New Hampshire. 


It is bounded on the east by Sandwich, Moultonbo- 
rough, and Senter Harbour ; on the west by the river 
Pemigewasset, which separates it from Plymouth; on 
the north by Compton and Sandwich ; and on the south 
by New Hampton and part of Merideth. 

Its distance from Portsmouth is about sixty-four 
miles, N. N. W. Its size is about six miles square. 

The soil is hard and not easily cultivated, but, when 
subdued, is tolerably productive. The quantity of 
wheat to an acre, is from eight to ten bushels, rye fif- 
teen, oats from twenty to thirty, grass a ton. The price 
of wild land is about two dollars an acre, of cultivated 
land, from ten to twenty dollars. 

The prevailing wood is oak, but there is a good deal 
of other wood, particularly of pine, beach, and maple, 
From the sap of the black, or sugar, maple, (acer sac- 
charinum) a considerable quantity of sugar is made.* 

There is but little fruit except apples, and these are 
not very abundant. A sufficient quantity of cider is 
made for the supply of the town. Plums, cherries, and 
pears are raised ; peaches do not thrive here, nor in the 
towns adjacent. 

The land is pretty well irrigated. The Pemigewasset 
imparts a portion of its benefits to it, and there are various 
other streams which serve to fertilize the soil, and to 
furnish mill-seats. 

There are three ponds or lakes. The largest is about 
six miles in length, the next in size is about two miles in 
length and half of a mile in breadth, the smallest is about a 
mile long. The two first have the name of Squam ; the 
last is called White oak pond. 

The two largest, from their romantick beauties, de- 
serve a better name. One of them, which borders on the 
road to Senter Harbour, is indeed a most interesting ob- 
ject. Its union of wildness and beauty gives it a peculiar 
charm. If its good fortune had placed it in the old 
world, it would not so long have remained unsung. 
Many a tourist would have tasked his imagination for 

* For an account of the method of extracting the juice, and preparing the 
sugar, see Belknap's History of N. H. Vol. III. p. 84, and following. 

N. H. 115 

sonorous epithets to describe its scenery, many an artist 
would have prepared his softest tints to paint its beauties, 
and many a poet would have strung his lyre to sound its 
praises in a name that taste and poetry might use. But, 
alas, its " pellucid bosom," its " undulating shores," its 
" hanging woods," and all its " magick beauties," are 
probably destined long to be veiled in obscurity deep as 
its own seclusion. Instead of employing the painter's 
pencil, and the poet's lyre, it must be contented with a 
humble place in these " matter of fact " records which 
are read only by " matter of fact " men, and must still be 
doomed to bear the undignified and unpoetick name of 

The road on which this lake is situated, is, in many 
places, almost impassable. A new road, indeed, has 
been laid out for a few miles, but, at present, it is worse 
than the old one. 

The route from Plymouth, through this place, to Win- 
ipiseogee lake, and along the borders of that lake to 
Wolfe borough, is highly interesting. It displays scenery 
which is scarcely equalled in this part of our country ; 
but the badness of the road presents an obstacle to the 
traveller by no means inconsiderable, and which it re- 
quires not a little resolution to overcome. There is a 
good publick house in Senter Harbour, at the head of 
the lake. 

In the ponds, salmon trout are found in great plenty. 
In the brooks, common trout, pickerel, chub, and perch. 
The salmon trout weigh from three to fifteen pounds. 

There are six saw mills, four grist mills, a paper mill, 
a fulling mill, and a carding machine here ; most of them 
on a stream issuing from the smallest of the Squam lakes. 
A whisky distillery has lately been set up, but is hardly 
yet in operation. There are two traders in English, 
West India, and other goods. 

The education of children is not neglected. The sal- 
ary of a school master is twelve dollars a month and 
board ; of a school mistress, one dollar a week, and 


There are no practitioners of law or physic in the 
town. The Hon. Arthur Livermore, formerly chief jus- 
tice,* and now an associate justice of the Supreme Judi- 
cial Court, resides here. His house is pleasantly situa- 
ted on a hill, near the banks of the Pemigewasset. His 
father was one of the earliest settlers in the place, and 
came from Portsmouth. 

One has been sent from this town to Dartmouth col- 
lege, who is now a sea captain. His name is John Cox. 

The present charter of New Holderness was granted 
in the year 1761. A previous one had been obtained 
which granted a tract of land extending three miles on 
Pemigewasset river, but the conditions of this charter 
were not complied with and it was forfeited. The town 
was incorporated with the grant of the present charter. 
The number of grantees was sixty eight ; all of them 
professing the doctrines of the church of England. The 
first settler was William Piper, from Durham or its vi- 
cinity. Others of the early settlers were from Barring- 

In the year 1775, New Holderness contained one hun- 
dred and seventy two inhabitants; in 1790, three hun- 
dred and twenty nine ; in 1800, five hundred and thirty 
one ; in 1810, eight hundred and thirty five. The val- 
uation in 1806 was $ 3, 01 ; in 1812, $3,23; in 1814, 
$4, 10. 

There is but one settled minister, the Rev. Robert 
Fowle, who is an episcopalian. He was graduated at 
Harvard University in the year 1786, and was ordained 
by Bishop Seabury, December, 1789. 

The number of adults and infants to whom he has ad- 
ministered baptism, since his ordination, is three hun- 
dred and twenty ; the number of marriages, fifty ; the 
number of deaths, where he has attended the funerals, 
fifty-six. This statement, however, does not furnish the 
whole number of births, marriages, and deaths in the 

* On the election of chief justice Smith to the office of governour of the state 
of New Hampshire, Mr. Livermore, who was then second judge, was appointed 
chief justice ; but on a new organization of the court (June 1813) and the return 
of Judge Smith to the bench, Mr. Livermore resumed his former station. 


town, as Mr. Fowle does not officiate on every occasion, 
and he is sometimes called to perform these services in 
other towns. 

About one third of the inhabitants, only, are episcopa- 
lians ; * the rest are congregationalists, methodists, bap- 
tists, and universalists. 

Mr. Fowle's salary is two hundred dollars, which is 
raised by subscription. He has also a farm of two hun- 
dred and thirty-eight acres as the first settled minister. 
He is the representative of the town in the general court. 
Vir doctus et humilis. 

Note on Wolfeborough. July 1, 1814. 

Situation, boundaries, &c. WOLFEBOROUGH is 
a township of New Hampshire in the county of Strafford. 
It is bounded on the south-east by Brookfield and New 
Durham ; on the south-west by Winipiseogee lake and 
part of Alton ; on the north-east by Ossipee, and on the 
north-west by Tuftonborough. Its distance from Ports- 
mouth is about forty -five miles ; from Boston about one 
hundred miles. 

Size, face of the country, soil, &c. The town is large 
six miles square. The face of the country is level. 
The soil is rocky, but tolerably productive. It yields 
from twelve to fifteen bushels of wheat to the acre; 
about fifteen of rye, f and from twelve to fifteen of oats. 
The average quantity of grass is about a ton. 

Wood, price of land, &c. The wood is white and red 
oak, beech, maple, hemlock, and pine. About half the 
town, (the south-west part) is white oak land ; the other 
half, maple, beech, and red oak. 

The price of wild land is from five to eight dollars an 
acre ; best wood land ten dollars ; a farm from ten to 
twenty dollars. The price of w T ood is one dollar a cord. 

The fruits are apples, pears, plums, and cherries. 

* The episcopalians have two places of worship in which Mr. Fowle officiates 
alternately. They are about six miles apart, one story buildings, unpainted, and 
not remarkable for their elegance. 

t The best chance is given to wheat. 



River, ponds, lake. The only river is Smith's, so called 
for a hunter of that name * It is of inconsiderable magni- 
tude. It issues from a pond of the same name, and empties 
into Winipiseogee lake. There is a bridge over this river 
sixty feet in length, near its entrance into the lake. 

There are three ponds. Smith's pond ; Middle pond, 
and Crooked pond. Smith's pond is about three miles 
long, and the same in breadth ; Middle pond is about a 
mile and a half long. 

Winipiseogee lake, which forms a part of the south- 
west boundary of the town, is the largest collection of wa- 
ter in New Hampshire.! Its length is near twenty-five 
miles, from S. E. to N. W. ; its greatest breadth is eight 

This lake has been highly and justly celebrated for its 
picturesque beauties. Its numerous angular projections, 
the variety of its romantick islands crowned with wood, % 
and the vicinity of lofty mountains, render it an object 
peculiarly interesting. The beauty of the landscape, 
however, would be increased were its rugged features a 
little more softened by the hand of cultivation. 

The road on the eastern side affords the finest views 
of the lake, but a great part of it is intolerably bad. It 
passes through Moultonborough and Wolfeborough. 

In summer there is a good navigation the whole extent 
of the lake, from Merry meeting bay at the south east 
end, to Senter harbour at the north west. In winter 
there is often a good road on the ice. 

The lake abounds with fish, of which the salmon trout, 
pickerel, eel, and cusk,^ or tusk, are the most plenty. 
The trout weigh from three to seven pounds. One was 
caught about twenty years ago, which weighed upwards 
of twenty pounds. 

Mills, manufactories, frc. There are four grist mills, 
four saw mills, a fulling mill, and a carding machine. 

* Many of the rivers, in this part of the country, have received their names 
from hunters who had encamped on their banks, or traced their course in pur- 
suit of game. 

t Belknap. 
+ The number of islands is said to be three hundred and sixty-five. It is 
probably upwards of three hundred. 

§ These are said to be the same as the salt water cusk. 


There are no manufactories except of a domestick na- 
ture, and no distilleries. Cider is made in considerable 
quantities. Maple sugar also is made. 

Sheep. An increased attention is paid to the raising of 
sheep, and a few of the merino breed have lately been in- 

Taverns and stores. There are three taverns, one of 
which is kept by Mr. Rust, a son of one of the grantees. 
He is a justice of the peace, respectable, and intelligent. 
There are also three stores which are usually pretty well 
furnished with English and West India goods. 

Schools and professional men. The town is divided 
into ten school districts, and the schools are supplied 
with a male instructer in the winter season, and a female 
n the summer. 

There is one lawyer who was graduated at Dartmouth 
college, and one physician who has not received a libe- 
ral education. 

History. The town was incorporated in the year 
1770. It was settled about the same time by James Lu- 
cas, Joseph Lary, Benjamin Blake, and Ithamar Fuller- 
ton from Pembroke, N. H. ; Thomas Taylor and Tho- 
mas Piper from Gilmantown ; and Samuel Tibbetts from 
Rochester. They had one hundred and fifty acres each, 
given them. Ithamar Fullerton was drowned within a 
year after he came here. Benjamin Blake is the only 
one now living, and is nearly eighty. 

The present charter was granted by Mark H. Went- 
worth, Richard W. Penhallow, Thomas Wallingford, 
John MofFatt, Theodore Atkinson, Thomas Packer, Paul 
Marsh, and fourteen others, to Governour Wentworth, 
Isaac Rindge, Ammi R. Cutter, Joshua Brackett, George 
Meserve, Daniel Rindge, Thomas Wentworth, George 
King, Henry Rust, David Sewall, William Torrey, 
George Wentworth, Nathaniel P. Sargeant, Daniel 
Peirce, and John Parker.* The grantors reserved to 

* Gov. Wentworth had 2410 acres; Isaac Rindge C4S, Ammi R. Cutter 
1128 ; Joshua Brackett 550; George Meserve 2644 ; Thomas Wentworth 550 j 
Daniel Rindge 648 ; George King 480 ; Henry Rust 600 ; David Sewall 440 ; 
William Torrey 700; George Wentworth 600 : Nathaniel P- Sargent 560 ; Dan- 
iel Pierce 950 ; John Parker 547. Gov. Wentworth had a fine firm here, and 
erected a large and elegant house, which has been since, successively, in the 
hands of several proprietors. 


themselves a part (it is believed a quarter part) of the 
township, [including] one lot of three hundred acres, for 
the first settled minister ; one lot for a parsonage, and 
one lot for the support of schools. 

The inhabitants are mostly congregationalists. The 
first and only minister, the Rev. [Ebenezer] Allen 
was settled in 1792, and died in 1806, aged about sixty.* 
He left a widow and six children. His wife survived 
him only three years. 

Number of inhabitants, valuation, political character. 

In 1775 the number of inhabitants was 211 ; in 1790, 
447; in 1800, 941 ; in 1810, 1376. The valuation in 
1804 was $5. 70; in 1808, $4. 49; in 1812, $5. 71. 

The political character of the town is democratick. 
The votes at the last election (March, 1814) were 65 
federal and 192 democratick. 

Note on Middletown, N. H. July 1, 1814. 

MlDDLETOWN is in the county of Strafford. 

Its distance from Portsmouth, the capital of the state, 
is about forty miles, north by west. 

It is bounded on the south-east by Milton ; on the 
north-east by Wakefield ; on the south-west by New 
Durham, and on the north-west by Brookfield.f It also 
touches a corner of Farmington. 

The township is only about four miles square, a part 
of it having been taken off, and incorporated in the year 
1795, as a separate town by the name of Brookfield. J 

It is a very level township, there being no high ground 
except a part of Moose mountain which separates it 
from Brookfield. 

There are no rivers or ponds. The soil is rocky. 
The quantity of wheat to an acre is about ten bushels ; 

* [He was graduated at Harvard University in 1771.] 

I am informed that a baptist was ordained on the same day with Mr. Allen, 
with a view to obtain the grant, but did not succeed. 

t I am not certain that the bearing of these towns from Middletown, as stated 
above, is exactly correct. 

I It is probable that a part of Brookfield was also taken from other towns. 

N. H. 121 

rye, on new land, fifteen bushels, potatoes about two 
hundred bushels. 

The wood is chiefly black growth, viz. hemlock and 
spruce ; but there is some rock maple and beach. 

There are but few orchards. Either the soil or the 
climate is unfavourable to fruit. 

The price of land is six or seven dollars an acre. The 
price of wood from a dollar to eight shillings a cord. 

There is a grist mill and a saw mill. There is one 
shoemaker, one blacksmith, and the various other trades 
that are commonly found in our country towns. 

There are two taverns, and one small store. 

The town is divided into three school districts. A 
male instructer is employed in each during the winter, 
and a female during the summer. The compensation to 
a school master is twelve dollars a month, to a school 
mistress six dollars. 

There is one physician who was educated at Dartmouth 
college, and two justices of the peace, but no lawyer. 

The town was incorporated in the year 1778. The 
first settlers were principally from Lee and Rochester in 
the state of New Hampshire. 

The first minister was the Rev. Nehemiah Ordway, 
who was graduated at Harvard university in 1764, and 
settled in this place in 1778. He continued here a few 
years and was then dismissed, chiefly on account of the 
increase of sectarians. He is still living. 

The church was formerly congregational ; but soon 
after the departure of Mr. Ordway, the members, with 
the exception of one or two, became baptists, and a " free 
will baptist " is now their minister. 

The meeting house is an ordinary building, without a 
steeple, and much defaced. 

The number of inhabitants in 1775, was 233 ; in 
1790, 617 ; in 1800, 431 ;* in 1810, 439. The valua- 
tion in 1806 was $2. 15; in 1812, $1. 48. 

The political character of the town is federal. It is 
united with Brookfield in sending a representative to the 
general court. 

* Brookfield had then been taken off. By the last census Brookfield con- 
tained 657 inhabitants. 




Expenses of Canada. 

EXPENSES of the Province of Canada to Great Bri- 
tain, from 1st June 1776, to 24th Oct. 1782— 

Z.l,356,365„ 7„6i 
Provincial Duties from 
1st May 1776 to 
Oct. 1782 /.49,990 „ 3 

Licences to Tavern 

keepers, &c. 1,496 „ 12 

Territorial and casual 

Revenues 5,358 ,, 13 

■ 56,845 „ 8 „ 

1,299,519 „ 19 „ 6i 


Military Ordinaries ----- 688,385 „ 18 „ 2h 

- Extraordinaries - - - 510,790 „ 12 „ 7 

Civil Establishment ----- 100,343 „ 8 „ 9 

1,299,519 „ 19 „ 6] 

Tons of Shipping in Massachusetts, Dec. 31, 1806. 


New bury port 









New Bedford 






















Frenchman's Bay 









Wonder-working Providence of Sions Saviour. 

Being a Relation of the first planting in New England in the Ycare 


[Continued from p. 95 of the second volume, second series.] 

chap. xxiv. — Of the great cheerefuJnesse of their Souldiers of Christ, 
in and under the penuries of a Wildernesse. 

J_ HESE were the beginnings of these resolute Soul- 
diers of Christ Jesus in the yeare, 1631 . Even to lay the 
foundation of their severall Churches of Christ, built 
onely on him as their chiefe Corner Stone. But as his 
chosen Israel met with many difficulties after their re- 
turne from Captivity, in building the Temple and City, 
which they valiantly waded through ; So these weake 
wormes (Oh Christ to thy praise be it spoken) were most 
wonderfully holpen in such distresses, as to appearance 
of man seemed to be both hopelesse, and helplesse, threat- 
ning destruction to the whole building, and far from ac- 
complishing such great things as you have in part seene 
already, and shall in the following discourse (God willing) 
see more abundantly, adding a strong testimony to the 
work, that as it was begun by Christ, so hath it beene 
carried on by him, and shall to the admiration of the 
whole World be perfected in his time, and unlesse men 
will be wilfully blinde, they must needs see and confesse 
the same, and that the influence thereof hath already run 
from one end of the Earth unto the other. 

This yeare 1631 John Winthrop Esq. was chosen Gov- 
ernour, pickt out for the worke, by the provident hand 
of the most high, and inabled with gifts accordingly, then 
all the folke of Christ, who have seene his face and beene 
partaker of the same, remember him in this following 

Iohn Winthrope Esq. Eleven times Governour of the English Nation, 
inhabiting the Mattacusets Bay in New England. 

Why leavest thou John, thy station, in Suffolk, thy own soile, 
Christ will have thee a pillar be, for's people thou must toyle, 


He chang'd thy heart, then take his part, 'gainst prelates proud inva- 

din 2- 
(His Kingly throne) set up alone, in wildernesse their shading. 

His little flocks from Prelates knocks, twice ten years rul'd thou hast, 

With civill sword at Christs word and eleven times been trast. 
By Name and Note, with peoples vote, their Governour to be. 

Thy means hast spent, 'twas therefore lent, to raise this work by thee. 
Well arm'd and strong with sword among, Christ armies marcheth he, 

Doth valiant praise, and weak one raise, with kind benignity. 
To lead the Van, 'gainst Babylon, doth worthy Winthrop call, 

Thy Progeny, shall Battell try, when Prelacy shall fall. 
With fluent Tongue thy Pen doth run, in learned Latine Phrase, 

To Sweads, French, Dutch, thy Neighbours, which thy lady rhet- 
orick praise. 
Thy bounty feeds, Christs servants needs, in wilderness of wants 

To Indians thou Christs Gospell now, 'mongst heathen people plants. 
Yet thou poore dust, now dead and must, to rottennesse be brought, 

Till Christ restore thee glorious, more then can of dust be thought 

The much honoured Thomas Dudly Esquire was cho- 
sen Deputy Governour, and the number of Free-men ad- 
ded was about 83. Those honoured persons who were 
now in place of Government, having the propagation of 
the Churches of Christ, in their eye laboured by all meanes 
to make room for Inhabitants, knowing well that where 
the dead carkass is, thither will the Eagles resort. But 
herein they were much opposed by certaine persons, 
whose greedy desire for land much hindered the worke 
for a time, as indeed all such persons do at this very day, 
and let such take notice how these were cured of this 
distemper, some were taken away by death, and then to 
be sure they had Land enough, others fearing poverty, 
and famishment, supposing the present scarcity would 
never be turned into plenty, removed themselves away, 
and so never beheld the great good the Lord hath done 
for his people, but the valiant of the Lord waited with 
patience, and in the misse of beere supplied themselves 
with water, even the most honoured as well as others, 
contentedly rejoycing in a Cup of cold water, blessing 
the Lord that had given them the taste of that living 
water, and that they had not the water that slackes the 
thirst of their naturall bodies, given them by measure, 


but might drinke to the full ; as also in the absence of 
Bread they feasted themselves with fish, the Women 
once a day, as the tide gave way, resorted to the Mus- 
sells, and Clambankes, which are a Fish as big as Ilorsc- 
mussells, where they daily gathered their Families food 
with much heavenly discourse of the provisions Christ 
had formerly made for many thousands of his followers 
in the wildernesse. Quoth one, my Husband hath trav- 
ailed as far as Plimoth (which is neere 40 miles,) and 
hath with great toile brought a little Corne home with 
him, and before that is spent the Lord will assuredly pro- 
vide : quoth the other, our last peck of Meale is now in 
the Oven at home a baking, and many of our godly 
Neighbours have quite spent all, and wee owe one Loafe 
of that little wee have ; Then spake a third, my husband 
hath ventured himselfe among the Indians for Corne, and 
can get none, as also our honoured Governour hath dis- 
tributed his so far, that a day or two more will put an 
end to his store, and all the rest, and yet methinks our 
Children are as cheerefull, fat, and lusty with feeding upon 
those Mussells, Clambanks and other Fish as they were 
in England, with their fill of Bread, which makes mee 
cheerfull in the Lords providing for us, being further 
confirmed by the exhortation of our Pastor to trust the 
Lord with providing for us ; whose is the Earth and the 
fulnesse thereof. And as they were inconraging one 
another in Christs carefull providing for them, they lift 
up their eyes and saw two Ships comming in, and pres- 
ently this newes came to their Eares, that they were come 
from *Jacland full of Victualls, now their poore hearts 
were not so much refreshed in regard of the food they 
saw they were like to have, as their soules rejoyced in 
that Christ would now manifest himselfe to be the Com- 
missary Generall of this his Army, and that hee should 
honour them so far as to be poore Sutlers for his Camp, 
they soone up with their Mussells, and hie them home 
to stay their hungry stomacks. After this manner did 
Christ many times graciously provide for this his people, 
even at the last cast. 

* Ireland ? 


chap. xxv. — Of the Lords gracious protection of his people, from the 
barbarous cruelties of the Heathen. 

About this time the Indians that were most conver- 
sant among them, came quaking and complaining of a 
barbarous and cruell people called the Tarratines, who 
they said would eat such Men as they caught alive, tying 
them to a Tree, and gnawing their flesh by peece-meals 
off their Bones, as also that they were a strong and nu- 
merous people, and now comming, which made them 
flee to the English, who were but very few in number 
at this time, and could make but little resistance, being 
much dispersed, yet did they keepe a constant watch, 
neglecting no meanes Christ had put into their hands for 
their owne safety, in so much that they were exceedingly 
weakened with continued labour, watching and hard diet, 
but the Lord graciously upheld them in all, for thus it 
befell neere the Towne of Linn, then called Saugust, in 
the very dead of the night (being upon their watch, be- 
cause of the report that went of the Indians approach to 
those parts) one Lieutenant Walker, a man indued with 
faith, and of a couragious spirit, comming to relieve the 
Centinell being come up with him, all of a sudden they 
heard the Sticks crack hard by them, & withall he felt 
something brush hard upon his shoulder, which was an 
Indian arrow shot through his Coat, and the wing of his 
bufle-Jacket. Upon this hee discharged his Culliver di- 
rectly toward the place, where they heard the noise, 
which being deeply loden brake in pieces, then they re- 
turned to the Court of Guard, and raised such small 
forces as they had ; comming to the light they perceived 
he had an other Arrow shot through his Coat betwixt his 
Legs. Seeing this great preservation they stood upon 
their Guard till Morning, expecting the Indians to come 
upon them every moment, but when day-light appeared, 
they soone sent word to other parts, who gathered to- 
gether, and tooke counsell how to quit themselves of these 
Indians, whose approach they deemed would be sudden 
they agreed to discharge their great Guns, the redoub- 
ling eccho rattling in the Rocks caused the Indians to be- 


take themselves to flight (being a terrible unwonted sound 
unto them) or rather he who put such trembling fcare in 
the Assyrians Army, struck the like in these cruell Can- 
niballs. In the Autumne following, the Indians, who 
had all this time held good correspondency with the En- 
glish, began to quarrell with them about their bounds of 
Land, notwithstanding they purchased all they had of 
them, but the Lord put an end to this quarrell also, by 
smiting the Indians with a sore Disease, even the small 
Pox ; of the which great numbers of them died, yet 
these servants of Christ minding their Masters businesse, 
were much moved in affection toward them to see them 
depart this life without the knowledge of God in Christ. 
And therefore were very frequent among them for all the 
noysomenesse of their Disease, entring their Wigwams, 
and exhorting them in the Name of the Lord. Among 
others one of the chiefe Saggamores of the Mattachusets, 
whom the English named Saggamore John, gave some 
good hopes, being alwayes very courteous to them, whom 
the godly, and much honoured among the English, vis- 
iting a little before his death, they instructing him in the 
knowledge of God. Quoth hee by and by mee Matta- 
moy may be my two Sons live, you take them to teach 
much to know God. 

Accordingly the honoured Mr. John Winthrop, and the 
Reverend Mr. John Wilson tooke them home, notwith- 
standing the infectiousnesse of the Disease their Father 
died of. The mortality among them was very great, 
and increased among them daily more and more, inso- 
much that the poore Creatures being very timorous of 
death, would faine have fled from it, but could not tell 
how, unlesse they could have gone from themselves ; Re- 
lations were little regarded among them at this time, so 
that many, who were smitten with the Disease died help- 
lesse, unlesse they were neare, and known to the English : 
their Powwowes, Wizards, and Charmers, * Athamochas 
Factors were possest with greatest feare of any. The 
Winters piercing cold stayed not the strength of this hot 
Disease, yet the English endeavouring to visit their sick 

* Hobbamocka's ? 


Wigwams, helpe them all they could, but as they entred 
one of their matted Houses, they beheld a most sad spec- 
tacle, death having smitten them all save one poore Infant, 
which lay on the ground sucking the Breast of its dead 
Mother, seeking to draw living nourishment from her 
dead breast. Their dead they left oft-times unburied, 
wherefore the English were forced to dig holes, and 
drag their stinking corps into them. Thus did the 
Lord allay their quarrelsome spirits, and made roome for 
the following part of his Army. This yeare came over 
more supplies to forward the worke of Christ. 

chap. xxvi. — Of the gratious provisions the Lord made for his people. 

The yeare 1632 John Winthrope Esquire, was cho- 
sen Governour again, and the antient Thomas Dudly 
Esquire, was Deputy Governour, a man of a sound 
judgement in matters of Religion and well read, bestow- 
ing much labour that way, of whom as followeth : 

The honoured, aged, stable and sincere servant of Christ, zealous for 
his truth Thomas Dudly, Esq. four e times Governour of the English 
Nation, in the Mattacusets, and first Major Generall of the Milli- 
tary Forces. 

What Thomas now believe dost thou that riches men may gaine, 

In this poore Plot Christ doth allot his people to sustaine ; 
Rich Truth thou'lt buy and sell not, why no richer Jem can be, 

Truths Champion in campion, Christs grace hath placed thee, 
With civill Sword, at Christs Word, early cut off wilt thou, 

Those Wolvish sheep, amongst flocks do creep, and damned doc- 
trine low. 
To trembling age, thou valiant sage, one foot wilt not give ground^ 

Christs Enemies from thy face flies, his truth thou savest sound. 
Thy lengthened days, to Christs praise, continued are by him : 

To set by thee his people free, from foes that raging bin. 
Wearied with yeares, it plaine appeares, Dudly not long can last, 

It matters not, Christ Crown thee got, its now at hand, hold fast. 

This yeare was the first choise of Magistrates by free- 
men, whose number was now increased, fifty three or 
thereabout, to declare the manner of their Government is 
by the Author deferred till the year 1637, where the 
Reader may behold Government both in Churches and 


Common-wealth, to be an institution of the Lord, and 
much availeable through his blessing for the accom- 
plishment ol his promises to his people. 

This year these fore-runners of the following Army of 
Christ, after the sight of many of the admirable Acts of 
his providence for them, begun to take up steddy reso- 
lution through the helpe of him to wade through the 
Ocean, they were farther like to meete withall, and there- 
fore began to plant the yet untilled Earth, having as yet 
no other meanes to teare up the bushy lands, but their 
hands and hovves, their bodies being in very ill temper by 
reason of the Scurvy (a Disease in those dayes very fre- 
quent) to undergoe such extremity, but being prick'd on 
with hungers sharpe gode, they keepe doing according to 
their weake abilities, and yet produce but little food for 
a long season, but being perswaded that Christ will rather 
mine bread from Heaven, then his people should want, 
being fully perswaded, they were set on the worke at his 
command. Wherefore they followed on with all hands, 
and the Lord (who hath the Cattell of thousand Hills, 
and the Come of ten thousand Vallies, the whole Earth, 
and fulnesse of it) did now raise up fresh supplies to be 
added to these both of men and provision of food, men 
no lesse valiant in Faith then them, the former amongst 
whom was the Reverend Mr. * Welds and Mr. James, 
who was welcomed by the people of Christ at Charles 
Towne, and by them called to the Office of a Pastor, 
where hee continued for some yeares, and from thence 
removed to New haven, upon some seed of prejudice 
sowne by the enemies of this worke. But good Reader 
doe thou behold, and remember him farther in the follow- 
ing Lines; 

Thy Native soile, Oh James did thee approve, 

Gods people there in Lincolnshire commend ; 
Thy courteous speech and worke of Christian love, 

Till Christ through Seas did thee on Message send. 
With learned skill his mind for to unfold, 

His people in New England thou must feed, 
But one sad breach did cut that band should hold ; 

Then part wilt thou least farther jars should breed. 

* Welde. 


Yet part thou wilt not with Christs Truth, thy crowne 

But my Muse waile that any souldier should, 
In fighting slip, why James thou fallest not downe, 

Back thou retreats their valiant fighting, hold 
Fast on thy Christ, who thine may raise with thee, 

His bands increase, when leaders he provides, 
Thy Son young student may such blessing be ; 

Thy losse repayre, and Christ thee crown besides. 

Although the great straites this Wildernesse people 
were in for want of food, was heard of among the godly 
people in England, yet would they not decline the worke, 
but men of Estates sold their possessions, and bought 
plenty of foode for the Voyage, which some of them 
sent before hand, by which meanes they were provided 
for, as also the Lord put it into the hearts of such as 
were Masters, and Undertakers of Ships to store their 
Vessels so well that they had to spare for this peoples 
need, and further Christ caused abundance of very good 
Fish to come to their Nets and Hookes, and as for such 
as were unprovided with these meanes, they caught them 
with their hands, and so with Fish, wild Onions and oth- 
er Herbs were sweetly satisfied till other provisions came 
in, here must labouring men a little be minded, how ill 
they recompenced those persons, whose estates helpe 
them to food before they could reape any from the Earth, 
that forgetting those courtesies they soon by excessive 
prises took for their worke, made many File-leaders fall 
back to the next Ranke, advancing themselves in the 
meane time. About this time the Church of Christ at 
Roxbury, being a diligent people, early prevented their 
Brethren in other Churches by calling the Reverend Mr. 
Welds to be their Pastor, of whom you may see some- 
what farther in the following lines : 

To worke oh Welds! in wildernesse betime 

Christ thee commands, that thou his folke should's follow : 
And feede his flock in Covenant band combine, 

With them through him his glorious name to hallow ; 
Seven yeares thou stoutly didst wade through with toile, 

These desart cares, back by advice againe, 
Thou didst returne unto thy native soile, 

There to advance Christs Kingdome now remaine. 


In Pulpit, and with Pen thou hast the truth 

Maintained, and clear'd from scandalous reproach 
Christs churches here, and shevv'd their lasting Ruth, 
That dare 'gainst Christ their own inventions broach ; 
Then sage, in age, continue such to he, 
Till Christ thee crowne, his gifts to thee are free. 

This yeare of sad distresses was ended with a terrible 
cold Winter, with weekly Snowes, and fierce Frosts be- 
tween while congealing Charles River, as well from the 
Tovvne to Sea-ward, as above, insomuch that men might 
frequently pass from one island to another upon the Ice. 
Here Reader thou must be minded of an other admirable 
Act of Christ for this yeare, in changing the very nature 
of the seasons, moderating the Winters cold of late very 
much, which some impute to the cutting downe the 
woods, and breaking up the Land; But Christ have the 
praise of all his glorious Acts. About this time did the 
valiant in faith, and Reverend Pastor Mr. John Wilson 
returne to England, and surely the power of Christ hath 
notably appeared in this weake sorry man. You must 
needs see the Author will flatter no man, yet will he not 
be wanting to tell the noble Acts of Christ Jesus, in 
making men strong for himself, here is one borne up in 
the armes of his mercy, often through the perillous Seas 
night and dayes, yea : weeks and months upon the great 
deepe, and now having with his owne eyes beheld the 
manifold troubles these poore were in, yet at this very 
time hies him back to his Native soile, whe^e his indear- 
ed Wife did yet remaine, purposely to perswade her to 
cast her cares upon the Lord, as he himself had already 
done, and then assuredly the wants of a Wildernesse 
would never hurt her : at the departure of this holy Man 
of God, many of his peoples hearts waxed very sad, and 
having looked long for his returne ; Their eyes now be- 
gan to faile in missing of their expectation, they accord- 
ing to their common course in time of great straites, set 
and appointed a day wholy to be spent in seeking the 
pleasing Face of God in Christ, purposing the Lord as- 
sisting to afflict their soules, and give him the honour of 
his All-seeingness, by a downe right acknowledgement 


of their sinnes, but the Lord, whose Grace is always un- 
deserved, heard them before they cried, and the after- 
noone before the day appointed brought him, whom they 
so much desired, in safety to shore, with divers other 
faithfull servants of Christ ready armed for the Battell, 
the day was turned to a day of rejoycing and blessing the 
Lord, even the mighty God of Jacob, the God of Armies 
is for us a refuge high Shela. 

The yeare 1633, the honoured John Winthrope Es- 
quire, was chosen Governour againe, and Thomas Dudly 
Esq. Deputy Governour, the number of Freemen added, 
or Souldiers listed was 46. the Winters Frost being ex- 
tracted forth the Earth, they fall to tearing up the Roots, 
and Bushes with their Howes ; even such men as scarce 
ever set hand to labour before, men of good birth and 
breeding ; but comming through the strength of Christ 
to war their warfare, readily rush through all difficulties, 
cutting down of the Woods, they inclose Corne fields, 
the Lord having mitigated their labours by the Indians 
frequent fiering of the woods, (that they may not be hin- 
dered in hunting Venson, and Beares in the Winter sea- 
son) which makes them thin of Timber in many places, 
like our Parkes in England, the chiefest Corne they 
planted before they had Plowes was Indian Graine, whose 
increase is very much beyond all other, to the great re- 
freshing of the poore servants of Christ, in their low be- 
ginings, all kinde of Gardens Fruits grew very well, and 
let no man make a jest at Pumpkins, for with this fruit 
the Lord was pleased to feed his people to their good 
content, till Corne and Cattell were increased. 

And here the Lords mercy appeared much in that those, 
who had beene formerly brought up tender, could now 
contentedly feed on bare and meane Diet, amongst whom 
the Honoured and upright hearted in this worke of 
Christ, Mr. Increase Nowell, shall not be forgotten, hav- 
ing a diligent hand therein from the first beginning. 

Increase shalt thou, with honour now, in this thy undertaking, 
Thou hast remain'd, as yet unstaind, all errors foule forsaking ; 

To poore and rich, thy Justice much hath manifested bin : 
Like Samuel, Nathanaell, Christ hath thee fram'd within ; 


Thy faithfulncssc, people expresse, and Secretary they 

Chose thee each year, by which appeare, their love with thee doth 

Now Nowell see Christ cnll'd hath thee, and work thou must for him, 
In beating down the triple Crown, and all that his foes ben. 

Thus doest thou stand by Christ fraile man, to tell his might can make 
Dust do his will, with graces fill, till dust to him he take. 

chap. xxvn. — Of the gratious goodnesse of God, in hearing his peo- 
ples prayers in times of need, and of the Ship-loades of goods the 
Lord sent them in. 

Here againe the admirable Providence of the Lord 
is to be noted, That whereas the Country is naturally 
subject to drought, even to the withering of their sum- 
mers Fruits, the Lord was pleased, during these yeares 
of scarcity, to blesse that small quantity of Land they 
planted with seasonable showers, and that many times to 
the great admiration of the Heathen, for thus it befell : 
the extreame parching heate of the Sun (by reason of a 
more constant clearnesse of the Aire then usually is in 
England) began to scorch the Herbs and Fruits, which 
was the chiefest meanes of their livelyhood, they behold- 
ing the Hand of the Lord stretched out against them, like 
tender hearted Children, they fell down on their knees, 
begging mercy of the Lord, for their Saviours sake, ur- 
ging this as a chief argument, that the malignant adver- 
sary would rejoyce in their destruction, and blaspheme 
the pure Ordinances of Christ, trampling down his 
Kingly Commands with their owne inventions, and in 
uttering these words, their eyes dropped down many 
teares, their affections prevailing so strong, that they 
could not refraine in the Church-Assembly. Here admire 
and be strong in the Grace of Christ, all you that hope- 
fully belong unto him, for as they powred out water be- 
fore the Lord, so at that very instant, the Lord showred 
down water on their Gardens and Fields, which with 
great industry they had planted, and now had not the 
Lord caused it to raine speedily, their hope of food had 
beene lost : but at this these poore wormes were so ex- 
ceedingly taken, that the Lord should shew himselfe so 


neere unto their Prayers, that as the drops from Heaven 
fell thicker, and faster, so the teares from their eyes by 
reason of the sudden mixture of joy and sorrow, and 
verily they were exceedingly stirred in their affections, 
being unable to resolve themselves, which mercy was 
greatest, to have a humble begging heart given them of 
God, or to have their request so suddenly answered. 

The Indians hearing hereof, and seeing the sweet raine 
that fell, were much taken with Englishmens God, but 
the Lord seeing his poore peoples hearts were to narrow 
to beg, his bounties exceeds toward them at this time, 
as indeed hee ever hitherto hath done for this Wilder- 
nesse-People, not onely giving the full of their requests, 
but beyond all their thoughts, as witnesse his great worke 
in England of late, in which the prayers of Gods people 
in New England have had a great stroke ; These people 
now rising from their knees to receive* the rich mercies 
of Christ, in the refreshed fruits of the Earth ; Behold the 
Sea also bringing in whole Ship-loades of mercies, more 
being filled with fresh forces, for furthering this wonder- 
full worke of Christ, and indeed this yeare came in many 
pretious ones, whom Christ in his grace hath made much 
use of in these his Churches, and Common-wealth, inso- 
much that these people were even almost over-ballanced 
with the great income of their present possessed mercies, 
yet they addresse themselves to the Sea shore, where they 
courteously welcom the famous servant of Christ, grave 
godly and judicious Hooker, and the honoured servant 
of Christ, M John Haynes, as also the Reverend and 
much desired Mr. John Cotton, and the Retoricall, Mr. 
Stone, with divers others of the sincere servants of Christ, 
comming with their young, and with their old, and with 
their whole substance, to doe him service in this Desart 
wildernesse. Thus this poore people having now tasted 
liberally of the salvation of the Lord every way, they 
deeme it high time to take up the Cup of thankfulnesse, 
and pay their vowes to the most high God, by whom 
they were holpen to this purpose of heart, and according- 
ly set apart the 16 day of October, (which they call the 
eighth Moneth, not out of any pevish humour of singu- 


larity, as some are ready to censor them with, but of pur- 
pose to prevent the Heathenish and Popish observation 
•of Dayes, Moneths and Yeares, that they may be forgotten 
among the people of the Lord) this day was solemnly 
kept by all the seven Churches, rejoycing in the Lord, 
and rendering thanks for all their benefits. 

Here must not be omitted the indeared affections Mr. 
John Wilson had to the vvorke in hand, exceedingly set- 
ting forth (in his Sermon this day) the Grace of Christ 
in providing such meet helps for furthering thereof, really 
esteeming them beyond so many Ship loading of Gold ; 
manifesting the great humility Christ had wrought in him 
(not complementing, but in very deede prciering the 
Reverend Mr. John Cotton, many hundreds before him- 
selfc, whom they within a very little time after called to 
the Office of a Teaching Elder of the Church of Christ 
at Boston, where bee now remaincs, of whom as follow 
eth : 

When Christ intends his glorious Kingdome shall 

Exalted he on Earth, he Earth doth take, 
Even sinful] Man to make his worthies all; 

Then praise I Man, no Christ this Man doth make, 
Sage, sober, grave and learned Cotten thou : 

Mighty in Scripture, without Booke repeat it, 
Annatomise the sence, and shew Man how 

Great mysteries in sentence short are seated. 
Gods Word with's word comparing oft unfould : 

The secret truths Johns Revelations hath 
By thee been open'd, as nere was of old ; 

Shewes cleere, and neere 'gainst Romes whore is Gods wrath 
Then Churches of Christ, rejoyce and sing, 

John Cotten hath God's minde, I dare believe. 
Since he from Gods Word doth his witnesse bring; 

Saints cries are heard they shall no longer grieve, 
That song of songs, 'twixt Christ and's Church thou hast 

Twice taught to all, and sweetly shewed the way, 
Christ would his Churches should, in truth stand fast ; 

And cast off man's inventions even for aye. 
Thy labours great have met with catching cheats, 

Mixing their Brasse with thy bright Gold, for why ? 
Thy great esteeme must cover their ill feates, 

Some soile thou gctt'st, by comming them so nie. 


But i'ts vvipt off, and thou Christs Champion left, 
The Faith to fight for Christ hath arm'd thee well, 

His worthies would not, thou shoulds be bereft, 
Of honours here thy Crown shall soon excel 1. 

These people of God having received these farther 
helps, to instruct, and build them up in the holy things 
of Christ, being now greatly incouraged, seeing the 
Lord was pleased to set such a broad Seale to their 
Commission for the worke in hand, not onely by his 
Word and Spirit moving thereunto, but also by his 
Providence in adding such able instruments for further- 
ing this great worke of Reformation, and advancing the 
Kingdome of Christ, for which they spent this day of 
rejoycing, and sure the Lord would have all that hear of 
it know, their joy lay not in the increase of Corne, or 
Wine, or Oyle, for of all these they had but very little 
at this time, yet did not they spare to lend such as they 
had unto the poore, who could not provide, and verily 
the joy ended not with the day, for these active instru- 
ments of Christ, Preaching with all instancy the glad 
Tidings of the Gospell of lesus Christ, rejoyced the Heart 
of this People much. 

chap, xxviii. — Of the Eighth Church of Christ, gathered at Cam- 
bridge, 1633. 

At this time, those who were in place of civill Gov- 
ernment, having some additional Pillars to under-prop the 
building, begun to thinke of a place of more safety in 
the eyes of Man, then the two frontire Towns of Charles 
Towne, and Boston were for the habitation of such 
as the Lord had prepared to Governe this Pilgrim Peo- 
ple. Wherefore they rather made choice to enter farther 
among the Indians, then hazard the fury of malignant 
adversaries, who in a rage might pursue them, and there- 
fore chose a place scituate on Charles River, between 
Charles Town, and Water-Towne, where they erected a, 
Towne called New-Town, now named Cambridge, be- 
ing in forme like a list cut off from the Eroad-cloath of 
the two fore-named Towns, where this wandering Race of 


Jacobits gathered the eighth Church of Christ. This 
Town is compact closely within it sclfe, till oi" late yeares 
some few stragling houses have been built, the Liberties of 
this Town have been inlargcd of late in length, reaching 
from the most Northerly part of Charles River, to the 
most Southerly part of *Merrimeck River, it hath well or- 
dered streets and comlyf pompleated with the faire build- 
ing of | FTarver Colledge, their first Pastor was the faith- 
full and laborious Mr. Hooker, whose Bookcs are of great 
request among the faithfull people of Christ ; Yee shall 
not misse of a few lines in remembrance of him. 

Come, Hooker, come forth of thy native soile : 

Christ, I will run, sayes Hooker, thou hast set 
My feet at large, here spend thy last dayes toile; 

Thv Rhetorick shall peoples affections whet. 
Thy Golden Tongue, and Pen Christ caus'd to be 

The blazing of his golden truths profound, 
Thou sorry worme its Christ wrought this in thee ; 

What Christ hath wrought must needs be very sound. 
Then Iooke one Hookers workes, they follow him 

To Grave, this worthy resteth there a while : 
Die shall he not that hath Christs warrier bin ; 

Much lesse Christs Truth cleer'd by his peoples toile. 
Thou Angell bright, by Christ for light now made, 

Throughout the World as seasoning salt to be, 
Although in dust thy body mouldering fade ; 

Thy Head's in Heaven, and hath a crown for thee. 

The people of this Church and Towne have hitherto 
had the chiefest share in spirituall blessings, the Ministry 
of the Word, by more then ordinary instruments as in 
due time and place (God willing) you should farther heare, 
yet are they at this day in a thriving condition in outward 
things, also both Corne and Cattell, Neate and Sheepe, of 
which they have a good flocke, which the Lord hath caus- 
ed to thrive much in these latter dayes then formerly. 

This Towne was appointed to be the seate of Govern- 
ment, but it continued not long, thisyeare a small gleane 
of Rye was brought to the Court as the first fruits of En- 
glish graine, at which this poore people greatly rejoyced 
to see the Land would beare it, but now the Lords bles- 
sing that way hath exceeded all peoples expectation. 

* Merrimack, t completed ? t Harvard. 


cloathing the Earth with plenty of all kinde of graine. 
Here minde I must the Reader of the admirable acts of 
Christs Providence toward this people, that although they 
were in such great straites for foode, that many of them 
eate their Bread by waight, and had little hopes of the 
Earths fruitfulnesse, yet the Lord Christ was pleased to 
refresh their spirits with such quickning grace, and live- 
ly affections to this Temple-worke, that they did not de- 
sert the place ; and that which was more remarkable, 
when they had scarce houses to shelter themselves, and 
no doores to hinder the Indians accesse to all they had in 
them, yet did the Lord so awe their hearts, that although 
they frequented the Englishmens places of aboade, where 
their whole substance, weake Wives and little ones lay 
open to their plunder ; during their absence being whole 
dayes at Sabbath-Assemblies, yet had they none of their 
food or stufFe diminished, neither Children nor Wives 
hurt in the least measure, although the Indians came 
commonly to them at those times, much hungry belly 
(as they use to say) and were then in number and strength 
beyond the English by far. 

Yet further see the great and noble Acts of Christ to- 
ward this his wandering people, feeling againe the scarci- 
ty of foode, and being constrained to come to a small 
pittance daily, the Lord to provide for them, causeth the 
Deputy of Ireland to set forth a greate Ship unknowne to 
this people, and indeed small reason in his own appre- 
hensions why he should so do (but Christ will have it 
so.) This Ship arriving, being filled with food, the god- 
ly Governors did so order it that each Town sent two 
men aboard of her, who tooke up their Townes allow- 
ance, it being appointed before hand, what their portion 
should be, to this end that some might not * by all, and 
others be left destitute of food. In the vernall of the 
yeare 1634. This people being increased, and having 
among them many pretious esteemed instruments for 
furthering this wonderous worke of Christ, they began 
to thinke of fortifying a small Island about two miles 
distant from Boston to Sea-w T ard, to which all the Vessells 
come in usually and passe. To this end the honoured 

* buy ? 


Mr. John Winthropc with some 8. or 10. persons of note. 
tooke hoate and arrived on the said Island in a warme 
Sun shincday, just at the breaking up of Winter as they 
deemed, but being they were sudden surprised with a 
cold North-west storme (which is the sharpest winde in 
this Country) freezing very vehemently for a day and a 
night, that they could not get oil' the Island, but were for- 
ced to lodge there, and lie in a heape one upon another 
(on the ground) to keepe themselves from freezing. 

This yeare 1634. the much honoured Thomas Dudly 
Esquire, was chosen Governor, and Mr. Roger Ludlow 
Deputy Governor, the Freemen added to this little Com- 
mon-wealth this year were about two hundred and foure, 
about this time a sincere servant of Christ Mr Stone was 
added to the Church of Christ at New-towne, as a meet 
helpe to instruct the People of Christ there, with the 
above named Mr. Hooker, and as he hath hetherto bin 
(through the blessing of God) an able instrument in his 
hands to further the worke. So let him be incourra^cd 
with the Word of the Lord in the spirit of his might to 
go on. 

Thou well smoth'd Stone Christs work-manship to be: 

Iri's Church new laid his weake ones to support, 
With's word of might his foes are foild by thee ; 

Thou daily dost to godlinesse exhort. 
The Lordy Prelates people do deny 

Christs Kingly power Ilosanna to proclaime, 
Mens mouths are stopt, but Stone poore dust doth try, 

Throughout his Churches none but Christ must raigne. 
Mourne not Oh Man, thy youth and learning's spent : 

In desart Land, my Muse is bold to say, 
For glorious workes Christ his hath hither sent; 

Like that great worke of Resurrection day. 

chap. xxix. Of the Lords remarkable providence toward his indear- 
ed servants M. Norton and Mr. Shepherd. 

Now my loving Reader, let mec lead thee by the hand 
to our Native Land, although it was not intended to 
speake in particulars of any of these peoples departure 
from thence, purposing a generall relation should serve 


the turne, yet come with mee and behold the wonderous 
worke of Christ in preserving two of his most valiant 
Souldiers, namely Mr. John Norton, and that soule rav- 
ishing Minister Mr. Thomas *Shepheard, who came this 
yeare to Yarmouth to ship themselves for New England, 
where the people of God resorted privately unto them to 
hear them Preach, during the time of their aboade the 
Enemies of Christs Kingdome were not wanting to use 
all meanes possible to intrap them, in which perilous 
condition they remained about two months, waiting for 
the Ships readinesse ; in which time some persons eager- 
ly hunting for Mr. Thomas *Shepheard, began to plot (for 
apprehending of him) with a Boy of sixteene or seventeene 
yeares of Age, who lived in the House where hee Lodg- 
ed to open the doore for them at a certaine houre in the 
night ; But the Lord Christ, who is the Shepheard of Is- 
rael kept a most sure watch over his indeared servants, 
for thus it befell, the sweet words of grace falling from the 
[of] lips of this Reverend and godly Mr. Thomas ^Shep- 
heard in the hearing of the Boy (the Lords working with- 
al!) hee was perswaded this was an holy man of God, 
and therefore with many troubled thoughts, began to re- 
late his former practise, although hee had a great some of 
money promised him, onely to let them in at the houre 
and time appointed ; but the Boy, the more neere the 
time came, grew more pensive and sad, insomuch that 
his Master taking notice thereof began to question him 
about the cause of his heavinesse, who being unwilling 
to reveale the matter, held of from confessing a long 
time, till by urgent and insinuating search of his godly 
Master, with teares hee tells that on such a night hee had 
agreed to let in Men to apprehend the godly Preacher. 
The good Man of the house forthwith gave notice there- 
of unto them, who with the helpe of some well-affected 
persons was convay'd away by boate through a back 
Lane, the men at the time appointed came to the house, 
where finding not the doore open (when they lifted up 
the Latch) as they expected, they thrust their staves un- 
der it to lift it from the hookes, but being followed by 
some persons, whom the good man of the house had ap- 

* Shepherd. 

1634.] or sions saviour, un new England. I 1 1 

pointed for that end : yet were they boulstred out in this 
their wicked act by those who set them one worke. 
Notwithstanding they were greatly ashamed when they 
mist of their end. 

But the Lord Christ intending to make his New Eng- 
land Souldiers the very wonder of this Age, brought them 
into greater straites, that this Wonder Working Provi- 
dence might the more appeare in their deliverance, lor 
comming a shipboard, and hoiseing saile to accomplish 
their Voyage, in little time alter they were tossed and 
sore beaten with a contrary winde, to the losse of the 
Ships upper worke, with which losse and great perill they 
were driven back againe, the Lord Christ intending to 
continue their Faith in shewing them, that although they 
were brought back, as it were into the mouth of their 
enemies, yet hee could hide them from the hand of the 
Hunter, for the space of six moneths longer or there- 
about, even till the Spring of the yeare following, at which 
time (God willing) you shall hear of them againe, in the 
meane time the Master, and other Sea-men made a 
strange construction of the sore storme they met withall, 
saying, their Ship was bewitched, and therefore made 
use of the common Charme ignorant people use, nailing 
two red hot horse-shoos to their mainemast. But assured- 
ly it was the Lord Christ, who hath command both of 
Winds and Seas, and now would have his people know 
he hath delivered, and will deliver from so great a death. 

chap. xxx. Of the Ninth Church of Christ, gathered at Ips witch. 

This year came over a farther supply of Eminent in- 
struments for furthering this admirable Worke of his, 
amongst whom the Reverend and judicious servant of 
Christ Mr. Nathaniel Ward, who tooke up his station at 
the Towne of Ipswich, where the faith full servants of 
Christ gathered the Ninth Church of his. This Towne 
is scituated on a faire and delightfull River, whose first 
rise or spring begins about five and twenty Miles farther 
up in the Countrey, issuing forth a very pleasant pond. 
But soone after it betakes its course through a most hid- 



eous swamp of large extent, even for many Miles, being, 
a great Harbour for Beares : after its comming forth this 
place, it groweth larger by the income of many small 
Rivers, and issues forth in the Sea, due East over against 
the Island of Sholes, a great place of fishing for our En- 
glish Nation, the peopling of this Towne is by men of 
good ranke and quality, many of them having the yearly 
Revenue of large Lands in England before they came to 
this Wildernesse, but their Estates being imployed for 
Christ, and left in banke, as you have formerly heard, 
they are well content till Christ shall be pleased to re- 
store it againe to them or theirs, which in all reason 
should be out of the Prelates Lands in England. Let all 
those, whom itconcernes (to judge) consider it well, and 
do Justice herein. 

This Towne lies in the Saggamooreship, or Earldome 
of Aggawam, now by our English Nation called Essex. 
It is a very good Haven Towne, yet a little barr'd up at 
the Mouth of the River, some Marchants here are, (but 
Boston, being the chiefest place of resort of Shipping, 
carries away all the Trade) they have very good Land for 
Husbandry, where Rocks hinder not the course of the 
Plow : the Lord hath beene pleased to increase them in 
Corne and Cattell of late ; Insomuch that they have 
many hundred quarters to spare yearly, and feed, at the 
latter end of Summer, the Towne of Boston with good 
Beefe : their Houses are many of them very faire built 
with pleasant Gardens and Orchards, consisting of about 
one hundred and forty Families. Their meeting-house 
is a very good prospect to a great part of the Towne, 
and beautifully built, the Church of Christ here consists 
of about one hundred and sixty soules, being exact in 
their conversation, and free from the Epidemicall Disease 
of all Reforming Churches, which under Christ is pro- 
cured by their pious Learned and Orthodox Ministery, 
as in due place (God willing) shall be declared, in the 
meane time, look on the following Meeters concerning 
that Souldier of Christ Master Nathaniel Ward. 


Thou ancient Sage, come Ward among 
Christa *folfe, take part in this great worke of hi-, 

Why do'st thou stand and gaze about so long ; 
Do'st war in jest, why, Christ in earnest is, 
And hath thee arui'd with Weapons lor that end, 

To wound and hralu his enemies submitting, 

Not carnally, then to this worke attend; 

Thou hast prevail'd the hearts of many hitting. 
Although the Presbytery unpleasant jar, 

And errors daily in their braines new coync : 
Despayer not, Christs truth they shall not mar; 

Hut with his helpe such drosse from Gold refine. 
What Man do'st meane to lay thy Trumpet downer 

Because thy son like Warrier is become, 
Hold out or sure lesse bright will he thy crowne ; 

Till death Christs servants labour is not done. 

At this time came over the much honoured Mr. Rich- 
ard Bellingham, whose Estate and person did much fur- 
ther the civill Government of this wandering people, hee 
being learned in the Lawes of England, and experiment- 
ally fitted for the worke, of whom I am bold to say as 
followeth : 

Richardus now, arise must thou, Christ fseed hath thee to plead, 
His peoples cause, with equall Laws, in wildernesse them lead ; 

Though slow of speech, thy counsell reach, shall each occation well, 
Sure thy sterne looke it cannot brooke those wickedly rebell, 

With labours might thy pen indite doth Lawes for peoples learning : 
That judge with skill, and not with will, unarbitrate discerning; 
ellingham thou, on valiant now, stop not in discontent, 
For Christ with crown, will thee renown, then spend for him, be 
spent ; 

As thou hast done, thy race still run till death, no death shall stay, 
Christs work of might, till Scripture light, bring Resurection day. 

As also about this time for further incouragement in 
this work of Christ, hee sent over the Reverend servant 
of his Mr. Lothrop to helpe on with the planting of Plim- 
oth, which increased but little all this time, although shee 
be the elder sister of all the united Colonies ; Some rea- 
sons in due place may be rendered. This Reverend 
Minister was soone called to Office by the Church of 
Christ at Scicuate. 

* folk ? t feed ? 



chap. xxxi. Of the Church of Christ, gathered at Newberry. 

In the latter end of this yeare, two sincere servants of 
Christ, inabled by him with gifts to declare his minde 
unto his people, came over this broad Ocean, and began 
to build the Tenth Church of Christ at a Towne called 
Newberry, their names being Mr. James *Noise, and Mr. 
Thomas Parker, somewhat differing from all the former, 
and after mentioned Churches in the preheminence of 
their Presbytery, and it were to be wished that all persons, 
who have had any hand in those hot contentions, which 
have fallen out since about Presbyterian and Independent 
Government in Churches, would have looked on this 
Example, comparing it with the Word of God, and as- 
suredly it would have stayed (all the godly at lest) of 
either part from such unworthy expressions as have pass- 
ed to the grief of many of Gods people ; And I doubt 
not but this History will take of that unjust accusation, 
and slanderous imputation of the rise of that floud of er- 
rors and false Doctrines sprung up of late, as flowing 
from the Independent or rather congregationall Churches. 
But to follow on, this Town is scituate about twelve 
miles from Ipswitch,neere upon the wide venting streames 
of Merrimeck River, whose strong current is such, that 
it hath forced its passage through the mighty Rocks, 
which causeth some sudden falls, and hinders Shipping 
from having any accesse far into the Land, her bankes 
are in many places stored with Oken Timber of all sorts, 
of which, that which they commonly call'd white Oke, 
is not inferiour to our English Timber ; in this 
River lie some few Islands of fertill Land, this Towne is 
stored with Meddow and upland, which hath caused some 
Gentlemen, (who brought over good Estates, and finding 
then no better way to improve them) to set upon hus- 
bandry, amongst whom that Religious and sincere heart- 
ed servant of Christ Mr. Richard Dummer, sometime a 
Magistrate in this little Common-wealth, hath holpen on 
this Town, their houses are built very scattering, which 
hath caused some contending about removall of their 
place for Sabbath-Assemblies, their Cattell are about foure 

* Noyes. 


hundred head, with store of Corne-land in tillage, it con- 
sists of about seventy families, the soules in Church fel- 
lowship are about an hundred, the teaching Elders oi tin- 
Congregation have carried it very lovingly toward their 
people, permitting of them to assist in admitting of pur- 
sons into Church-society, and in Church-censures, so 
long as they Act regularly, but in case of their male-ad- 
ministration, they assume the power wholly to them- 
selves, their godly life and conversation hath hitherto been 
very amiable, and their paines and care over their ilock 
not inferiour to many others, and being bound together 
in a more stricter band oflove then ordinary with prom- 
ise to spend their dayes together (if the Lord please) and 
therefore shall not be disunited in the following Verse : 

Loe here Loves twinnes by Christ are sent to Preach 

In wildcrncsse his little flock among, 
Though Christs Church-way you fully cannot reach ; 

So far hold fast as you in's word are strong. 
Parker thy paines with Pen, and Preaching hath 

lloomcs buildings left in Prelacy cast downe, 
Though 'gainst her thou defer Gods finall wrath : 

Keepe warring still, and sure thou shalt have crowne. 
Thy Brother thou oh Noise hast holpe to gvidc : 

Christ tender Lambs within his fold to gather, 
From East to West thou dost Christs Warrier bide; 

Faint not at last, increase thy fighting rather. 

chap. xxxn. Of good supply, and seasonable helpes the Lord 
Christ was pleased to send to further his Wildemesse worke, and 
particular for his Churches of Charles Towne, and Tpswich, and 

Yet farther for the incouragement of the people of 
Christ in these their weak beginnings, he daily brings 
them in fresh supplies, adding this yeare also the rever- 
end and painfull Minister of his Gospell Mr. Zachary 
* Simmes, who was invited soone after his comming over 
to assist in planting of another Church of Christ, but the 
place being remote from the pretious servants of Christ 
already settled, he chose rather to joyne with some Church 
among them, and in a short space after hee was called to 

# Symmes. 


the Office of a Teaching Elder in the Church of Christ 
at Charles Towne, together with Mr. James, who was 
then their Pastor, as you have formerly heard. Among 
all the godly Women that came through the perilous 
Seas to war their warfare, the wife of this zealous Teach- 
er, Mrs. Sarah Simmes shall not be ommitted, nor any 
other, but to avoid tediousnesse, the vertuous Woman, 
indued by Christ with graces fit for a Wildernesse con- 
dition, her courage exceeding her stature, with much 
cheerfulnesse did undergoe all the difficulties of these 
times of straites, her God through Faith in Christ sup- 
plying all her wants with great industry, nurturing up 
her young Children in the feare of the Lord, their num- 
ber being ten both Sons and Daughters, a certaine signe 
of the Lord's intent to people this vast Wildernesse : 
God grant they may be valiant in Faith against Sin, Sa- 
tan and all the enemies of Christs Kingdome, following 
the example of their Father, and Grandfather, who have 
both suffered for the same, in remembrance of whom 
these following lines are placed. 

Come Zachary, thou must reedifie, 
Christ Churches in this Desart Land of his, 

With Moses zeale stampt unto dust defie 
All crooked wayes that Christ true worship misse. 

With spirits sword and armor girt about: 
Thou lay'st on load proud Prelats crowne to crack, 

And wilt not suffer Wolfes thy flock to rout ; 
Though close they creepe, with sheepe skins on their back- 

Thy Fathers spirit doubled is upon 
Thee Simmes, then war, thy Father fighting died, 

In prayer then prove thou like Champion ; 
Hold out till death, and Christ will crown provide. 

After these poore people had welcomed with great 
joy their newcome Guests, all of a sudden they spy two 
tall Ships, whose colours shewed them to be some for- 
rein Nation, at which time this little handfull of people 
began to be much troubled, deeming them to be Rovers, 
they gathered together such forces as their present con- 
dition would afford, verv ill-fitted as then to * rescue an 
enemy, but their Lord and Master Christ Jesus would 


not suffer any such to come, and instead of enemiee 
brought in friends, even Dutchmen to Furnish them with 
farther necessary Provision. 

For the year 1635, the honoured Mr. lolm "Haines 
was chosen Governour, and the honoured Mr. Richard 
Bellingham Deputy Governour, the number of Free-men 
added to this little Common-wealth, were about one hun- 
dred forty and live. The time now approaching, where- 
in the Lord Christ would have his people come from the 
Flaile to the Fan, threshing out much this yeare, increas- 
ing the number of his Troopes, and valiant Leaders, the 
Ships came thicker and faster filled with many wor- 
thy personages ; Insomuch that the former people began 
to forget their Poverty, and verily f Cold, Purity, Peace 
and Plenty run all in one channell, Gods people here 
should sure have met with none other, but the still waters 
of Peace and Plenty for back and belly sone contract 
much mudde, as you shall hear (God willing) in the fol- 
lowing History : this yeare came in the honoured Sir 
Henry JYaine, who aboad not long in this worthy worke, 
yet mind him I will in the following Lines. 

Sir Henry { Vainc once Governour of the English People in New 


Thy Parents tVaine, of worthy fame, in Christ and thou for him; 

Through Ocean wide in new World trid a while his warrier bin. 
With small defeat thou didst retreat to Brittaine ground againe, 

There stand thou stout, for Christ hold out, Christs Champion ay 

Also at this time Christ sent over the much honoured 
and upright hearted servant of his Richard ^Saltingstall 
Esquire, Son to the before-named Sir Richard ^Salting- 
stall, who being weary of this Wildernesse worke, re- 
turned home again not long before, and now his Son be- 
ino; chose to the Office of a Magistrate, continued for 
some good space of time, helping on the affaires of this 
little Common wealth, to the honour of Christ, who hath 
called him : both Father and Son are here remembred. 

* Haynes. I Gold ? X Vane. § Saltonstall. 


Thou worthy Knight, Saltingstall hight, * her's gaine doth gold exceed 

Then trifle not, its to be got, if thou can'st see thy neede. 
Why wilt thou back, and leave as wreck, this worthy wjorke begun. 

Art thou back-bore, Christ will send more, and raise instead thy son. 
His Fathers gon, young Hichard on here valiantly doth War, 

For Christ his truth, to their great Ruth, Heathens opposers are : 
To study thou, thy mind dost bow, and daily good promote, 

Saltingstall why, then dost thou fly, let all Gods people note. 
That thou wilt stand, in thy own Land, Christ there then strengthen thee 

With grace thee heate, that thy retreate, may for his glory be : 
At ending day, he thee array, with Glory will not faile, 

Breaking graves bands, with his strong hands, and free dust from 
death's fgoale. 

Among these Troopesof Christs Souldiers, came at this 
time, the godly servant of Christ Mr. Roger Harlacken- 
den, a young Gentleman valiant in Faith, and appointed 
by Christ to assist his people in thisDesart, he was chose 
to the Office of a Magistrate, as also to be a choise Lead- 
er of their Military Forces, which as yet were but in a 
strange posture ; And therefore till the yeare 1644, (at 
which time the Countrey was really placed in a posture 
of War, to be in a readinesse at all times) there shall not 
be any thing spoken concerning their Military Discipline, 
the continuance of this Souldier of Christ was but short, 
the Lord taking him to rest with himselfe. 

Harlackenden, among these men of note Christ hath thee seated : 
Tn warlike way Christ thee army, with zeal and love well heated. 

As generall belov'd of all, Christ Souldiers honour thee : 

In thy young yeares, courage appeares, and kinde benignity. 

Short are thy days, spent to his praise, whose Church work thou must 
His work shall bide, silver tride, but thine by death is staid. 

The number of Ministers that came over this yeare 
was about eleaven, and many other like faithfull servants 
of Christ, among whom arrived those two Reverend and 
laborious servants of his Mr. Norton, and Mr. Shepheard, 
of whose narrow escape you have heard the last yeare : 
Mr. Norton, was called to the Office of a Teaching El- 
der at the Towne of Ipswich to the Church of Christ 
there, where Mr. Warde as yet remained in Office. Also 

* here's ? t gaol ? 


the learned labours of this Souldier of Christ are obvious 
to our Countreymen, hee Preaching there the blessing 
of God hath not onely built up many in the Knowledge 
of Christ, but also been the ineanes of converting dit erse 

soules, turning them from the power of Satan to Faith in 
Christ, whom the Lord long continue ; yon shall further 
hear of Christs gratious assisting of him in the first and 
last Synod holden here at Cambridge, and in the meane 
time let no man be oilended that the Author quickens iij> 
his own dull affections, in telling how largely the Lord 
hath bestowed his Graces upon these Instruments of his, 
although sinfull dust and ashes. 

Thou Noble Norton, who art honoured by 

Thy Christ, with learned Arguments dotli fill 
Thy mouth with might new errors to destroy; 

And force deceivers silently to yield. 
Weake dust waite on thy Christ for further strength ; 

Who doth his Davids make as Angels bright, 
To trample down his enemies at length ; 

All breake or bow unto his kinadomes micrht. 
Illettered Men and Women that doe love, 

Preheminence, condemne thy learned skill, 
But Christ hath given his blessing from above 

Unto thy workes the World with light to fill. 
Christs faithfull servants met in Synod, take 

Thee for their Pen-men Scriptures light to cleere, 
With Scripture shew what Government Christ gave ; 

To's Churches till himselfe againe appeare. 

Here my indeared Reader, I must mind thee of the in- 
dustrious servant of Christ Mr. John Wilson, who this 
yeare landed the third time upon this American shore 
from his Native Country, where now againe by the Di- 
vine Providence of Christ, hee narrowly escaped the 
Hunters hands, being cloathed in a Country-mans habit, 
passing from place to place, declared to the people of 
God what great Workes Christ had already done for his 
peopfe' in New England, which made many Christian 
soules long to see these admirable Acts of Christ, al- 
though it were not to be injoyed, but by passing through 
an Ocean of troubles, Voyaging night and day upon the 


great deep, which this zealous servant of Christ had now 
five times passed over : at this time came over the Sage, 
grave, reverend and faithful! servant of Christ M. Rich- 
ard Mather, indued by the Lord with many Heavenly 
gifts, of a plaine and upright spirit, apt to teach, full of 
gratious expressions, and Resolvedly bent to follow the 
truth, as it is in Jesus, hee was anon after his comming 
called to Office in the Church of Christ at the Towne of 
Dorchester, to assist in the Worke of the Lord, with 
Mr. *Marareck, whose worke not long after was ended by 
death, leaving Mr. Mather alone to continue the same. 

With cheerfull face Mather doth toile indure 

In wildernesse, spending the prime of 's age, 
To build Christs Churches, and soules health procure ; 

In battell thou dost deepe thy selfe ingage. 
Marvell not Man that Mather through an host 

Of enemies doth breake, and fighting stands, 
It's Christ him keepes, of him is all his boast ; 

Who power gives to do, and then commands. 
With gratious speech thy Masters Message thou 

Declarest to all, and all wouldst have submit, 
That to his Kingdome every knee might bow ; 

But those resist his sword shall surely hit, 
Till age doth crown thy head with hoary hairs : 

Well hast thou warr'd, till Mathers young againe, 
Thy son in fight his Fathers strength repairs ; 

Father and Son beate down Christs foes amaine. 

chap, xxxtii. — Of the beginning of the Churches of Christ, to be 

DO ' 

planted at f Canectico, and first of the Church of Christ removal! 
to Hartford, 1635. 

This yeare the servants of Christ, who peopled the 
Towne of Cambridge, were put upon thoughts of remov- 
ing, hearing of a very fertill place upon the River of f Ca- 
nectico low Land, and well stored with Meddow, w T hich 
is greatly in esteeme with the people of New England, 
by reason the Winters are very long. . This people see- 
ing that Tillage went but little on, Resolved to remove, 
and breed up store of Cattell, which were then at eight 
and twenty pound a Cow, or neare upon, but assuredly 
the Lord intended far greater matters than man purposes, 

* Maverick. t Connecticut. 


but God disposes these men, having their hearts gone 

from the Lord, on which they were seated, soone took 
dislike at every little matter, the Plowable plaines were 
too dry and sandy lor them, and the Rocky places, al- 
though more fruitfull, yet to eate their bread with toile of 

hand, and how they deemed it unsu ppor table ; Am! 
therefore they onelv waited now for a people of stronger 

Faith than themselves were to purchase their 1 louses and 
Land, which in conceipt they could no longer live upon, 
and accordingly they met with Chapmen, a people new 
come, who having bought their possessions, they highed 
them away to their new Plantation. With whom went 
the Grave and Reverend servant of Christ Mr. Hooker, 
and Mr. Stone, for indeed the whole Church removed, 
as also the much honoured Mr. Hayncs and divers other 
men of note for the place, being out of the Mattacusets 
Patten ; they erected another Government, called by the 
Indian name, Canectico, being farther incouraged by two 
honourable personages, the Lord Say, and Lord*Brookes, 
who built a Forest at the mouth of the River, and called 
it Say-brook Forrest : passing up the River they began 
to build a Towne, which they called Hartford, where 
this Church of Christ sat down their station, there went 
to these parts also the Reverend Mr. Wareham, and di- 
vers from the Towne of Dorchester. The place of set- 
ling themselves, and erecting a Towne was far upon the 
River, the part next the Sea being very Rocky, but on 
the banke of this River they planted the good Towne of 
Hartford, and established civill Government: of their 
gathering into a Church, you have formerly heard. 
Onely here mind the gratious servant of Christ, Mr. 
Wareham, whose long labours in this w r orke are cxprest. 

With length of dayes Christ crowned hath thy head. 

In Wildernesse to mannage his great War, 
'Gainst Antichrist by strength of him art lead ; 

With steady hand to sling thy stone from far. 
Thnt groveling in his gore may lie smit downe 

This mighty Monster, that the Earth hath taken, 
With's poysons sweet in cup of Gold drunke down ; 

Dead drunke those lie whom Christ doth not awaken. 

* Brooke. 


But Wareham thou by him art sent to save, 

With's word of truth Christ to their soules apply, 

That deadly sin hath laid in rotting Grave 
Dead, live in Christ here, and Eternally. 

chap, xxxiv. Of Cambridge second church, being the 11. of Christ 
gathered in the Mattacusets, and of further supply for Salem 

These people and Church of Christ being thus de-' 
parted from New-Towne, the godly people, who came 
in their roomes, gathered the eleaventh Church of Christ, 
and called to the Office of a Pastor, that gratious sweete 
Heavenly minded and soule-ravishing Minister, Mr. 
Thomas Shepheard, in whose soule the Lord shed 
abroad his love so abundantly, that thousands of souls 
have cause to blesse God for him, even at this very day, 
who are the Seale of his Ministrey, and hee a man of a 
thousand, indued with abundance of true saving knowl- 
edge for himselfe and others, yet his natural! Parts were 
weake, but spent to the full as folio weth : 

No hungry Havvke poore Patridge to devoure 

More eager is, then Prelates Nimrod power 
Thomas to hunt, my Shephard sweet pursue 

To seas brinke, but Christ saves his soule for you ; 
Sending thee Shepheard, safe through Seas awaie, 

To feede his flock unto thy ending day, 
Where sheepe seek wolves) thy bosome lambs would catch ; 

But night and day thou ceasest not to watch 
And warne with teares thy flock of cheaters vile, 

Who in sheepes cloathing would the weak beguile, 
With dropping dewes from thy lips Christ hath made 

Thy hearers eyes oft water springing blade. 
With pierced hearts they cry aloud and say, 

Shew us sweet Shepheard our salvations way, 
Thy lovely speech such ravishment doth bring ; 

Christ gives thee power to heale as well as sting. 
Thou gates sets ope for Christ thy King to enter, 

In hearts of many spirits joy to center, 
But mourne my Muse, hang downe thy head with woe, 

With teares, sighs, sobs lament thy Shepheard so. 
(Why?) hee's in Heaven, but I one Earth am left: 

More Earthly, 'cause of him I am bereft. 
Oh Christ, why dost thou Shepheard take away, 

In erring times when sheepe most apt to stray. 

1635.] OF SIONS SAVIOUR, IN NKW IM.I \M). 158 

The many Bouldiera and Officers of Christ thai came 
over this ycare, moved some wonder in the mindes of 

those, whom lie had bcene pleased to give a great measure 
of discerning y C t here they fell abundantly short, deem- 
ing almost an impossibility of improving their Talents in 
this Wilder nesse, the Indian-people being uncapable of 
understanding their Language, the English congregations 
that were already set downe, being fully furnished with 
Teaching Elders, and that which was most strange they 
were perswaded they should meet with no enemies to 
oppose them, as if Christ would lead them forth into the 
Field in vaine. But Christ lesus, having the hearts of 
all Men opened before him, soon shewed them, their 
worke, and withall made roome for them to set downe, 
* I and many more beside, yea, and beyond expectation 
made this poore barren Wildernesse become a fruitful! 
Land unto them that waited on him for the accomplish- 
ing thereof, feeding them with the flower of Wheat, as 
in its time and place (God willing) shall be shewed, al- 
though it pleased him this yeare to visit them, and try 
them againe with a great scarcity of Bread, by reason of 
the multitude that came brought somewhat shorter Pro- 
visions then ordinary, which caused them to be in some 
straites. But their Lord Christ gives out a Word of 
command to those, who occupy their businesse in the 
great decpe, to furnish from Ireland some Ships laden 
with food for his people. 

Also hee commands the Winds and the Seas to beare 
up these Ships, and blow them forth on their way, till 
they arrive among his people in New England, whose 
appetites were now sharpeset for Bread. One poore 
man anions others deeming hee had found out some for- 
saken Barnes of the Indians (whose manner is to lay up 
their Corne in the Earth, lighted one a grave, where 
finding bones of the dead instead of Corne, hee was taken 
with feare of this, as a sad omen that hee should then die 
for want of food, but in this hee proved no true Prophet, 
for the Lord was pleased to bring in seasonable supply, 
and the man is living at this very day. This ycere came 
over the Famous servant of Christ M. Hugh Peters, 



whose courage was not inferiour to any of these trans- 
ported servants of Christ, but because his native Soile 
hath had the greatest share of his labours, the lesse will 
be said of him here, hee was called to Office by the 
Church of Christ, at Salem, their former Pastor, the 
Reverend M. Higgingson, having ended his labours rest- 
ing with the Lord. 

With courage bold Peters a Souldier stout 

In Wildernesse for Christ begins to war, 
Much worke he finds 'mongst people, yet hold out; 

With fluent tongue he stops phantastick jar. 
Swift Torrent stayes of liberties large vent : 

Through crooked wayes of error daily flowing, 
Shiloes soft streames to bath in would all bent ; 

Should he while they in Christian freedome growing, 
But back thou must, thy Talents Christs will have 

Improved for him, his glory is thy crowne, 
And thou base dust till he thee honour gave; 

It matters not though the world on thee do frowne. 

chap. xxxv. Of the Twelfth Church of Christ gathered at Concord. 

Yet further at this time entered the Field two more 
valiant Leaders of Christs Souldiers, holy men of God, 
Mr. * Buddy and M. Jones, penetrating further into this 
Wildernesse then any formerly had done, with divers 
others servants of Christ : they built an Inland Towne, 
which they called Concord, named from the occasion of 
the present time, as you shall after heare : this Towne is 
seated upon a faire fresh River, whose Rivulets are filled 
with fresh Marsh, and her streames with Fish, it being a 
branch of that large River of Merrimeck Allwifes, and 
Shad in their season come up to this Towne, but Salmon 
and Daice cannot come up, by reason of the Rocky falles, 
which causeth their Meddowes to lie much covered with 
water, the which these people together with their Neigh- 
bour Towne, have severall times assayed to cut through 
but cannot, yet it may be turned another way with an 
hundred pound charge as it appeared, this Towne was 
more populated once then now it is (some faint-hearted 
Souldiers among them fearing the Land would prove 

* Buckley. 


barren, sold their possessions for little, and removed to a 
new Plantation, (which have most commonly a great 
prize set on them) the number of Families ;it proem are 
about 50. their buildings are conveniently placed chiefly 
in one straite *strearne under a sunny-banke in a low lei 
ell, their heard of great Cattell are about 300. the ( hurch 
of Christ here consists of about seventy soules, 
their teaching Elders were Mr. Buckly, and ( 1 ,' ( 
Mr. Jones, who removed from them with that 
part of the people, who went away, so that onelv the 
reverend grave and godly Mr. Buckly remaines. 

Riches and honours Buckly laves aside 

To please his Christ, for whom lie now doth war, 
Why Buckly tlion hast Riches that will hide, 

And honours that exceeds Earths honour far. 
Thy bodies worne, and dayes in Desert spent, 

To feede a \ew of Christs poore scattered shcepe, 
Like Christ's bright body, thy poore bod} rent; 

With Saints and Angells company shall keepe. 
Thy Tongue, and Pen doth to the World declare : 

Christs covenant with his dock shall firmly stand, 
When Heavens and Earth by him dissolved are; 

Then who can hold from this his worke at hand. 
Two Bucklies more Christ by his grace hath taken, 

And sent abroad to manage his great wars. 
I'ts Bucklies joy that Christ his sons new making, 

Hath tplacest in's churches for to shine as Stars. 

This holy and sincere servant of Christ was put upon 
the greater tryall, by reason he and his were tenderly 
brought up, and now by the provident hand of Christ 
were carried far into this desart-land, where they met 
with some hardships for a long time, till the place was 
well peopled, they lived barely. 

chat, zxxvi. Of the laborious worke Christs people have in plant- 
ing this wildernesse set, forth in the building the Towne of Con- 
cord, being the first in land Towne. 

Now because it is one of the admirable acts of Christ 
Providence in leading his people forth into these West- 
erne Fields, in his providing of Huts for them, to defend 

* street? t placed? 


them from the bitter stormes this place is subject unto, 
therefore here is a short Epitome of the manner how 
they placed downe their dwellings in this Desart Wilder- 
nesse, the Lord being pleased to hide from the Eyes of 
his people the difficulties they are to encounter withall in 
a new Plantation, that they might not thereby be hinder- 
ed from taking the worke in hand ; upon some inquiry of 
the Indians, who lived to the North-west of the Bay, one 
Captaine Simon Willard being acquainted with them, by 
reason of his Trade, became a chiefe instrument in erect- 
ing this Town, the land they purchase of the Indians, 
and with much difficulties traveling through unknowne 
woods, and through watery * scrampes, they discover the 
fitnesse of the place, sometimes passing through the 
Thickets, where their hands are forced to make way for 
their bodies passage, and their feete clambering over the 
crossed Trees, which when they missed they sunke into 
an uncertaine bottome in water, and wade up to the 
knees, tumbling sometimes higher and sometimes lower, 
wearied with this toile, they at end of this meete with 
a scorching plaine, yet not so plaine, but that the ragged 
Bushes scratch their legs fouly, even to wearing their 
stockings to their bare skin in two or three houres; if 
they be not otherwise well defended with Bootes, or 
Buskings, their flesh will be torne : (that some being 
forced to passe on without further provision) have had 
the bloud trickle downe at every step, and in the time of 
Summer the Sun casts such a reflecting heate from the 
sweet Feme, whose scent is very strong, so that some 
herewith have beene very nere fainting, although very 
able bodies to undergoe much travell, and this not to be 
indured for one day, but for many, and verily did not the 
Lord incourage their natural! parts (with hopes of a new 
and strange discovery, expecting every houre to see some 
rare sight never seene before) they were never able to 
hold out, and breake through : but above all, the thirst- 
ing desires these servants of Christ have had to Plant his 
Churches, among whom the forenamed Mr. Jones shall 
not be forgotten. 


In Desarts depth where Wolvea and Beares abide, 
There Jones sits down a wary watch to k< i p< 

O're Christs deare flock, who now arc u.-mdcrcd wid< ; 
But not from him, whose eyes ne're close with sleepe. 

Surely it sutea thy melancholly minde, 
Thus solitary for to spend thy dayea, 

Much more thy SOule in Christ content doth 1'iiidt , 

To worke for him, who thee to joy will raise. 

Lending thy son to Land, yet more remote. 

To feede his dock upon this Westerne wast : 

Exhort him then Christs Kingdome to promote: 


That he with thee of lasting joyes may tast. 

Yet farther to tell of the hard labours this people found 
in Planting this Wildernesse, after some dayes spent in 
search, toy ling in the clay time as formerly is said ; like 
true Jacob, its they rest them one the Rocks where the 
night takes them, their short repast is some small pittance 
of Bread, if it hold out, but as for Drinke they have 
plenty, the Countrey being well watered m all places that 
yet are found out, their farther hardship is to travell, 
sometimes they know not whether, bewildred indeed 
without sight of Sun, their com passe miscarrying in 
crouding through the Bushes, they sadly search up and 
down for a known way, the Indians paths being not 
above one foot broad, so that a man may travell many 
dayes and never find one. But to be sure the directing 
Providence of Christ hath beene better unto them than 
many paths, as might here be inserted, did not hast call 
my Pen away to more waighty matters ; yet by the way 
a touch thus, it befell with a servant maide, who was 
travelling about three or foure miles from one Towne to 
another, loosing her selfe in the Woods, had very dili- 
gent search made after her for the space of three dayes, 
and could not possible be found, then being given over 
as quite lost, after three dayes and nights, the Lord w as 
pleased to bring her feeble body to her own home in safe- 
ty, to the great admiration of all who heard of it. This 
intricate worke no whit daunted these resolved servants 
of Christ to goe on with the worke in hand, but lying in 
the open aire, while the watery Clouds poure down all 
the night season, and sometimes the driving Snow dis- 


solving on their backs, they keep their wet cloathes warme 
with a continued fire, till the renewed morning give fresh 
opportunity of further travell ; after they have thus found 
out a place of aboad, they burrow themselves in the 
Earth for their first shelter under some Hill-side, casting 
the Earth aloft upon Timber ; they make a smoaky fire 
against the Earth at the highest side, and thus these poore 
servants of Christ provide shelter for themselves, their 
Wives and little ones, keeping off the short showers 
from their Lodgings, but the long raines penetrate through, 
to their great disturbance in the night season ; yet in 
these poore Wigwames (they sing Psaimes, pray and 
praise their God) till they can provide them houses, 
which ordinarily was not wont to be with many till the 
Earth, by the Lords blessing, brought forth Bread to feed 
them, their Wives and little ones, which with sore la- 
bours they attaine every one that can lift a *hawe to strike 
it into the Earth, standing stoutly to their labours, and 
teare up the Rootes and Bushes, which the first yeare 
beares them a very thin crop, till the soard of the Earth 
be rotten, and therefore they have been forced to cut 
their bread very thin for a long season. But the Lord is 
pleased to provide for them great store of Fish in the 
spring time, and especially Alewives about the bignesse 
of a Herring, many thousands of these, they used to put 
under their Indian Corne, which they plant in Hills five 
foote asunder, and assuredly when the Lord created this 
Corne, hee had a speciall eye to supply these his peoples 
wants with it, for ordinarily five or six graines doth pro- 
duce six hundred. 

As for flesh they looked not for any in those times (al- 
though now they have plenty) unlesse they could barter 
with the Indians for Venison or Rockoons, whose flesh is 
not much inferiour unto Lambe, the toile of a new Plan- 
tation being like the labours of Hercules never at an end, 
yet are none so barbarously bent (under the Mattacusets 
especially) but with a new Plantation they ordinarily 
gather into Church-fellowship, so that Pastors and peo- 
ple suffer the inconveniences together, which is a great 
meanes to season the sore labours they undergoe, and 

* hoe? 


verily the edge of their appetite was greater to spiritual] 
duties at their first comming in time of wants, than after- 
ward: many in new Plantations have been forced to u<> 
barefoot, and barcleg, till these latter dayes, and some in 
time of Frost and Snow : Vet were they then very heal- 
thy more then now they are : in this Wildernesse-worke 
men of Estates speed no better than others, and some 
much worse for want of being inured to such hard la- 
bour, having laid out their estate upon cattell at five and 
twenty pound a Cow, when they came to winter them 
with in-land Hay, and feed upon such wild I other as was 
never cut before, they could not hold out the Winter, but 
ordinarily the first or second yeare after their coming up 
to a new Plantation, many of their Cattell died, especially 
if they wanted Salt-marshes: and also those, who sup- 
posed they should feed upon Swincs flesh were cut short, 
the Wolves commonly feasting themselves before them, 
who never leave neither flesh nor bones, if they be not 
scared away before they have made an end of their meale, 
as for those who laid out their Estate upon Shecpc, they 
speed worst of any at the beginning (although some have 
sped the best of any now) for untill the Land be often fed 
with other Cattell Sheepe cannot live ; And therefore 
they never thrived till these latter dayes : Horse had then 
no better successe, w 7 hich made many an honest Gentle- 
man travell a foot for a long time, and some have even 
perished with extreme heate in their travells : as also the 
want of English graine, Wheate, Barly and Rie proved a 
sore affliction to some stomacks, who could not live up- 
on Indian Bread and water, yet were they compelled to it 
till Cattell increased, and the Plow r es could but goe ; in- 
stead of Apples and Peares, they had Pomkins and 
Squashes of divers kinds, their lonesome condition was 
very grievous to some, which was much aggravated by 
continuall feare of the Indians approach, whose cruelties 
were much spoken of, and more especially during the 
time of the Pequot w r ars. 

Thus this poore people populate this howling Dcsart, 
marching manfully on (the Lord assisting) through the 


greatest difficulties, and sorest labours that ever any with 
such weak means have done. 

chap, xxxvii. Of the Thirteenth Church of Christ gathered at 
Hingham, 1636. 

At this time also came to shore the servant of Christ 
Master Peter *Hubbord, whom the Lord was pleased to 
make use of for feeding his people in this Wildernesse, 
being called to Office by the Church of Christ at the 
Town of Hingham, which is scituate upon the Sea coasts 
South-east of Charles River, being a place nothing infe- 
riour to their Neighbours for scituation, and the people 
have much profited themselves by transporting Timber, 
Planke and Mast for Shipping to the Town of Boston, 
as also Ceder and Pine-board to supply the wants of oth- 
er Townes, and also to remote parts, even as far as Bar- 
badoes. They want not for Fish for themselves and oth- 
ers also. 

This Towne consisted of about sixty Families, the 
forme is somewhat intricate to describe, by reason of the 
Seas wasting crookes, where it beates upon a mouldering 
shore, yet have they compleat streetes in some places, 
the people joyned in Church covenant in this place, were 
much about an hundred soules, but have been lessened 
by a sad unbrotherly contention, which fell out among 
them, wasting them every way, continued already for 
seven yeares space, to the great griefe of all other 
Churches, who held out the right hand of fellowship un- 
to them in Brotherly communion, which may (the Lord 
helping) demonstrate to all the true Churches of Christ 
the World throughout, although they be distanced by 
place or Nation, yet ought they never to take up such an 
Independent way, as to reject the advise andcounsell of 
each other, for although the Lord Christ have com pleat- 
ed his commission in giving full power to every particu- 
lar Church to exercise all his Ordinances in and toward 
their owne body, yet hath the Lord so dispensed his gifts, 
that when the one want, the other shall abound both in 
spirituall and temporal!, that by giving and receiving 

* Hubbard. 


mutuall love may be maintained, the intire truthes of 

Christ continued, the Churches of Christ supported, su- 
periority of any may be avoided, and all such as raise 
discord among Brethren may be retarded, the downfall 
of Antichrist, and restoration of that antient people of 
the Lord furthered, through the Unity of Christs (hurdl- 
es the World throughout : this Church I hope will give 
signall to others (the Lord assisting) that they split not 
upon the Rock. Of their Pastors 1 shall say no more, 
but this at present. 

Oh Hubbard ! why do'st leave thy native soile ? 

Is't not to war 'mongst ChrisVs true worthies here, 
What wilt give out, thou'It Jose thy former toyle ? 

And starve Christs flock, which he hath purchast deare. 
What would'st thou have, speake plaine, truth bides the light: 

To Gods word goe, it's that must triall be, 
Hath cruell sword, not het one thy side right, 

Increase in love, and thou wilt Justice see. 
With humble, holy, learned men converse, 

Thee and thy flock they would in one unite, 
And all the fogs of selfe conceit disperse; 

Thee and thy sons the Lord Christ guide aright. 

Some other of the Ministers of Christ arrived this 
yeare 1635. As Mr. Flint, Mr. Carter, and Mr. Walton 
and some others, of whom we shall speake (by the Lord 
assistance) in due time and place, in the meane time here 
is to be remembered Mr. Thomas Flint a sincere servant 
of Christ, who had a faire yearly Revenue in England, 
but having improved it for Christ, by casting it in the 
common Treasury, as it appears in the former part of 
this History, he wakes on the Lord for doubling his Tal- 
ent, if it shall seeme good unto him so to doe, and the 
meane time spending his person for the good of his peo- 
ple in the Office of a Magistrate. 

At Christs commands, thou leav'st thy lands, and native habitation : 

His folke to aid, in Desart straid, for Gospells Exaltation, 
Flint Hardy thou, wilt not allow, the undermining Fox, 

With subtill skill, Christs vines to spill, thy sword shall give them 
Yet thou base dust, and all thou hast is Christ's, and by him thou : 
Art made to be, such as we see, hold fast for ever now. 
[To be continued.] 


Notes on Plymouth, Massachusetts. 

They sounded the harbour, and found it fit for shipping — 
and little running brooks ; a place, as they supposed, fit for 

shipping." — Morton. 

1640. Bounds. X HE original bounds of Plymouth 
were fixed by the Colony Court in the year 1640 ; * and 
are thus described : 

" It is enacted and concluded by the Court, that 
" the bounds of Plymouth township shall extend south- 
" ward to the bounds of Sandwich township ; and north- 
" ward to a little brook, running from Stephen Tracy's 
" to another little brook falling into Blackwater ; from 
" the Commons left to Duxbury, and the neighbourhood 
" thereabout ; and westward eight miles up into the land, 
" from any part of the bay or sea : Always provided that 
" the bounds shall extend so far up into the wood lands, 
" as to include the South Meadows towards Agawam, 
" lately discovered, and the convenient uplands there- 
" about." 

These boundaries were extensive, comprising what 
have successively become Plympton, Kingston, and 
Wareham, with Carver, taken from Plympton, and a 
part of Halifax, also taken from Plympton. 

Previous to this period (1638) "the Court granted 
" that Clark's Island, the Eel River Beach, Sagaquash, 
" and the Gournette Nose shall be and remain unto the 
" town of Plymouth with the woods thereupon." 

Situations where cattle could be kept in winter indu- 
ced the earliest locations ; hence we find settlements 
very early at Jones River and Eel River ; even Green's 
Harbour seems at this period an appendage to Plymouth. 
The residue of the limits just described was indeed " an 
howling wilderness ; " for twenty years had now elapsed, 
and the South Meadows, seven miles from town, were, 
as we have seen, a new discovery. 

* The bounds of Duxbury and Marshfield, though "allowed" as townships 
in 1637, were also fixed in 1640. 


Self perservatioD however, ;it this period, dictated the 
policy which forbade the " erection of cottages remote 

from prompt protection ; " and we find the principal set- 
tlers of the suburbs of Duxbury, &c» town dwellers in 

winter, in order, as the records express, that "they the 
better repair to the worship of God." 
A reference to the Massachusetts Register will readily 

shew the reader the date of the several incorporations ta- 
ken from Plymouth, in the order we have named them 
ibove. We shall only add, that Plympton is the Wena- 
jukset river of the natives, and the Colchester Brook of 
the first planters, and sometimes the Turkey Swamp. It 
s the height of land in this vicinity, as the waters of its 
streams find the sea at Narraganset Bay : we have also 
loticed the Bine Hills in Milton from certain parts of 
;he road in this town. Its growth of wood indicates a 
^ood soil, while its meadows afford a surplus of hay. 
It has several saw mills, grist mills, a furnace formerly, 
md now a cotton factory, also a woollen factory. Jt was 
irst called the western precincts in Plymouth. 

Kingston, formerly the north suburb of Plymouth, 
)wcs its separation to some difficulties about schools m 
1724. The time had arrived when it was entitled to 
iistinct privileges, which took place, 1726, while the 
parent town too seemed to merit a permanent school. 

Origin of its name. Ashburton was first proposed, 
probably because it is the name of a place near Ply- 
mouth in England) : this the petitioners disapproved. 
Die then executive, Lieut. Gov. Dummer, proposed 
Kingston, which was adopted. 

There is a hill in that town of sublime elevation and 
3rospect, usually called Monk's Hill; but in the Colony 
Records we find it " Mont's Hill Chase ; " a name doubt- 
ess which the planters brought from England, there ap- 
3lied to an hunt, as we conceive. 

" Rehoboth Hill " is another place somewhere on its 
southern confines. 

Weceketuket is a brook, which joins Jones River from 
he south. This native term seems to signify " Little \\ a- 
iing." Some of the most respectable of the colonists 


settled at that part of Plymouth, now Kingston. Such 
were * Gov. Bradford, Mr. Allerton, Dr. Fuller, Francis 
Cooke, Mr. Hanbury, Thomas Cushman, and others. 

Of VVareham and Carver were we to enter into de- 
tails, we should exceed the limits assigned to these Notes. 
As to soil, they differ from Plympton : more inclined to 
sand. They have also their furnaces and factories. The 
business of VVareham in a time of peace is also mari- 
time, having a navigable river flowing into Buzzard's 
Bay, accessible at all times of tide, the Weweantic of 
the natives, and we suspect signifies " Egg River ; " it 
is just such an one as sea fowl would frequent and per- 
haps abide in : Weweni signifies an egg, and we leave 
the reader to his own conclusions. Agawam Brook, 
coming from Halfway Pond in Plymouth, passes through 
this place to the sea : on these streams there are good 
meadows. The township is very small. (See Census.) 

The business of Carver is iron castings in several fur- 
naces ; coaling, of course, together with supplying Ply- 
mouth with fuel. An extensive cedar swamp, wholly 
in this town, is one of those compensations assigned by 
a beneficent Providence to tracts like these ; affording 
fencing stuffs for all the vicinity, and even Cape Cod, and 
also the finest material for whale boats. Sawing boards 
has been an employment, which has declined ; making 
shingles of an excellent quality; laths; joist; house- 
frames for Plymouth, &c. &c. Wankinquag Brook di- 
vides Plymouth from this town some miles, and passes 
to the sea at Wareham. " Swanholt " f is the name the 
first planters applied to a place in that town : a stream 
flowing from it passes also to Wareham. Such is the 
bird's eye view of Carver. 

Halifax as to quality of soil is similar to these towns 
just described ; better than Carver, not so good as 
Plympton. It is the Monponset of the natives, the name 

* Gov. Bradford himself, we believe, lived pnd died at the original settlement 
in Plymouth, and now the compact part of that town : but his son, Major 
Bradford, who was also at one time deputy Gov. of Plymouth Colony, lived in 
the north part of the town, which is now within the limits of Kingston. — Editor. 

t Holt, from the Saxon, " a wood." Swans formerly visited many places 
in this vicinity. 


of a very large pond there. The Wenatukset passes 
through this town, and unites with the great river coin- 
ing from Bridgewater. Here also are saw mills and oth- 
er water works: masting and lumher have in former 
days been its staples ; and it has some good farms. 
Maunipensing, an augmentative, doubtless is the true 
reading for the name of the pond just noticed ; and 
seems to signify great or much water, or pond ; we are 
more desirous to obtain the meaning, however, than to 
alter the orthography. It is a small township, (See 
Census) taken from Plympton and Pembroke. 

Let us return, from this excursion, to Plymouth proper. 
It lies in laitude 41° 58' N. longitude 70° 30' W. four- 
teen miles in length, and from five to nine miles in width ; 
its perambulating line may be an excess of sixty miles. 

Face and quality of the soil. The predominant growth 
of forest trees is the best indication on this head. Pinus 
toeda designates that of the third quality ; and this yet 
covers the greater part of the township. These too are 
native : walnut, now rare ; oak, several species ; beech; 
birch ; * locust ; buttonwood ; hornbeam ; maple ; red 
cedar ; aspen ; wild-cherry ; white-pine, not very com- 
mon ; with others. 

The chestnut is not a native, nor perhaps the elm. 
Shrubs are, hazel, two species ; holly ; berberis, rare : 
we find it at Manomet Point, and we think on the bor- 
ders of Kingston, each place answering its peculiar hab- 
itat, a rocky soil, not a general feature of Plymouth. 

Plymouth, except a narrow margin on the shore, is a 
continuity of Sandy Hills, covered, as we have said, 
with pine forest. A ridge of elevated pine hills begins 
at " Hither Manomet Point"! (so called by the records) 
within its limits on the sea, and terminates at Wood's 
Hole, twenty-seven miles, lying north and south, through 
Sandwich, beyond which their character becomes rug- 
ged and rocky, in Falmouth. Their greatest elevation is, 
perhaps, in Plymouth, presenting in their prospect sub- 

* Rohinia pseudacacia. 
t Further Manomet Point, as seen from Sandwich, is a bold feature in perspective, 
and from every part of the bay. 



lime ocean scenery. These separate the second precinct^ 
called Ponds, from the first and third precinct : frosts 
are noticed in their valleys earlier than elsewhere. 

The soil of Plymouth is favourable to the growth of In- 
dian corn, which requires a sand heat, checked however 
by latitude : the average estimate is, we believe, high at 
eighteen bushels the acre ; rye, ten ; potatoes, forty. 

Farms, exclusively so, are few in number, the busi- 
ness of the place being of a mixed character. Thus at 
Ponds, a farming district, carrying wood to Boston, per- 
haps, rivals agriculture. There are several old orchards 
remaining, infested by the canker-worm : we doubt how- 
ever, whether there are two cider presses in the town- 
ship. We notice some few young orchards. Our an- 
cestors planted the " high top sweeten " apple tree : 
many of these valuable trees fell here and elsewhere in 
what is termed the October hurricane, 1804. 

A period of war occasions a forced rather than a uni- 
form productive culture : exhaustion is the result, with 
the exception of some reclaimed lands. 

In England, the more any given quantity of land is 
cultivated, the greater its value : the reverse is perhaps 
true of our old settlements ; they acquire the character 
of worn lands. 

The cleared lands of Plymouth are in extent from five 
miles by one and a half, exclusive of Pond's village. 
Were all its best soil in a compact plot, it would not 
much, if any, exceed a mile square. The sea therefore, 
after all, is our best inheritance ; contiguity to this, in 
prosperous periods, enhances the value of even barren 

In adverse times, other resources than mere cultiva- 
tion are resorted to : hence the rise of our manufactures. 
A people accustomed to the ocean still cling with fond- 
ness even to its view, and quit a residence on its borders 
with reluctance : hence we see navigators and fishermen 
choosing to become weavers and shepherds here, rather 
than to emigrate ; though many have departed. 

Commerce and trade of Plymouth, past and present. — 
Let us revert to its incipient state under the date of 1670. 


A valuation of that period states the " Fish Boats ' ' o 

Plymouth thus : — 

Four at 25 /. ----- 100 

Two at 18 ----- - 36 

One at ------- 1200 

/. 148 0* 
These, though called boats, we consider shallops, of 
some burthen, though probably without decks. From 
this period, to 1770, the fisheries were doubtless progres- 
sive ; at which time seventy sail may be assumed as the 
number of fishing vessels, from thirty to forty-five tons, 
navigated by from seven to eight men. 

Merchant vessels. From 1755 to 1770, say in the 
Liverpool trade, 

Brigs 1 - - - - tons 130 
1 - - - - - 160 
1 - - - - - 180 

3 470 tons. 

Only one vessel, capt. Worth, sailed from Boston in this 
trade, except a schooner owned by S. A. Otis, Esq. 
which made her outfits at Plymouth. Liverpool was 
then a small place comparatively to what it is now. 

Outward cargoes, liver-oil, lumber, potash, then 
made at Middleborough, whence also the lumber : re- 
turn cargoes, salt, crates, freight for Boston. Other ves- 

! sels in the merchant service, say twenty. Outward car- 
goes, fish ; destination, Jamaica, chiefly, Spain, and after 
the reduction of the French islands, Martinico and Gua- 
daloupe ; description, one small ship,f brigs, schooners, 
sloops. At the peace of 1783, very few of these remain- 

' ed ; some few schooners perhaps : subsequent to which, 
fishing vessels increased in size and aggregate tonnage, 
yet it may be less in number. 

Previous to the period of which we now treat, two rum 
distilleries had been erected in Plymouth, and found em- 

* Three of these were owned by Mr. Edward Gray, a respectable merchant of that 
day, whose descendants are in Kingston. His stone, 1681, is the oldest date in our 
burial ground. 

t The Lion. 


ployment many years : the last has just been taken down ? 

It may be added, that, during the revolution, salt was 
made by boiling sea-water in wrought pans erected on 

Previous to the revolution, there was a considerable 
trade to Winyaw, or Georgetown, South-Carolina, some 
to Charleston. In the winter many vessels annually 
went to North-Carolina, returning with corn cargoes in 
March, both before and since the revolution. 

The trade of Plymouth, previous to the present war 5 
like that of all New-England, was voyages of neutral 
freight : this led to the building of ships, some of pine, 
while the fisheries diminished.* Straits of Bellisle fish- 
ery is of modern date in Plymouth, and was increasing 
previous to the present war : these vessels carry whale- 
boats, in which the fish are taken, and remain absent 
through the summer. 

Several vessels have been captured ; many hauled up 
in this and other ports ; and the maritime trade of Ply- 
mouth in 1814, compared with that of 1670, 1770, and 
1775, offers a striking comment on the mutability of hu- 
man affairs. 

During the summer of 1 814, one sloop of 30 tons plied 
between Boston and Weymouth Landing, leaving a land 
carriage of twenty-five miles : In the autumn, and even 
now, (Jan. 1815) say six or eight sloops and schooners, 
occasionally freighting wood, from Manomet and the 
Town Harbour to Boston: foreign trade has become 

Number of dwelling-houses on the harbour. From King- 
ston line to the north bank of Eel river five miles, and 
west to the factories half a mile or more, are — 
North of Town Brook, - - - - 190 
South of ditto, - - - - 120 


South of Eel river to Pine hills, - - 26 

Pond's parish, - - 62 

South pond, ---------11 


* Say in foreign trade, 1811, 12— ships 17, brigs 16, schooners 40 : Of these, were 
taken, before Sept. 1812, 1 ship, 1 brig, 4 schooners, and perhaps others. 


Of these, six are brick; one of which is, in all its parts, 
in modern style of architecture* ; eight are three stories, 
and some of ancient date. The publick buildings arc, a 
Court-House, and three Meeting-Houses, that at Ponds, 
a small and humble edifice ; all of wood. 

The present Court- House in Plymouth was erected 
1749, when Plymouth gave, as a town, /. 1,000 O. T. It 
was planned by the late Judge Oliver, who then resided 
in Middleborough. The front door was originally at the 
east end, with a handsome flight of steps. Judge Oliver 
was one of the Corinthian ornaments of the county of 
Plymouth, while he resided in it. His taste in architec- 
ture, horticulture, ornamental planting, polite writing, the 
fine arts, antiquities, was founded on the purest models. 
The agriculture and the manufactures of Middleborough 
are much indebted to the judicious hints of this excel- 
lent man. His seat was on Namauskeag* river, a trib- 
utary to the Cohannet ; where the native grove, under 
his forming hand, became such an one as Thomson 
found in the shades of Hagley : but the groves, the gar- 
dens, and the mansion-house, f are no more. J 

A full length, small size (in oil) of this worthy man, 
done at Birmingham, remains at Plymouth in the man- 
sion of the late George Watson, Esq. who married his 
daughter Elizabeth ; where also may be seen some 
of the earlier productions of Copley's pencil, who is con- 
nected with the family of Oliver by marriage with that 
of Clark of Boston. 

Census of the town of Plymouth, at different periods. 
1643 — males from 16 to 60 years of age capable 

of bearing arms, 146 ^ 

* From Namaus, "fish," is deduced in our opinion, Namauskeag, "fishes," and 
from Quuennet or Quuinnet, " long," probably Cohannet, a long river, and which agrees 
with its physiology. t Destroyed by fire. 

t The Iron Works, owned by the Judge, were first erected by Rev. Peter Thacher 
and others. A part of his domains were, we are told, once those of Samuel Prince, Esq. 
of Middleborough, father of the annalist. 
§ " One in the score " was the ratio of military service, 1643. Plymouth furnished 

i for an expedition at that time against the natives - 7 

Duxbury 5 Yarmouth 2 

Scituate ----- 5 Taunton 3 

Sandwich 3 Marshfield 2 

Barnstable 3 

There were considerable fractions. 30 men. 



1646 — Freemen and townsmen, (voters) 79 

1670 — Freemen 51 

1 683-4-— Freemen 55 

1689— Freemen 75 
1764 — (including 77 negroes and 48 Indians) souls 2225 

1776— (whites only) 2655 

1783— (including 35 negroes) 2380 

United States Census. 

1791— Souls 2995 

1800— 3524 

1810— ' 4228 

Streets in Plymouth. That which leads from the 
meeting-house to the sea-side, " First-street," also called 
" Great-street ; " " Hanover-street," (now usually called 
Main-street) ; " King-street," (now called Middle-street); 
" New-street," (now called North-street) ; " Summer- 
street," leading to the west out of town ; " Water-side- 
street," head of the wharves ; " Wood's-lane," leading 
to the woods, north-end, is of old date. Publick squares, 
" head of Great-street " (near the Court-house) ; " Cole's 
Hill," below King-street ; " Framing Green," before 
the jail ; " Training Green," south side the Brook. 

Note on the Streets, 1758. We find a proposition be- 
fore the town for paving the streets by lottery, if it can 
be obtained ; when Col. Watson, their representative, is 
appointed on the committee for the purpose. It did not 
take place, and no street in the town is paved. 

Wharves and Stores. There are about eleven wharves, 
none of much length ; and perhaps twenty-five stores, 
one of which is of brick, and several spacious. 

An Aqueduct supplies the houses north of the Brook 
with water from Billington sea. This work was perform- 
ed by Mr. Caleb Leach, who then lived in Plymouth, 
now of Oswego, New York, whose talents, as a self- 
taught mechanick, are of the very first order :* to these 
talents it is, that Boston and the city of New York, &c. 
are, in a degree, indebted for the like convenience. 

* The orrery of Brown University was constructed by Mr. Leach, at Plymouth, for 
Dr. Forbes. 


Plymouth has its Bank, Post-Office, Collector's Of- 
fice, Stage, (thrice weekly) ; Supreme, Circuit and 
Session Courts, with Probate and Deeds Registry, as a 

Manufactures. — On the Town Brook, two miles in 
length, are, counting from its source, — one Cotton Fac- 
tory, (brick) ; Shovel Factory ; Anchor works ; Slitting 
Mill ; Nail Factory ; Steel Furnace ; two Tanneries ; 
two Grist Mills. On Eel river, a Cotton Factory. At 
Ponds, a Cotton Thread Factory. Some of these are 
old establishments, that is, erected before the present 
war. Sattinets, Ginghams, Stripes, Sheetings, Shirtings, 
are made in quantity, giving employ to a great number 
of domestick looms in this town and vicinity. Previous 
to the revolution, there were two ropewalks, which found 
employ ; and there are now two, without any. Domestick 
manufactures are not a new thing in Plymouth, though 
aiding water machinery is so. We find many of the 
profession of weavers among the first colonists, some of 
whom, we know, were of Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire, 
and brought their looms, and handed down the trade ; 
and we have seen some persons always clad in what is 
termed homespun, in former days. 

Compensations and privations are a very striking fea- 
ture in the physical economy of the globe : in a barren 
soil we frequently see unfailing streams, gushing from 
the sands, while in a better, sometimes but temporary, or 
not at all. Inventive man is the second cause, convert- 
ing and directing them to purposes of utility. 

Hence, bounteous streams, in solitude that rolPd, 
In numerous scenes of blended arts unfold ; 
Hence, long canals a devious course pursue, 
While tubulous aqueducts elude the view ; 
Hence, blowing furnaces, of ardent blast, 
Bid liquid iron form the shape or cast ; 
Hence, busy forges, slitters, rollers, reels, 
And all the complicated play of wheels. 

Plymouth Beach is about three miles long, extending 
from Eel river, N. N. West, breasting the rolling 


surges of the bay. It originally was well wooded. To- 
wards the north part, within forty years, there were much 
woods, and high hills; where is now the lowest and 
weakest part, there was an extensive swamp, an abun- 
dance of beach plums and grapes, even in modern times, 
and we believe a spring. We are told also of a house of 
occasional entertainment towards the Point, for mariners, 
it being a favorite anchorage in all times. Marshes, too, 
skirted its inner side, annually mowed, and still are. 

Remarks. Under 1702, we find a penalty of 5s. " im- 
posed on any who shall fell pine trees there, or set fires, 
on account of the damage likely to accrue to the har- 

1764. A viewing committee of the town reported 
twenty pounds sufficient for the repairs of two small 
breaches near the woods there. 

1778, Dec. 25. A great storm increased this breach 
greatly ; after which an hedge fence was erected. 

1 785. The General Court granted 1.500 conditional, 
that the town raised and applied a like sum : this, from 
inability, was not complied with : a viewing committee 
of the Court examined it. 

1805. The town petitioned the General Court ; and, 
in 1806, a township of land was granted in Maine, con- 
ditional, that the town raised and applied $5,000. 

1812. A lottery, now in operation, was granted. 

These grants are liberal ; and, we trust, will ever ex- 
cite due sentiments of gratitude. The application of 
these funds are in a course of operation on the beach, 
directly, by piles filled in with stone, around and over 
which the sands, always in motion in this bay, gather, 
and form a beach again, gradually ; a bar of sand has 
already formed ; and the waves evidently break more 
distant from it. 

The indirect aids are, a canal, finished last autumn, an 
half mile in length, fifteen feet in width, the digging of 
various depths, from twelve to four feet, conducting Eel 
river to its native outlet within the harbour. This is an 
alluvial river, of slow motion, up which the tide flows, 
perhaps a mile. This outlet will require annual vigi- 

NOTES ON PLYMOUTH, m\.ss. 173 

lance ; and \vc confide it to posterity, as a circumstance 
essential, perhaps, to the preservation of the bench : lor, 
in sandy bays, perhaps alluvial rivers first form beaches.* 
Thus Shifting cove on the Manomet shore, where there 
are beach hills, is the outlet for Beaver-dam brook ; 
which outlet doubtless shifts; hence we think its name 
given by the first settlers. Thus Shaume river, at Sand- 
wich, has its well-formed beach, whose northern point 
gains fast south, white the southern recedes. It seems a 
principle in the physical economy of nature. We some- 
times, however, meet with beaches, where there are no 
rivers. Thus Sandy-Point, at Chatham, always gains 
south : tides and currents are powerful agents, the course 
of winds, and conformation of contiguous land, (south- 
east there, and north-east at Plymouth,) may perhaps 
produce a similar result. 

1701, a breach was made in the wall of the Thames, 
(England) by a storm, when 1000 acres of land were 
overflowed, Sec. &e. and a sand bank raised at the mouth 
of the breach. On this occasion, Capt. John Perry un- 
dertook its repair, and published a work in octavo, 1721, 
entitled, " an account of the stopping of Dagenham 
breach, Sec. containing proper rules for performing any 
the like work, with a plan of the levels overflowed, &:c. 
&c." This work is wanted. 

Schools. Our records are silent on the article of 
schools, until 1670, when we find John Morton f "prof- 
fers his services to the town, to teach the children and 
youth to read, write, and cast accounts; " and we find 
him, in 1671, keeping school. This is precisely that 
period, when, perhaps, laws were enacted by the Colony, 
on the subject of schools, Gov. Prince being in the chair. 
In 1672, we find Mr. CorletJ in this employ at Ply- 
mouth ; and successively, Mr. Denison,§ Josiah Cotton, 

* Note. Mr. John Peck, the marine architect, resided in Plymouth some time daring 
the war; and often urged, with emphasis, turning Eel river back. The observations 
of such a man are entitled to respect. 

t A son of John Morton, (and nephew of the secretary.) 

t See Catalogue Har. Col. 

§ Probably the son-in-law of Rowland Cotton, who married Mrs. Denison. of Tp<= 


to 1712. The history of schools, and the succession of 
masters, may perhaps be the subject of a distinct article. 

Traditions. Narraganset hill, we find to be a place 
near Jackson's Inn, at the south-west part of Plymouth. 
The tradition is, that it was the scene of battle, previous 
to the " arrival of the English, between that powerful 
tribe and the resident natives : the former were defeated 
and destroyed ; " hence the hill and swamp take their 
name, an anecdote, perhaps not generally known. To sim- 
ilar events we are led to attribute the name Narraganset, 
found in places not in their country ; doubtless, battle 
grounds. We notice, on the map, such a place near 
Dighton. Such names in Worcester county are an ex- 
ception, being of modern date, and have English origin ; 
the name of locations granted to soldiers, and now merg- 
ed in other names. 

Forefathers Rock. The face of this rock was, in the 
year 1775, taken from its original bed, and placed by the 
side of a "liberty pole," which at that time was erected 
near the Court House, and where the rock still remains. 
The base of the rock yet continues, in open view, in its 
original situation, at the head of the longest wharf in Ply- 
mouth, built on the precise spot which uniform tradition 
assigns as its scite. There is a tradition, as to the person 
who first leaped upon this rock, when the families came 
on shore, Dec. 1 1 , 1620 : it is said to have been a young 
woman, Mary Chilton.* This information comes from 
a source so correct, as induce us to admit it ; and it is a 
very probable circumstance, from the natural impatience 
in a young person, or any one, after a long confinement 
on ship-board, to reach the land, and to escape from the 
crowded boat. We leave it therefore, as we find it, in 
the hands of history, and the fine arts. 

* Among those who came in the May Flower, were Richard Chilton, (who died the 
first winter) Mary and Susanna Chilton. Mary, it is said, married Mr. John Winslow ; 

and Susanna, Mr. Latham. The descendants of Mr. Winslow are in Boston; 

and of Mr. Latham, in Bridgewater. The tradition, we have reason to helieve, is in 
both families. We are disposed, however, to generalize the anecdote. The first gen- 
eration doubtless knew who came on shore in the first boats ; the second generation 
related it with less identity ; the third and fourth with still less ; like the stone thrown 
on the calm lake, the circles, well defined at first, become fainter as they recede. For 
the purposes of the arts, however, a female figure, typical of faith, hope, and charity, is 
well adapted. 


Indian names. Umpamc, written Apaum in the Col- 
ony records, is the name of Plymouth in Church's his- 
tory ; and so it is called still by the natives of Massapee. 

Patackosi probably is typical of the Town Brook, from 
Tackosi, "short," "narrow." 

Acawmnck signifies to "go by water," a colloquial 
phrase merely, and in some places evidently a fixed name, 
where it is more convenient to go by water than by land : 
this is the way I account for it on Smith's map. Hence 
Gov. Winthrop, in his journal, speaks of " Accoomeek 
on this side Connecticut river," that is (as we think) call- 
ed so by those on the other side. I fence too, a place of 
the same name on the eastern shore of Virginia, where 
it gives name to a county. 

Sayquish, an head-land in our harbour, signifies doubt- 
less, clams ; where there is every kind of that shell-fish. 

Scook is the name of a small pond near Manomet 
Point, where the land is rocky : we think it is from As- 
kug, "the snake." 

Coatuit was the name of Half-way Pond ; Kamesit, 
the region about South Pond, perhaps the pond itself. 

Maneikshan, an Indian territory, just beyond Ellis's, 
usually called by the English, black-ground. 

Paukopunnakuk, that weary hill, this side Ellis's call- 
ed by the early settlers "Break Heart Hill." The 
pilgrims had cause enough to apply this phrase to many 
things in their eventful history : here however, its appli- 
cation was literally correct ; a tiresome ascent in their 
journeyings up and down the Cape, in primitive times, 
when governours and assistants came to Plymouth on foot. 

Tionet, an angle of Plymouth, that nearly touches the 
sea at Wareham : Taunek, the " Crane," is doubtless 
the true name, applicable rather to the rocky shore, or 
point, actually within that town, where these birds, very 
common in these parts, seek their food. 

Agawam, the name of the brook flowing from Coatuit 
(Half-way pond) a fine stream, on which is a grist-mill, 
and where alewives ascend. 

Misquitucket, " Red Brook," as the Indian name im- 
plies, seeks the sea at Butter-milk bay ; over which is a 


small bridge crossed by the road from Sandwich to 

Kitaumet, a general name for the village of Ponds. 

Massassoomineuk is a place somewhere in the vicinage 
of Herring Pond, perhaps within Sandwich : this word 
is literally " much cranberries ; " one of those names, 
therefore, which we leave to physiology to locate, while 
we gather fruits, even in winter, from the barbarous roots 
of Indian dialects, despised indeed, yet always significant. 

These are our conclusions, from an examination of the 
language itself, open however to correction. 

Forefather's Day was first publickly noticed in Ply- 
mouth, Dec. 22, 1769, by the Old Colony Club, which 
consisted of seven original members and five elected, 
and was instituted Jan. 13, 1769, " for mutual edifica- 
tion and instruction." The club dined in publick, and 
invited a number of the principal citizens to pass the 
evening at their hall. From the conversations of this 
evening originated " A survey of the road from Ply- 
mouth to Smelt-brook in Weymouth, and back through 
Abington ; " a work of utility, worthy remembrance, the 
object being to obtain a a shorter route to the metropolis." 
Their steward, Mr. Elkanah Cushman, was appointed to 
perform it, and it was executed. 

1770, Dec. 20. Alexander Scammel, then master of 
the town school, was admitted a member of the Old 
Colony Club. Mr. S. was born atMendon, that part of 
it called Mill River, now Milford. 

1770. The 22d falling on Saturday, the 24th was 
kept by the Club, as a solemn festival, with appropriate 
ceremonies ; an extempore address was delivered in the 
evening, at their Hall, by Edward Winslow, Jun. Esq. 
an original member, before a respectable auditory of in- 
vited guests ; which is the first publick address on the 
subject of the anniversary. 

1771. It falling on the Sabbath, the 23d was noticed 
by a publick dinner. 

1772. Dec. 22. At the request of this Club, Rev. 
Mr. Robbins preached a public discourse from Psalm 
Ixxviii. 5, 6, 7. Dr. Byles's New England Hymn clos- 


ing the service. This discourse was printed at their re- 
quest. Gen John Winslow presided at the festive hoard 
on this occasion.* 

1773. Dec. 22. Mr. Turner of Duxbury preached 
a discourse at their request; about which period, pro- 
bably, this club, which had a polishing effect on man- 
ners, was dissolved : gentlemen high in the political and 
fashionable world, were their occasional visitors ; none 
oftener than the late Judge Paine. This society held a 
library and museum, now dispersed. Of the original 
members three survive, f and none of the elected. Isaac 
Lothrop, Esq. was their president. 

Newspapers. 1785. March. "The Plymouth Jour- 
nal," edited and printed by N. Coverly, began at Ply- 
mouth, and continued till June, 1786. A confined cir- 
culation, and nearness to the metropolis, led to its failure. 
The Old Colony arms, "Four men kneeling, naming 
hearts in their hands, on a field quarterly," was its head- 
ornament : Legend, Plymouth, Novanglia, sigillum so- 
cietatis, 1620. Motto of the paper, Patrum pietate ortum 
JUiorum virtute servandum.t 

Libraries. A subscription library subsisted a few 
years since, and is now dissolved. A reading room, at 
a later period, chiefly for newspapers, is lately discontin- 
ued. One bookstore and bindery in the place has a cir- 
culating library. 

A private museum (Mr. Tufts') contains some valua- 
ble relicks and curiosities. 

Among recent improvements may be noticed a stone 
arch, thrown over the Town Brook, at Spring Hill, 1812, 
precisely where the colonists met Massasoit in 1621. 
This way already admits wheels, where before was only 
a foot way. One Indian name we forgot to mention un- 
der the proper head: Cantaugcanteest is the aboriginal 
name of the hill opposite the place, where the sachem, 
" with his train of sixty men," first appeared ; the " Straw- 

* Mr. Scammel, on this occasion, wrote "Lines for Musick."' 

t John Thomas, Esq. at Liverpool, N. S. Edward Winslow, Esq. New Brunswick, 
and Mr. John Watson, Plymouth. 
t Selected by Dr. Robbins. 



berry Hill " of the first planters. We suspect it has the 
same meaning (whatever it may be) as Quantisset, an 
easier word to speak, which was the name of a place in 
Woodstock. Though our road now is on the north side 
the brook, we incline to the opinion, that the Indian path 
from Namasket may have been, occasionally, on the oth- 
er. On the summit of this hill, lately levelled, were 
found Indian relicks of various kinds ; beneath it, on the 
west side, may be seen fractured clam-shells, denoting 
places of abode. 

We have spoken of bridges : there are, in this town, 
perhaps twelve ; the one named above ; Town Creek 
bridge below it, admitting vessels into the tide pond ; 
Eel-river bridge, well known to the traveller : the others 
are on small brooks, and now chiefly of stone. 

Brooks. Those north of the town, five in number, the 
planters named ordinarily, beginning from town. Near 
the third lived Deacon Hurst ; who there, we think, erect- 
ed the first tannery in Plymouth, about the year 1 640. On 
the fourth dwelt Gov. Prince. Just this side of it is a ven- 
erable oak tree, hanging over the road, on the east side, a 
bound mark doubtless of 200 years date atleast. Directly 
below it, on the shore, is the " Ste art's Hill" of the first 
planters ; so called, we think, from Start's Point, a place 
near Plymouth in England : we may be mistaken. 

Wellingsly Brook, half a mile south of the town, has 
historick interest : by its side dwelt Secretary Morton ; 
there he copied the Church Records, wrote the Me- 
morial, and many volumes of Colony Records. The 
lover of botany, too, is invited to trace it to its source, 
in the proper season. 

Double Brook, or Shingle Brook, of the first settlers, 
runs northerly, by the post-road, and unites with Eel 
river. A forge stands upon it near the junction. By 
the side of this little stream may be seen, trees covered 
with the shaggy moss of ages ; among them the white 
cedar, the inner bark of which the natives use for bot- 
toms of chairs, and in various fabricks : hence, " peeling 
the bark of the cedar trees," is an Indian reserve. 


Beaver Dam Brook is in Pond's village, and has mills 
on it. The beaver, it has been said, builds its dam eon- 
vex towards the stream ; a good hint in the construetion 
of mill-dams. 

Indian Brook, still further south on the shore, is small, 
but abounds with trout ; which are afforded by almost 
all the brooks in Plymouth. 

Some of our names of places seem to indicate Lon- 
doners. Thus " High Gate," a woody ridge in the north 
part of the town, and " Hound's Ditch," at Duxbury, 
very early applied. 

Hills. " Pinnacle Hill," near South Pond, we incline 
to consider as derived from Ponnakin, a name the natives 
seem to have applied to many hills, in various parts of 
the country : still it may be also wholly English, from its 
natural and obvious meaning. 

Sentry Hill and Indian Hill are on the sea shore o 

Mountain Hill is near Goose Point ; Sparrow's Hill, 
two miles west, crosses the main road to Carver; while 
" Fort Hill," now Burial Hill, overlooks the town direct- 
ly ; and where the pensive stranger, in summer months, 
may find a beautiful prospect, " which commands all 
around," and whence he may become familiar with many 
of our delineations; for, in the words of Cowper, on his 
beloved walks, — 

Scenes must be beautiful, which, daily viewed, 
Please daily, and whose novelty survives 
Long knowledge, and the scrutiny of years — 
Praise justly due to those that T describe. 

Some allowance, however, we grant for local attachment, 
antiquities, &c. : a stranger might seek what he would 
not find ; and We would not mislead. 

Cole's Hill, an open green, and pleasant spot in Ply- 
mouth, well known, fronting the harbour, is the place 
where it is said, the dead were buried,* who died the 

I * A human skull, the entire teeth in perfect preservation, was taken out of the hank, 
isay within six years. 


first winter, 1620. This place has occasionally been for- 
tified : thus, in 1742, a " breast-work and platform" was 
erected there by the then Province.* Of this work, John 
Winslow,f who at that period lived in Plymouth, appears 
to have had the charge, as to the selection of the spot. 
During the American revolution, a battery and platform 
were erected at the same place, while intrenchments were 
thrown up on either side the harbour, at opposing points. 
No vestige of these works now remains. In 1814, an 
intrenchment has been thrown up at a well selected spot, 
for defence of the place, by the inhabitants ; while the 
United States have a fort and garrison on the Gurnet, at 
the entrance of the harbour. 

Ponds, Of these there are perhaps fifty or more, that 
are permanent; several of magnitude ; some containing 
small islands ; two admitting alewives from Buzzard's 
Bay ; and one, Billington sea, from the Atlantic side. 
Mr. Hearne, in his journey, tells us that " turbot, pike, 
and perch, prefer lakes and rivers bounded and shaded 
by woods." If this be the habit of the alewife, as we 
suspect it is, perhaps it would be well to leave margins 
of trees on lakes, to which they resort. 

South Pond has expanse and beauty, but no natural 
outlet. A water course, so called, was cut from it about 
the year 1701, perhaps half a mile or more, uniting it 
with tlfe head waters of Eel river, to attract alewives in- 
to it : it did not succeed, as to its primary object. This 
water course is always passed in going to this pond : a 

* Whether this breast-work of 1742 was really erected, is a question : the facts, 
however, we state, are on record. 

t John Winslow, son of Hon. Isaac Winslow of Marshfield, was educated a mer- 
chant, with Col. Lothrop, at Plymouth, where, after he became of age, he resided, and 
built a house. He was Clerk of the Pleas for the country at one period, and, we are 
told, captain of a company of militia; after which time, he went on the expedition to 
Cuba ; subsequent to which, his history is found in our military annals. A portrait 
of him, at the family seat at Marshfield, lighted up by smiles, starts, as it were, from 
the canvas, to embrace the spectator. Other older portraits are at the same place, we 
think some of them from the pencil of Vandyke. The general's character in the vicin- 
age is that of a man beloved to enthusiasm by all ranks. His mother was — Wensley 
of Boston; and his wife, — Little, of, we believe, Pemhroke, or its vicinage. These 
minutia: of a man of fame we think due to the Historical Society. 

His brother Edward, who dwelt at Plymouth, was in civil office till the revolution I 
during which he died at Halifax, N. S. in advanced life. 


feasant feature in the landscape, reflecting sands pure 
ind white as the pearls of Ceylon. This is very deep, 
ind contains white and red perch of the largest size. 

White Island Pond, ten miles southerly, among pri- 
meval forests, is so remote, that generations perhaps pass 
lway, many of whom never even sec it. Masts were, 
n former days, procured from its island ; and the road 
eading to it is still called the " mast road." 

Great Herring Pond is the largest, (two miles in 
ength) with an Indian population on its banks. Little 
Herring Pond, connected with it by a brook, is one of 
:he coldest of ponds. From Murdock's Ponds, just 
jack of the town, flows Little Brook, the " prison brook" 
tf the first planters, which, crossing the west road, unites 
with Town Brook. 

The Leech gives name to one pond, — where they 

" Fresh Lake," so called in the first century, now Bil- 
lington Sea, has two small islands : on one, about two 
acres, was formerly, every species, almost, of forest trees. 
It is now cultivated, and affords apples of an excel- 
lent quality. Here the eagle still cowers ; the loon* 
cries, and leaves her eggs on the shore of the lesser isl- 
and ; and the beautiful wood-duck retreats. 

By Long Pond, two miles long, and six distant, would 
be the most direct route to Sandwich, taking off more 
than two miles within the limits of this town. The an- 
cient " path to Sandwich " of the first settlers, led this 

Crane Brook Ponds, are the source of a brook, on 
which are furnaces and mill-seats, after it passes into 
Carver, south-westwardly. 

While noticing ponds, it should be observed, that 
3000 acres are estimated to be covered by water in Ply- 

Islands and Points. Clarke's Island, in the harbour, 
sheltered from the ocean by Salt-house beach, contains 
about eighty acres of land ; and is called by Governour 

* Two loons alone seem to claim the empire of this pond, annually. 



Hutchinson, "one of the best islands in Massachusetts- 
bay." Its growth of wood originally was, chiefly, red 
cedar ; a few still remain, a tree which loves the vicinity 
of rocks, where they abound. These trees were for- 
merly an article of sale at Boston for gate-posts. 

The Gurnet,* at the entrance of the harbour (not an 
island) contains about 27 acres of excellent soil ; original 
growth of wood the same, and not a tree remaining. 

Light-House, at the entrance of the harbour, on the 
Gurnet, was erected, 1768, by the then Province. 1801, 
July 2, it was consumed by fire. Another, now stand- 
ing, was erected by the U. States, 1803. It has two 
lanthorns, which may be, perhaps, seventy feet from the 
level of the sea. During the revolution, Capt. Talbot, 
in the Niger frigate, fired at the fort on the Gurnet, when 
the Light-House was pierced hy a ball, on which occa- 
sion his ship grounded on Brown's Islands, but got off. 

Cow Yard, an anchorage in Plymouth harbour, takes 
its name from a cow-whale once having come into it. 

Two trees on Sayquish have weathered the storms of 
ages. In earlier times, the town forbade felling trees at 
Sayquish, within 40 feet of the bank, under penalty. 
There is a creek at each of these places, where bass were 
formerly seined : a point there, is still called " stage 
point," where Mr. William Paddy, about the year 1643, 
and Mr. John Hewes erected fishing stages, with leave 
of the colonists. Places where bass frequented would 
be called Suckeke, f hence the Skekets at Cape Cod ; 
the word is derived, as we conceive, from Kicons, the 
Algonkin generic term for fish ; hence, in the Narragan- 
set, bass are called missuckeke, " much fish," or " great 
fish," as they are, comparatively, of the lakes : thus from 
Kenonge, another generic term for fish, we have Misken- 
onge, " great fish," applied to the pike of the lakes ; and 
it is also a river, on the map, not far from Montreal. 

* Gurnet is the name of several places on the coast of England ; in the channel we 
believe are at least two. 

t Hence we think, Suckieag 1 , the name of Hartford, Con. It is, doubtless, the little 
bass creek, there, which is intended. Muskeget, too, an island near Nantucket, may 
indicate bass. 


Chronological details. 1633. About the year 1633, 
a great trade in eattle prevailed and continued. A cow 
at that period sold for /. 20 sterling. 

1641. Mr. John Jenny was allowed certain privileges 
at Clarke's Island, "to make salt, which he was to sell 
to the inhabitants at 2s. the bushel." 

" Herring Wear let for three years to three persons, 
" who arc to deliver the shares of herrings and to receive 
11 Is. 6 the thousand for their trouble." 

1642. " Thirty acres of land were granted at Clarke's 
11 Island (the use of them) to the five partners that make 
" salt for twenty one years." 

" A keeper hired to take charge of the cows, from 
" May 4, to the last of October, for 36 bushels of corn, 
" and a pair of hose and shoes." 

" A Fortification was erected, and ordnance mounted 
" on Fort Hill, this year." 

1643. " A watch house was built of brick * on Fort 
" Hill. The bricks were furnished by Mr. Grimes at 
"lis. the thousand." This is the earliest notice of 
brick. Clay abounded on the shore ; for in Mourt's Re- 
lation we read of " excellent clay, no better in the world, 
" excellent for pots, and will wash like soap," &:c. 
There is some notices of a brick yard, situate somewhere 
above Training Green, in early days. At the present 
period, there is only one brick yard in Plymouth, on the 
north shore, near to Kingston line. Several of the lots 
north of the town, near the sea, have a clay bottom. 

" Householders ordered to be thus furnished with 
" approved arms, viz. muskets with snaphuena, or 
" matchcocks with match collivers, and carbines, which 
" are allowed, and also fowling pieces, not above four 
" feet and a half long, and of reasonable bore." t " Drum 
" heads procured by subscription." 

September. The whole township was classed in a 
watch, "to be kept from sunset to sunset, in regard of 
" the danger of the Indians. Six men and a corporal as- 

* A piece of this brick is now in the hands of the writer of these notes, which he 
found on the hill, not long since, and which seems to locate the fact, 
t Grose's Antiquities will probably elucidate the terms here used. 



" signed to a watch, when these persons were chosen the 
" council of war ; " 

The Governour,* Mr. Jenny, 

Mr. Prince, Mr. Paddy, 

Mr. Hopkins, N. Sowther.f 

The town expenditures this year were about nine 

Wolf traps were by the Colony Court ordered to be 
made ; when the whole town was classed to make them, 
at various places. The wolves made distressing depre- 
dations on their herds and folds, many years. Govern- 
or's Assistants are classed on this occasion. 

1644. June. " In case of an alarm of war, these di- 
" visions of the township to be observed, and these com- 
" panies to repair together : " 

Mr. Bradford, one 

Mr. Prince, one 

Mr. Hanbury, one 

Mr. Howland, one 

Francis Cook, one ^> Jones River 

Phineas Pratt, 

Gregory Armstrong 

John Winslow 

Mr. Lee 

Thomas Little 

Thomas Williams 

John Smith 

Robert Finney 

Manasses Kempton }> Eel River 

Joseph Warren 

Richard Church 

Robert Bartlett 

Mr. Hewitt 

Francis Goulder } 

Edmond Tilson > Wellingsly 

John Smalley ) 

* Mr. Winslow. t Nathaniel Sowther was then Clerk of Court. The name is 
distinct from Southworth. His descendants are, we think, in Hingham at this period, 
(1815.) He removed to the north part of the Colony, and was dead in 1664. 


Those in the town, according to order given, Nath- 
aniel Souther and Thomas Southworth, appointed mas- 
ters of the watch. 

The arrangement of these names shows us where these 
persons then dwelt, and also exhibits some persons not 
generally known. Williams, Smith, and Smalley went to 
Eastham ; Armstrong died at Plymouth, 1650; Church 
went to Scituate ; Little to Marshfield, and probably 
Hewitt ; the others remained at Plymouth. 

1644. June. " Orders agreed upon by the council of 
war : " 

1. That the lead be made up into bullets, and men 
hired to do it. 

2. That when an alarm is made and continued in 
Plymouth, Duxbury, or Marshfield, there shall be twen- 
ty men sent from Plymouth, and as many from Duxbury, 
and ten from Marshfield, to relieve the place where the 
alarm is continued. 

3. And when any other places stand in need of help, 
upon the continuing of the alarm, then a beacon to be 
fired, or else a great fire to be made, for Plymouth upon 
the Gallows Hill; * on the Captain's Hill for Duxbury ; 
and on the hill, by Mr. Thomas's house, for Marshfieid. 

It is worthy of serious remark, that nearly the same reg- 
ulations have been resorted to by their posterity in the war 
of the revolution, and now (1815) ; not with the savages, 
but with a people of kindred origin. Hasten the happy 
time, when men shall learn war no more. 

1645. " The herd of cows ordered to be kept by 
" the keeper from the middle of April to the middle of 
" November. The keeper to receive fifty bushels of corn, 
" to be levied on the owners in various proportions." 

Herring Wear — lease renewed for three years ; the 
premium, fourteen pence the thousand for delivering the 
shares of herrings. 

1649. Nov. Town meetings were first warned to be held 
at the meeting house ; hence we assume 1648 as the era 

* Gallows Hill is now an enclosed pasture, on the north side of Murdoch's Pond, 
just above the gardens. It is a conspicuous hill, approaching the town from the north, 
with a flat top. Our " Sentry Hills " take their name from occasions like these, in 
various parts of the country. 


of its erection, to which there are also some previous allu- 
sions, that warrant the conclusion. 

Selectmen were first chosen this year. The number 
was seven, five being a quorum. Their powers, and the 
reasons for choosing them, are detailed at large under 
this year. 

1651. Seipican* having been granted to Plymouth 
by the Colony Court, " for a place to herd their cattle," 
the town directed the lands thereabout to be purchased 
of the natives. 

Plymouth had but little meadow ground at this period. 

1661. " Ten pounds was assessed to procure bel- 
" lows and tools for a smith, for the use of the town." 
Also sixty pounds for purchasing and procuring a place 
for a minister. 

January, Seipican bounded and layed out by a joint 
committee of the Colony Court and the town.f 

1662. A committee was chosen, relative to encroach- 
ments, made by Rhode Island, on lands at Punckateeset 
(Fogland) and places adjacent. This was a proprietor- 
ship, which belonged to Plymouth people, and was a 
well known place at Fogland Ferry. 

"Clarke's Island was now (1662) deserted and not 
" improved by any." 

Town expenditures this year, /. 25, 12, 3. 

1663. September. A minister's house was built, 
January. Sixty pounds voted to finish this house, 

half the payment in tar and corn ; the tar to be twelve 
pence in the barrel cheaper than at Boston ; the other 
half in wheat, barley, pease, butter, or money. 

Pease were, at that time, much cultivated in field, and 
are often mentioned as an article in quantity. 

Remarks on the parsonage house and the prevalent 
mode of building. It stood on the north side of First-street, 
just above the present precinct house,! but not on the 

* Rochester. + The first grant describes it " eight miles by the sea, and 

" four miles into the land." 

t Bridget Fuller and Samuel Fuller, the worthy widow and son of Dr. Samuel Fuller, 
gave to the first church of Christ in Plymouth the lot of ground, on which the present 
precinct mansion house now stands. Such good deeds embalm the memory of the 


same lot. At one time it is directed " to be covered with 
" shingle, if that be the best mode of covering." At a 
subsequent period, when it was enlarged, this order oc- 
curs : " the whole house to be covered with shingle up- 
" on boards." At this early period, thatch was the usual 
mode of covering ; and the use of shingles, for that pur- 
pose, was then an experiment, the utility of which re- 
mained to be tried. 

Further note. The parsonage house was granted in 
1676, to the Rev. John Cotton and his heirs. 

1665. " Seventy pounds, and firewood, allowed to 
" Mr. Brimsmead * if he settle. 

1666. " Bounds of Agawam adjusted." Publick 
ways partially laid out in the township. 

1668. October. Price of produce as follows in pay- 
ment of minister's salary : wheat 4s. 6 ; barley, 4s. ; rye, 
3s. 6 ; corn, 3s. ; pease, 3s. ; malt, 4s. 6 ; butter, 6d. 

Qualifications of townsmen regulated this year a second 
time : the first took place 1646. 

1672. " Liberty was granted George Bonham to 
" erect a fulling mill on the Town Brook." This is the 
earliest date of any works on this stream, other than 
grist mills, of which two had been erected before, say 
1635, and one by Stephen Dean and Mr. Jenny. 

Townsmen are allowed to make ten barrels of tar an- 
nually, and no more. 

1675. February. A fortification was ordered to be 
erected on Fort Hill, an hundred feet square, with pali- 
sadoes ten and a half feet high ; a watch house to be 
erected, and three pieces of ordnance planted within it, 
on which occasion all the males from 16 years and up- 
wards assisted in its erection. Of this fort, from the 
description in the records, and the minute dimensions 
given of all its parts and appendages, we made a drawing 
a few years since. f This was the memorable period of 
" Philip's war ; " and the reader will remark, that it was 
in the depth of winter, when these preparations were ne- 

* He preached some time at Plymouth, hut settled in Marlhorough. 

+ Now in the hands of Judge Davis, an engraving of which, on wood or type metal, 

may be proper for the Collections. 


cessary against an insidious and savage foe ; frequently, 
doubtless, the women and children took shelter within 
these palisadoes, whose location and circuit we are ena- 
bled to delineate with exactness. The fort was built by 
Nathaniel Southworth, whom we suppose a son of Con- 
stant Southworth, Assistant and Treasurer of the colony, 
become of age at this time. 

1678. " Edward Gray hired Clarke's Island for seven 
" years, at L 3, 9, 0, per annum to keep 16 neat cattle, 
" free of rate ; townsmen to have liberty to bring wood 
" for building, fencing and firing." 

Agawam lands leased for seven years. 

1682. Agawam sold to build a new meeting 
house ; * a free passage for the alewives up the brook 
from Buzzard's Bay reserved to the town, and the juris- 
diction of the territory. 

A person was appointed by the town, " to grant tickets 
" according to law in such cases provided, to such per- 
" sons as are necessitated to travel on the Lord's day, in 
" cases of danger of death, or the like necessitous oc- 
" casions." 

Charles Stockbridge was employed by the town to 
build a grist mill, this year ; now called the " upper 
mill," being then the second on the same spot. 

1684. "The king's high ways laid out through the 

Note. Mr. Cotton's salary at this period was from 
seventy to eighty pounds. 

1687. Prices of grain thus voted by the town: 
" wheat, 45. ; rye and barley, Ss. ; corn, 2s. 6 the bushel." 
Whether it was a station price or a ratio to regulate the 
payment of salaries, does not appear ; probably the latter. 
Barley was much cultivated formerly ; and malt houses 
were common down to the year 1750. Would it not 
be well to revive it ? 

Tar at this period was made in quantity : notices of it 
frequently occur, in payment of salaries, " as it shall be 

* Erected in 1633, as we have noted in church notes, being the second. "The 
<: town's part of the money, which Mount Hope lands sold for," went in part to this 


sold at Boston : " it continued to be made in less quan- 
tity, even down to 1750. 

Shingles and clapboards were very considerable articles 
of manufacture and trade at this period. Furs and pel- 
try, however, were the first, as is the case in all new 

1867 — 8. January. " Sir Edmund Andros called on 
" Plymouth to make good its title to Clarke's Island ; " 
when the town voted to defend it, and made a special 
rate of ten pounds silver money, and chose a committee 
of seven for the purpose. 

1689. May. " The town voted a declaration, to be 
" presented to the General Court of the Colony, that the 
" country might help to bear their proportion of charge, 
* to relieve those persons that have been grievous suffer- 
" ers for defending the common right." This refers 
doubtless to the Andros transactions ; for it is well 
known that at this period the titles to real estate were 
called in question throughout New England. 

June. " Voted to sell certain common lands "to de- 
" fray expenses in defending Clarke's Island." Note. 
A thousand acres were sold at this time. Also voted, 
" to sell Clarke's Island, Sagaquash, and the Gurnet, and 
" Colchester Swamp." * 

A " Town Council was chosen to act with the Com- 
" mission Officers according to Court Order." Note. 
Elder Faunce was one of the three members of this 
board ; whose duty seems to have been to adjust and 
make taxes, accruing in military affairs in a time of 
war. Rhode Island now, whose form of government is 
very similar to that of Plymouth colony, elects annual- 
ly, we believe, a like board, though perhaps its duties 
may be different. 

1690 — 1. Clarke's Island was sold to Samuel Lucas, 
Elkanah Watson, and George Morton. It continues 
to be owned (1815) by the family of Watson, descend- 
ants of the first purchaser ; some of whom reside there. 

In February "the town of Plymouth voted, "that 
" it was their desire that the utmost endeavours be 

* This Swamp is in Plympton. 


" used to obtain a charter of his majesty, that we might 
" be and continue a government, as formerly. Further 
" voted, they would be held for their proportion of Z.500, 
" and more, if need require, for that purpose : and at this 
" time agreed to raise their proportion of /.200 in ad- 
" vance, to be sent to the gentlemen empowered as 
"agents. Also voted their desire and choice of Sir 
" Henry Ashurst, Mr. Increase Mather, and Mr. Ichabod 
" Wiswall, to be their agents to procure a charter." 

1692. May 30. After the union with Massachusetts, 
the first deputies chosen by Plymouth " to the great as- 
sembly to be held at Boston, June 8, 1692," Sir Wil- 
liam Phips being governour under the new charter, were 
Ephraim Morton and John Bradford.* 

1696. Under this year, or near it, a French privateer 
of size, fitted out at Bordeaux for the express purpose 
of taking flour vessels on the American coast, was wreck- 
ed high up in Buzzard's Bay, having mistaken it for a con- 
tinuation of the sea. The crew were carried prisoners to 
Boston. The surgeon, Francis Le Baron, came to Ply- 
mouth ; which place at that time being destitute of a phy- 
sician, the Selectmen petitioned the executive,! for his 
liberation. It was granted. He settled and married in 
Plymouth, where his posterity survive. We have never 
noticed the loss of this vessel in our annals. 

1701. Is the date of cutting the "Water Course " from 
South Pond. Elder Faunce was the leader of those who 
performed it : the traveller, therefore, as he passes it, 
will be reminded of a venerable man, whose pilgrimage 
on earth nearly completed a century. 

1703. " The use and improvement of three miles 
"square, as a " Sheep Pasture," was granted to certain 
" proprietors and others of the inhabitants who should be 
" added to them." There appears to have been about 
360 sheep, kept by sixteen proprietors. A house and 
folds were erected, and a shepherd dwelt on the spot. 
Several conditions are annexed : " 20 acres were allowed 

* Mr. Morton was the youngest brother of the secretary ; and Mr. Bradford, son of 
the deputy governour William Bradford, 
t Lieut. Gov. Stoughton. 


" for cultivation ; and the sheep were to be folded on the 
" land the three first summers, to bring it to grass," &c. 
An hedge fence was made around the premises. Evi- 
dences, however, of the decline of this sheep walk appear 
as early as 1712; and in 1717, the proprietors "resign 
"the project as impracticable." In 1768, a proposition 
before the town, to revive it as a town concern, was com- 
mitted, and the report negatived ; and subsequent to 
1734, this tract of land was sold. The town acted with 
a just caution and prudence in this transaction : Sheep 
should be fostered ; but it is to individual enterprize, 
perhaps, that we must look for their best protection and 

The soil and aspect of Plymouth and vicinity, is auspi- 
cious to the health of sheep : airy downs, short feed, vicin- 
age of the sea, are all adapted to their habit. Dyer, in 
his fine didactic poem, " The Fleece," describing the 
suited soils, says : 

On spacious airy downs, and gentle hills, 
With grass and thyme o'erspread, and clover wild, 
The fairest flocks rejoice ;- 

•Where nature blends 

Flow'rets and herbage of minutest size ; 

Innoxious luxury. Wide airy downs 

Are health's gay walks to shepherds and to sheep — 

and where low tufted broom, 

Or box, or berry'd juniper arise, 
Or the tall growth of glossy rinded beech, 
And where the burrowing rabbit turns the dust, 
And where the dappled deer delights to bound. - 

At the present time there are a less number of the com- 
mon sheep kept in Plymouth than formerly ; perhaps 500 ; 
of the merino breed, lately introduced, probably 200. 

1711. An Oyster Bed Proprietary was granted in 
Plymouth : these shell fish were procured and deposited 
in the harbour : it did not succeed : the flats are left dry 
too long for their habit, which requires that they be cov- 
ered by water. In Buzzard's Bay, where they are com- 
mon, the tide falls but about six feet; a hint which may 
be useful to those who may transplant the oyster, as to 
the selection of the spot 


1722—3. February. On a blank leaf, under this 
date, we meet the following record, made by Elder 
Faunce : " was a dreadful storm, which raised the tide 
" three or four feet higher than had been known afore- 
" time." This is the storm, of which Cotton Mather 
gave an account to the Royal Society : it was on the 
24th February ; but of Elder Faunce's figures, as it 
respects the day of the month, we can make out only the 
4, with a scratch before it, unlike 2, but more like 1 : 
perhaps he put it down when he had forgotten the pre- 
cise day. 

In the year 1770, was a similar tide ; and also about 
1785, when it was level nearly with the locks of the store 
doors on wharves, and much salt and other goods were 

1730—31. A mortal fever prevailed in Plymouth. 
There was an instance of eight in the connexion of one 
family,* who died at that time. 

1745. This year a full company! was raised in 
Plymouth for the expedition against Louisbourg ; and it 
is remarked, that they were the first for that service, who 
appeared at Boston, whence they embarked, and served 
with credit on that memorable occasion. 

The captain of this company, Sylvanus Cobb, contin- 
ued in Nova Scotia, where he had the command of a 
government sloop ; and in 1758 was selected by Gene- 
ral Monckton, to conduct General Wolfe to a reconnoitre 
of the fortress, previous to its second capture. As they 
sailed into the harbour, no one was allowed to stand upon 
deck, but Cobb at the helm, and Wolfe in the foresheets, 
making observations, while the shot were flying around. 
The latter observed, they had approached as far as he 
wished for his purposes. Captain Cobb, however, made 
yet another tack ; and as they hove about, Wolfe ex- 

* Mr. Ephraim Cole's family. 

+ Sylvannus Cobb, Captain ; Samuel Bartlett, Lieutenant ; Doctor William Thomas, 
Surgeon ; under the command of Colonel Richmond, (perhaps of Dighton or Taunton.) 
Note. These persons died of sickness at Louisbourg, 1745 ; Nathaniel Thomas, Esq. 

Cob Samuel Jackson, Lieut, and James Wethrell of Plymouth. Deacon Shaw 

of Plympton, who was an officer, but of what grade we are not informed. 


claimed with approbation, " Well, Cobb ! I shall never 
I* doubt but you will carry me near enough." This an- 
ecdote of the hero of the Plains of Abraham, we give as 
well attested. 

There was something, it is said, in capt. Cobb, which 
trained the esteem of the great man*" we have named. 
lie returned to Plymouth for his family, and removed 
with them to Nova Scotia, where he probably f died. I Te 
was born 1709, at Plymouth, son of Elisha Cobb, and 
iescended from Henry Cobb, who appears in Plymouth 
is early as IG33. Ebenezer Cobb, the greatest instance 
)f longevity in this vicinity, was his uncle. 

1750. Notice of John Murdoch, Esq. — John Mur- 
loch, Esq. many years an eminent merchant in Ply- 
nouth, was born in Scotland, and came to Plymouth 
is early as 1684; where he married about 1686, 
ind soon appears noticed in town concerns. At his 
leath, which occurred subsequent, we believe, to the 
rear 1750, in advanced age, he gave " /.200 to the poor 
4 and to the school of Plymouth in equal portions ; " a 
generous gift, and which should be gratefully recorded 
n remembrance of the donor. Mr. Murdoch married a 
second wife, about the year 1719, Phebe Morton, a 
laughter of John Morton of Middleborough. An only 
laughter, Phebe, of this marriage, became the wife of 
William Bowdoin of Boston, a brother of the late Gov. 
3owdoin. An intimacy subsisted many years between 
Mr. Murdoch and the father of Gov. Bowdoin, who was 
n the habit of making him an annual visit at Plymouth. 

Two of the oldest wharves in Plymouth were built by 
|Ir. Murdoch ; one as early, perhaps, as 1691, or there- 
ibout, at which period there were not, perhaps, more 
han three or four erected. 

Descendants of Mr. Murdoch, in the male line and 
)f the first marriage continue in Carver. 

* The frankness and affability of general Wolfe have been often mentioned by those 
rho saw him on this occasion ; striking traits of the true heroick mind in all ages, and 
i all countries. 

t He accompanied the expedition to Havanna in 17G2, and died there. — Ed. 



Thomas Murdoch, a son of John, gave to the third 
precinct in Plymouth the lot of ground on which their 
meeting house was erected, in 1744. 

1754. " An address of thanks was voted to Gov* 
" Shirley, for suspending his assent to the excise act, 
" laying a duty on wine and spirits consumed in private 
" families." 

1755. A number of the Acadians, neutral French, 
were landed at Plymouth from Chignecto. Some re- 
mained there ; others dispersed themselves in Wareham, 
Middleborough, &c. Mild, peaceable, and industrious^ 
they are remembered with kindness. 

A spring, north of the town, in the road, was shifted 
by the earthquake of 1755 ; being before that event on 
the east side of the road ; soon after on the west, and 
so continued unfailing. Tinker Rock spring is its an- 
cient name : the rock is blown up. 

1756. " The fishermen brought from Cape Sables a 
" passenger, Charles Francis Langlois, son of a member 
" of the parliament of Paris, and a Protestant. His story 
" was, that he escaped from a monastery. He wrote 
" very well in Latin, and resided in Plymouth some time, 
" in humble life." Cotton's Diary. 

Governour Pownal visited Plymouth, during his ad- 
ministration, between 1757 and 1760. 

1758. A fire engine * was procured from London by 
the town ; and, at a subsequent period, another by sub- 
scription, and within a few years past, another of Bos- 
ton manufacture. The first is now disused. There have 
been two engine companies many years ; and of late, 
a Fire Club association. 

1759. General Monckton visited Plymouth, probably 
in April ; for it was a publick fast, which he attended, 
Rev. John Cotton preaching on that occasion. 

1767. Plymouth concurred with the town of Boston 
in certain resolutions respecting " industry, economy, 
" manufactures, and the use of glass and paper of colonial 
fabrick," &c. &c. 

* It was purchased by Messrs. Champion and Hayley, "free of commissions, being 
" for publick utility." 


1770. A brick powder house was erected ; previous 
to which " munitions of war " were kept in an apartment 
of the almshouse. Motions for this building appear as 
early as 1757, a period of war. 

1774. Charles Blaskowitz, a royal surveyor of ports 
and harbours, visited Plymouth in a barge, pitched his 
tent on the shores, and continued some time. He made 
an accurate survey of the harbour, a copy of which he 
presented to a gentleman of the place, and which remains 

1778. Dec. 26 and 27. The private armed brig 
Gen. Arnold,* capt. James Magee of Boston, was wreck- 
ed on White Flat, in Plymouth Harbour, during a severe 
snow storm, when more than seventy persons perished 
by cold, whose bodies were interred at Plymouth, on the 
29th, 30th, &c. Some of the survivors also, after a few 
days extreme suffering, expired on shore : several be- 
came cripples ; while capt. Magee and a few others t 
recovered, and have traversed the ocean many times 
since. These lines taken, with little variation, from 
Crowe's Lewesden Hill, we consecrate to this sorrowful 
and memorable event. 

Ah ! falsely flattering were yon billows smooth 
When forth, elated, sail'd, in evil hour, 
That vessel, whose disastrous fate, when told, 
Fill'd every breast with sorrow, and each eye 

With piteous tears ! 

Alas! save few, they perish'd all, all in 
One hour. 

A market room was made under the east end of the 
court house during the revolution : before this there 
was not any appropriate place for this purpose. 

1780. The elm trees, which now ornament the 
" Great square," were planted : they were procured at 

1782. Horatio Nelson, of the Albemarle, having ta- 
ken a small schooner of 35 tons, in the bay, belonging to 

* Owned, we believe, by Col. Sears, Smith, Broom, Piatt, and others. Some of these 
gentlemen attended the interment of the sufferers : one whole Sunday was devoted to 
this solemn duty. 

t Capt. George Pilsbury of Boston was one of the survivors. Dr. H. Mann, of 
Attleborough, Dr. Sears, capt. John Russell, and many others of Barnstable were among 
those who perished. 


Plymouth, after using her as a tender some days, gene- 
rously restored her to the captain and others ; a youthful 
trait of the future hero. 

1784. A committee of the town viewed the Beach, 
and reported, " That a wall, eighty feet in length, and 
four feet high, was competent to the repair at that pe- 
riod, with hedge fences in low places ; that it would re- 
quire about 1,000 tons of stone, and cost by estimate 
414 pounds ; and also urged turning Eel river, which 
had been diverted from its natural course by meadow 
proprietors, perhaps about the year 1750." 

When we contrast this estimate with that of 1 806, we 
shall be surprised at the ravages of the sea within a short 
period. 1806, a sea wall of 2,000 feet was estimated as 
necessary, and 300,000 tons of stone. These stones 
have been procured at Rocky Nook, Manomet Point, 
and Clarke's Island, places within and about the har- 

It may be remarked, that the ice in this harbour, 
which in former years remained, often, from Christmas 
to March, is now soon broken by the motion of the tide 
across the beach ; so that the wharves are open almost 
through the winter. 

1794. Mrs. Elizabeth Russell, the lady of the Hon. 
Thomas Russell of Boston, presented a bell to the town 
of Plymouth, the place of her nativity ; * on which oc- 
casion a " vote of thanks " was passed and presented in 
very handsome terms. This bell was imported from 
England, was finely toned, and weighed about 600 wt. 
It was unfortunately broken in the year 1801, when an- 
other was procured by the town, of Col. Revere's manu- 
facture, weighing about 800 pounds, which is still in 
use. The first notice of a bell in Plymouth is in 1679 ; 
probably the first. We can thus trace the history of 
four at least; the one previous to that of 1794 was 
about 300 weight. 

Locusts made their appearance infgreat numbers, June, 
1804, half a mile west of the town. As 17 years is said 
to be their period, we may expect them again in 1821. 

* Youngest daughter of the late George Watson, Esq. 


1813. Spring. The ship Sally, from Canton, be- 
longing to Boston, and owned by Adam Babcock, Esq. 
arrived at Plymouth, and is, doubtless, the first vessel 
that ever discharged a cargo from beyond the Cape of 
Good Hope at this port. A Chinese, Mr. Washey, a 
passenger, landed at Plymouth, habited in the costume of 
his country. He attended publick worship, on the Sab- 
bath, at Plymouth ; and was a young man of mild aspect 
and pleasing manners. 

1814. July 23. A British tender with barges cruis- 
ing off Plymouth, one of the latter, chasing a vessel in, 
was fired at from the Gurnet Fort and sunk ; the men 
were saved by the other barge, and the sunken one re- 
covered by the Americans, and brought in, with warlike 
equipments. August 1. Capt. Epworth, of the Nymphe 
frigate, burnt and sunk a fishing schooner of 25 tons, be- 
longing to Plymouth, in avowed revenge of this transac- 
tion. The men are still retained prisoners. 

Note on ancient architecture, by the writer of these de- 
tails. An house was erected at Middleborough above 100 
years ago, by Dr. Palmer,* which is a curious specimen 
of the ancient English cottage, such as we meet with often 
in prints of English rural scenery. — The ridge pole of this 
house forms a x presenting four peaked sides ; f the 
windows in divisions of small diamond glass, swing on 
hinges ; the walls filled in with brick, partly laid bare by 
time, give it a picturesque feature for the pencil. There 
are but a few such houses now standing. An architectu- 
ral and a picture view should be taken. The house 
which the father of the late Gov. Bowdoin dwelt in, 
opposite Concert hall, Boston, was similar; and an- 
other, which stood where Mr. Rogers' house now is, 
near the State House ; and yet another in Marlborough 
street, where a former governour lived in early times.! 

* Son of Thomas Palmer, a minister of that place. 

t The second meeting house in Plymouth, 1033, had the same form, with a pew in 
the peaks. 

t thiring the revolution it was standing and occupied by Aubrey, a painter; the street 
a foot or two above it at that time. 


History of Plymouth Church. 

[In continuation from Hist. Collections, vol. 4, Series First.] 

1744. A third church was formed in Plymouth. A 
meeting-house was erected on King-street, (now Middle- 
street) north side, where is now an alley ; a neat conve- 
nient edifice of wood, with a tower and spire in front ; it 
was a pubiick ornament. This building was taken down, 
subsequent to 1781, when this society united again with 
the first church and society. Its appellation was, the 
lower meeting-house. 

1744, Nov. 7. Thomas Frink, who had been a min- 
ister at Rutland, was installed in this third church, when 
Dr. Chauncy of Boston preached the sermon, from 
1 Tim. iv. 16. 

1748. Mr. Frink returned to Rutland, by mutual 
consent, no blame attaching to either pastor or people ; 
the society was always few, though comprising some of 
wealth and fashion. Strong mental powers are attributed 
to Mr. Frink, who graduated at Harvard College, 1722. 

1749. Jacob Bacon, who had been a minister of 
Ashuelot, (now Keene, N. H.) about ten years, when 
the settlement was broken up by Indian invasion,. was in- 
stalled in the third church, Plymouth, of which he con- 
tinued the beloved and respected pastor, until 1776, when 
the connexion was dissolved by mutual consent, the so- 
ciety still diminishing, by reason of a state of war. Mr. 
Bacon preached about eighteen months, at Plympton, se- 
cond parish, (now Carver,) whence he retired to Rowley, 
(Essex) where he died, 1787, in the 81st year of his age. 
Mr. B. was born at Wrentham, 1706, graduated at Har- 
vard College, 1731. He married twice : his aged relict 
survived some years at Sedgwick ; some of his descend- 
ants are in Plymouth, others in Salem, and elsewhere. 

1760, January 30. Chandler Robbins was ordained 
in the first parish, Plymouth,* and died in its ministry 
of a lingering illness, June 30, 1799, aged 61. At his 
interment, Dr. Sanger of Bridgewater, preached from 
Philip, i. 21. On a successive sabbath, July 14, Rev. 

* The details of this ordination may be seen, Hist. Col. vol. 4, as above 


fir. Shaw, of Marshfield preached an occasional dis- 
burse from 1 Thes. iv. 11, which was printed, being 
ledicated " to his relict and family, and bereaved Hock ; " 
.nd to which is annexed, a " biographical sketch of his 
1 life and character," by a parishioner ; to which the 
eader is referred. lie was born atBranford, Connecti- 
;ut, August 24, 1738, son of the then pastor of that 
>lace ; entered Yale College, 1752, and received its hon- 
ors ; where, beside his acquirements in the classics, he 
Jso learned the French language, then not common, and 
vhich he read, wrote, and occasionally spoke through 
ife. His voice was melodious, and his taste in musick, 
r ocal and instrumental, was refined. His pastoral cares 
vere extensive, comprising the whole town, with the ex- 
;eption of Ponds, subsequent to 1781, until his death ; 
n the discharge of which he was faithful and attentive, 
lonourary degrees in divinity awaited him from Dart- 
nouth and Edinburgh, 1792 and 1793. His printed 
yorks are, letters on infant baptism ; anniversary dis- 
burse, Dec. 22, 1772; election sermon, 1791 ; Hu- 
nane Society's discourse, 1796 ; funeral sermons. Mrs. 
ane Robbins, his relict, died Sept. 1799, aged 60. Three 
>f their sons are graduates of Harvard ; one of whom, 
Samuel, is settled in the ministry at Marietta. Mrs. 
bobbins was the daughter of Mr. Prince, of Boston ; 
ind, at the period of her marriage, resided in the family 
>f the annalist of New England. 

1800, January 1. James Kendall was ordained in the 
irst church ; when Dr. Tappan, Mr. French, Dr. Thach- 
;r of Boston, Mr. Rowland of Carver, and Mr. Shaw of 
^larshfield, assisted ; sermon by Mr. French of Ando- 
rer, from Mat. xvi. 18. Two excellent sermons, deliv- 
ered by Dr. Tappan, the following sabbath, from Psalm 
;lviii. 2, were printed, with notes. 
Accession of pastors, first church. 

Ralph Smith, - - - 1629 

John Rayner, - 1636 

John Cotton, ... 1669 

Ephraim Little, - - - 1699 
Nathaniel Leonard, - - 1724 


Chandler Robbins, - - 1760 

James Kendall, - - - 1800 

1648, is the date of the erection of a meeting-house 
in Plymouth, of which no dimensions are given. It had 
a bell. 

1683. Another was built, on the same spot, describ- 
ed as being " at the head of Great-street," 45 feet by 40, 
and in the walls 16, unceiled gothicroof, diamond glass, 
with small cupola and bell. 

1744. Another was built on the same spot, and is yet 
(1815) standing,* being the meeting-house of the first 
church of Christ planted in New-England. How " beau- 
tiful for situation ! " 

Let strangers walk around 

The city where we dwell, 
Compass and view thine holy ground, 

And mark the building well ; 

•7? W W W TV? 

And make a fair report. Psalm 48. 

Manomet Ponds, made a Precinct 1731, was enlarged, 
taking in Half-way Pond, in 1810. The last native male 
Indian of unmixed blood, who lived with his mother in i 
a wigwam, died there, 1801. 

1770, April 18. Ivory Hovey, was installed in the; 
second church, Plymouth, (Ponds) where, to use his 
own words, " he lived peaceably and comfortably," and 1 
where he died, greatly lamented, Nov. 4, 1803, four ' 
months advanced in his ninetieth year. Mr. Hovey was 
born at Topsfield, (Essex) July 3, 1714, O. S. ; gradu- 
ated at Harvard College 1735 ; kept a school, and preach- 
ed occasionally, at various places, chiefly in Maine, until 
Oct. 1740, when he was ordained at Rochester, south 
parish, Mattapoiset ; whence, at his own request, he was 
dismissed Oct. 1769, sectarian influence being the cause. 
1739, he married, at Biddeford, Miss Olive Jordan, 
daughter of Samuel Jordan, who survived him a few 
months. This venerable patriarch kept a diary, com- 

* The dimensions may be, perhaps, 85 by 70 ; it has a tower in front, a steeple, 
whose vane is 110 feet high, a bell and wooden clock ; and is painted. 


prised in nine octavo volumes of about 7000 pages.* 
How uniform, and how tranquil, must have been his life, 
how noiseless the tenor of his way ! " Blessed are the 

1804, July 18. Seth Stetson was ordained pastor in 
the second church. Sermon by Mr. Barker, of Middle- 
borough, from Ilabak. ii. 2. Mr. Niles and Mr. Judson 

Accession of pastors, second church. 

Jonathan Ellis, - - - 1738 

Elijah Packard, - - - 1753 

Ivory llovey, -' 1770 

Seth Stetson, - - - 1804 

1802. Another church was formed in Plymouth, in 

which Adoniram Judson was installed pastor, and which 

is now the third church. Their meeting-house, erected 

in 1801, is pleasantly situated at the head of Training 

Green, on the south side of the Town Brook ; and is a 

neat painted edifice of wood, crowned by a cupola. 

Note. There are within the limits of Plymouth, at 
this period, about one hundred of the aborigines, (of 
mixed blood, however,) who are under the pastoral 
charge of Mr. Fish, of Massapee, and who preaches to 
them six sabbaths, or more, annually, at their meet- 
ing-house, a small edifice, situate near Herring Pond, 
their principal settlement within this town. A few, per- 
haps ten or twelve, dwell at Ponds, who are of this so- 
ciety. These natives possess several thousand acres of 
land in Plymouth, and are under the guardian care of the 
government of the state. 

Sacrifice Rocks, about two and a half miles beyond 
Cornish's Tavern, on the east side of the road, remain a 
monument of ancient aboriginal rites ; where the natives 
still offer the homage of branches, as they pass by in silence. 
These are Manittoo Asseinah, literally " Spirit Rocks," 
where God abides, in the void waste, as in the city full. 
Annual bill of mortality, first parish Plymouth. (Com- 
municated by Rev. Mr. Kendall.) 

Total. Over 70. Children. 
1800 - 71 - 12 - 35 

* See Alden's Collections, and Piscat. Evang. Magazine, vol. 3, 1807. 




Over 70. 



- 67 

Under 5. 


- 92 

7 - 



- 53 

4 - 



- 38 


- 44 




- 39 


- 52 




- 28 


- 45 




- 29 


- 35 


- 17 


- 27 

Over 80. 


- 35 


Note. 1800 and 1801, must be considered as the 
deaths in what is now two parishes, in some degree, be- 
cause the third parish was not distinctly so till 1802. 
The disorder which occasioned such mortality among 
children, as is seen in 1802, was measles, followed by 
dysentery ; 1 804, casualties 3, abroad 2 ; 1 809, abroad 5. 

Bill of mortality, second precinct (Ponds) Plymouth. 
(Communicated by Rev. Mr. Stetson.) 

1 of 76, 1 of 83. 

1 of 75. 



- 10 - 


of 70 


- 16 - 




- 6 - 




- 11 - 




- 7 - 




- 4 


- 2 - 




- 5 


- 9 - 




- 7 - 




- 3 - 






8 between 70 and 75. 
3 between 75 and 80. 
2 between 80 and 85. 
1 between 85 and 90. Plymouth, Jan. 1815. 

Bill of mortality, third parish Plymouth. (Commu- 
nicated by Rev. Mr. Judson.) 





























Prevalent diseases. (Communicated by Dr. Thacher.) 
The diseases most prevalent, in the town of Plymouth, 
for the last ten years, are, fevers of the typhoid type, but 
not remarkably malignant or mortal. Consumptions have 
been more frequent than formerly, and always have a fa- 
tal termination ; rheumatism has not been infrequent, and 
in some instances it proves a formidable disease ; among 
children, the cholera infantum and croup have chiefly 
prevailed, but within the last two or three years the for- 
mer has been of rare occurrence. It may be remarked, 
that the inhabitants of this town, in general, are more 
healthy than those of other towns in the vicinity. 

Conclusion. Such are our Notes on Plymouth,* a 
task undertaken, from request, at a short notice ; which we 
began with hesitation, yet quit with regret ; for many his- 
torical facts are before us, and a multitude of thoughts arise 

* A good history of Scituate, Taunton, Rehoboth, and Lynn, is wanted. The latter 
was the hive, whence issued the swarms which peopled Sandwich and Yarmouth, 
about 1638 and 1640 ; while we find, also, that Rehoboth received early accessions from 
Hingham, about 1646, as well as from Weymouth. Similar names, and an intimate 
connexion, seems to have subsisted among all these places. The ruling motive, in 
most cases, next to safety from the natives, as to a place of settlement, seems always 
to have been, as we have noticed, where they could winter their cattle. Thus, the 
Salt-marshes, at Green Harbour, Duxbury, Barnstable, Scituate, Sandwich, &c. had 
early attractions, before the Fresh-meadows of the interior were explored ; and we no- 
tice, that Boston, having no meadows, the cattle were kept at Muddy River, on the 
opposite western shore. 


from the subject, which, like an antique vase, has many 
compartments of designs and inscriptions. 

Jan. 10, 1815. 19. 4. 

A Description of Kingston, in the County of 


X HE town of Kingston is the smallest of seventeen 
towns, included in the county of Plymouth, Halifax and 
Hull excepted. It is situated on the southeasterly part 
of the county, on a small bay, a branch of the great bay 
of Massachusetts, round which are the towns of Dux- 
borough, Kingston, and Plymouth ; and is formed by a 
narrow beach, which extends from Marshfield, southerly, 
six miles, the head of which is an high knoll, called the 
Gurnet, on which stands the Light-house ; and by anoth- 
er beach, which extends, from the mouth of Eel-river in 
Plymouth, northerly, about a mile and a half. It is 
bounded on the south by Plymouth ; on the west, partly 
by Carver, and principally by Plympton : on the norths 
partly by Pembroke, and principally by Duxborough, 
and on the east, two miles, by the sea ; thirty-five miles 
southeasterly from Boston, and the same distance north- 
westerly from Barnstable. It is irregular in form, ex- 
tending about six miles north and south, and about four 
miles east and west, and would make an area of about 
four miles, and contains about 10,560 acres. The north- 
erly half of the town is generally level ; the southerly, 
broken and gravelly ridges. A large portion of the 
south part of the town is wood land ; so uneven and un- 
fit for cultivation, that it will probably remain in the 
same state. 

The most elevated ground, is Monk's Hill, in the 
south part, in the midst of the wilderness, and commands 
an extensive view, westerly and northerly,, of the sur- 
rounding towns, as far as the high lands in the neigh- 
bourhood of Stoughton and Canton ; and on the easter- 


ly quarter, of Cape Cod, and the intermediate bay, ten 
leagues in width ; and southerly, of that great level for- 
est of pitch pine woods which extends from its base, 
over parts of Plymouth, Carver, Wareham, and Sand- 
wich, twenty miles, to the south shore and Buzzard's 

The soil of Kingston is generally thin and barren ; a 
red loam intermixed with sand, gravel, and round stones, 
in various degrees. In the southeast corner of the town, 
there is a tract of two or three hundred acres of rocky 
strong grass land, ail'ording excellent pasture. About 
one half of the town is under cultivation, and very little 
is yearly added to that proportion. The land is unpro- 
ductive of grass, and there are not two hundred tons of 
English hay cut in any year. On the mouth of Jones' 
river, are about one hundred acres of salt-marsh, produc- 
ing hay of different kinds, and good quality. Consider- 
able quantities of low ground, and fresh meadow hay, 
are cut, of ordinary quality. Pastures are poor ; but, 
like all those near the sea, produce more nutritive feed 
than those distant. 

The land in general is of easy tilth, producing Indian 
corn, from ten to twenty, and rye, from eight to twelve 
bushels, of a good quality, per acre. There is no article 
of food produced, more than is consumed in the town, 
except of rye. Probably one third the bread-stuff con- 
sumed, is imported ; flour from Boston ; corn, from the 
neighbouring towns ; but chiefly, from the southern 
states. There is no farm in Kingston that keeps twenty 
head of cattle, and no dairy of ten cows. Sheep are not 
numerous, but increasing. 

Though the soil is poor, the greater proportion of the 
inhabitants depend chiefly on agriculture ; most of them, 
however, have some other trade, occupation, or business, 
connected with it. 

There have been few, either vegetable or animal pro- 
ductions, extraordinary, worth notice. 

In the garden of the Honourable William Sever, Esq. 
an accidental pumpkin seed produced twenty-seven large 
fair ripe pumpkins, besides several that did not ripen. 



A small apple twig, planted by Jedediah Holmes, Esq. 
produced, the eleventh year, thirty bushels of excellent 

An Indian woman, in twenty-two months, at three 
births, brought forth seven children ; two, and two, and 

The kinds of wood are, chiefly, red and white oak, 
pitch and white pine, and maple, on the low grounds. 
Some wood is yearly sent by water to Boston market, 
and costs one third for freight, leaving the price here, 
two-thirds what it produces there. The price at market 
in the fall of 1814, having been high, eight and ten dol- 
lars, per cord, a thousand cords were cut that season. 
The growth of wood is not equal to the consumption, 
and families must soon emigrate to that article. 

In a certain enclosure of six acres, are the following 
kinds of wood naturally produced. 

White ) n , Sassafras, Holly, 

Red 5 UaK? Poplar, Withwood, 

White > -r>. , Beech, Wild-cherry, 

Black I mrcn > Hazel, Walnut, 

White > p. Dog-wood, Maple, 

Pitch \ Fever-wood, Willow, 

Hemlock, . , ( Black, Sumach, 

Cedar, \ White, Swamp-pear, 

Hornebine, Alder, Swamp-whortle-berry ? 

Iron-wood, Arrow-wood, Upland do. 

Baberry, Apple-tree, 31 kinds. 

Some of the above are the vulgar, not the scientifick 

There is one article in which the town richly abounds ; 
fair water. At the northwest corner of the town, and 
partly within its limits, is a pond, called Jones' River 
pond, about two miles in length, and one mile in width, 
from which issues a small river, passing easterly, through 
the centre of the town, four miles, to the sea, receivings 
number of small tributary streams : and the distance of 
one mile towards its mouth, dividing the town from Dux- 
borough ; meeting the highest tides two miles from the 
sea ; intersected by five dams : from its source to the 


sea, descending about forty-five feet. In the southwest 
part of the town is Indian pond, half a mile in extent, 
without an outlet, crossed by the westerly line of the 
town. In the southerly part of the town is Smelt-pond, 
half a mile in extent, emitting Smelt-brook, running 
northerly one mile, to Jones' river, near its mouth. In 
the centre of the town is a small pond, sending forth a 
small stream northerly to Jones' river. From a tract of 
fresh meadow in the southwest part, issues a stream, 
which entering Plympton, and passing some miles, re-en- 
ters Kingston, and unites with Jones' river, one mile 
from its source.* 

The road from Boston to Plymouth passes through 
Kingston three miles, on the easterly side, in full view 
of the sea, crossing four never-failing streams. There 
are an endless number of springs, (especially in the south 
part,) ponds, and brooks, of never-failing water, too many 
to be enumerated, in the most minute description of a 
small town. 

There are in the town, six grist mills, four saw mills, 
one carding mill, two anchor works, one forge, three 
works for making shovels, spades, screw augers, &c. 
Two cotton factories : one of {$25,000 capital, calculated 
for twelve hundred, now moves seven hundred spindles, 
and employs thirty hands, twelve looms, besides many 
in private families : another, $20,000 capital, calculated 
for twelve hundred spindles, now moves seven hundred, 
employs thirty hands, and eight looms, besides many in 
private families; both erected in 1813. 

One furnace, built 1735, formerly supplied with ore 
from this and the neighbouring towns, but in latter 
years principally from New-Jersey. The art of casting 
iron vessels in sand, was invented, or introduced, many 
years since, into this furnace, and into the old colony, 
by Jeremy Floro, an Englishman, an ingenious founder ; 
previous to which, all iron vessels were cast on clay 

* Furnace brook, fed by springs, with two dams and works, uniting, from tbe south, 
with Jones' river, two rmles from the sea ; and Black-water brook, uniting from the 
north with Jones' river, one mile from the sea, with two dams and works. 


moulds. In that method, it was requisite, in the sum- 
mer, or drying season, to construct as many moulds as 
there were vessels to be cast in the whole blast of a fur- 
nace. When the moulds were all used, the blast ceas- 
ed, till another stock of moulds, with much time, labour 
and expense, were prepared. But by the art of casting 
in sand, the business was greatly expedited ; and though 
the quality of vessels cast in clay, was much superiour 
to that of those cast in sand, yet the greater expedition 
in the one case, vastly exceeded the benefit in the other. 
Jeremy Floro lived to nearly ninety years of age, and 
died at Plympton, about the year 1755. 

Kingston was set off as a parish from Plymouth, in 
the year 1717, by the name Jones' River parish. The 
river, and consequently the parish, I suppose, received 
its name from Captain Jones, of the ship May-Flower, 
which transported and landed our fathers at Plymouth. 
In Morton's Memorial there is mention made, that after 
they arrived at this place, they soon explored the neigh- 
bouring lands and streams, at which time, I suppose, this 
river received its name, as a compliment to the captain. 
In the year 1717, forty-one inhabitants of the north 
part of Plymouth, near Jones' river, with a small part of 
Plympton and Pembroke, petitioned the General Court, 
to be set off as a parish ; which was granted. The par- 
ish then contained forty-eight families. The persons 
who petitioned were as follows : 

Israel Bradford, Samuel Fuller, 

Hezekiah Bradford, Isaac Holmes, 

John Bryant, John Washburn, 

Francis Cook, Ebenezer Cushman, 

Elisha West, Benjamin Eaton, 

Judah Hall, John Everson, 

Jacob Cook, jun. Robert Cushman, 

Perez Bradford, William Bradford, 

John Cushman, David Bradford, 

Ephraim Bradford, Benjamin Bryant, 

Joseph Holmes, Richard Everson, 

Ebenezer Eaton, Jacob Mitchell, 

Caleb Stetson, Peter Hunt, 


Elisha Stetson, John Gray, 

Robert Cook, Joseph Sturtcvant, 

William Cook, Peter West, 

Jonathan Bryant, Elisha Bradford, 

Wrestling Brewster, Gershom Bradford, 

John Bradford, John Bradford, jun. 

Jacob Cook, Elnathan Fish. 

Charles Little, 
The town of Kingston was incorporated 1726. The 
first representative chosen, was Gershom Bradford. 

The first house for publick worship was opened 1713. 
Thomas Paine, father of the late Judge Paine, was the 
first candidate, who afterwards settled at Weymouth. 
The Rev. Joseph Stacy was born at Cambridge, 1694, 
learned the shoe-maker's trade, and was afterward gradu- 
ated at the college in that place, 1719, and was ordained, 
first pastor of Kingston, Nov. 3, 1720. He was small 
of stature, remarkably abstemious, very sprightly and 
active, delighted in fishing and fowling, for which sport 
there was, in that day, abundant opportunity. This 
amusement he did not pursue to the neglect of his min- 
isterial duties, in which he was very diligent and faithful. 
He was a man of common talents, distinguished piety, 
and happy in the affections of his people, and died of a 
fever, August 25, 1741, aged 47. 

The Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty was born in Boston, 
graduated at Cambridge, 1739, received a call to settle 
in Kingston, July 26, 1742, and was ordained the second 
pastor, the 3d of the following November ; and was dis- 
missed November 3, 1 745. The circumstances attending 
his dismission, were the following. 

The commotions, which were excited by Mr. White- 
field's coming into this country, and by his censures of 
many of the standing clergy, alarmed the inhabitants of 
Kingston ; and on January 29, 1745, they chose a com- 
mittee of eight persons to prevent itinerant preachers 
disturbing the peace of the town. Mr. Maccarty was a 
follower and admirer of Whitefield : and having appoint- 
ed a stated lecture, it was reported in the town, that he 
had invited Mr. Whitefield, who was then at Plymouth, 


to preach the lecture. The report was erroneous, but 
operated as if true ; and measures were taken to shut 
the meeting-house ; which Mr. Maccarty understanding, 
did not attend the appointed lecture ; and being highly 
incensed at the attempt to control the pulpit, asked a 
dismission. A council was called on the occasion, the 
result of which I do not find, only that it was accepted 
by the church. It is said, that Mr. Maccarty afterward 
asked leave to withdraw his request for a dismission, 
which was refused ; and his dimission was voted. He 
preached his farewell sermon, November 3, 1745, pre- 
cisely three years after his ordination, from these words, 
very pertinent to the occasion, Acts xx. 31, " Therefore 
watch and remember, that by the space of three years, I 
ceased not to warn every one night and day with tears. 
And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and the 
word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to 
give you an inheritance among all those who are sanctifi- 
ed." The manner of Mr. Maccarty's separation from 
his people caused much speculation and altercation ; 
some justifying the town, and others Mr. Maccarty. 
Those who could not, or would not, see the extravagan- 
ces, excesses, and disturbances, produced by the spirit 
excited by Whitefield, vindicated Mr. Maccarty. Those 
of different spirit and views, exculpated the town, and 
condemned the pastor. 

About fifty years after Mr. Maccarty's dismission, cer- 
tain persons, influenced by sectarian zeal, and wishing, 
apparently, to cast reproach on the town, procured a 
copy of Mr. Maccarty's farewell sermon, which he left 
behind him in Kingston, in manuscript, and published 
it, with a preface, suggesting that the inhabitants of 
Kingston, in their conduct towards Mr. Maccarty, were 
influenced by a spirit of opposition and enmity to relig- 
ion and truth. The author of that preface was either 
ignorant, or wished to forget, that Mr. Whitefield, when 
he first came into this country, was very censorious and 
bitter towards those who did not unite with him, and en- 
courage his measures; and that his hard and uncandid 
speeches excited that opposition which he met with in 


many places ; and that in some of his last visits to this 
country, he became more candid, and acknowledged the 
errors of his former conduct.* 

Mr. Maccarty was afterwards settled in Worcester, 
where he continued in the ministry many years, and died 
July 18, 1785. lie was tall of stature, slender of habit, 
a black, penetrating eye, loud, sonorous voice, solemn 
and rousing in manner of address, Calvinistick in opin- 
ion and doctrines. After his preaching a convention ser- 
mon, it was remarked, at a dining table, by an elderly 
clergyman of Boston, now living, that he never heard 
Father Maccarty preach either a very low, or a very bril- 
liant discourse. 

The Rev, William Rand, the third minister of Kings- 
ton, was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, 1700, 
graduated at Cambridge, 1721, and installed at Kings- 
ton, 1716. He had been minister at Sunderland, on 
Connecticut river, about twenty years. His connexion 
with that people was dissolved by the contentions conse- 
quent upon Whitefield's coming into the province, and 
by the intolerant spirit, which then prevailed in that 
neighbourhood. He continued in the ministry in Kings- 
ton, thirty-four years, and died of an apoplexy, 1779, 
aged 79. He was of middling stature, very spare habit, 
dark complexion, and strong constitution ; of few words, 
disciplined in the school of affliction by the death of 
children, and the consequent derangement of his wife's 
intellects.* He was liberal in opinions and doctrines, 
plain and unornamented in his discourses, pleasing to 
judicious and discerning, rather than to warm and su- 
perficial hearers. He was a scholar, highly esteemed 
and respected by the informed and learned in the prov- 
ince, with whom he had an extensive acquaintance. f 
Several of his sermons are in print, which contribute to 
his honour. 

* In a company of gentlemen, where Father Flynt, who was a preacher, and many 
years a tutor at Cambridge, was present, Mr. Whitefield said : " It is my opinion, that 
Dr. Tillotson is now in hell for his heresy." Father Flynt replied, " It i.s my opinion, 
that you will not meet him there." 

t bee Coll. of Hist. Soc. vol. X. p. 159. 


The Rev. Zephaniah Willis, the fourth minister in 
Kingston, was born at Bridgewater, February 24, 1757, 
graduated at Cambridge, 1778, ordained October 18, 

The first minister, 1720, received for his support, 
/.100 settlement, and /.80 salary. Indian corn, in that 
day, was worth from four to five shillings, and rye about 
six shillings, per bushel. As the currency was in these 
days fluctuating, his salary was increased afterward to 
/.1 20. 

The second minister, 1742, was to receive as a salary, 
I A 60 for four years, and after that, /.200 per annum, and 
/.400 settlement. Indian corn was then worth twenty 
shillings per bushel. 

The third minister, 1746, was to receive 661. \3s.M. 
Corn worth two shillings and eight pence per bushel. 

The fourth minister, 1780, received l.\33 6s. 8d. set- 
tlement, and /.80 salary, founded on corn at three and 
four pence per bushel ; rye four shillings ; beef two and 
an half-pence per lb. ; and pork four-pence per lb. ; and 
twenty cords of oak wood. 

The first house for publick worship was erected 
on a small elevated plain, in the easterly part of the 
town, one mile from, and in full view of the sea, in di- 
mension 36 by 42 feet, opened 1718. It was enlarged 
in 1752, and some years after, a tower and bell were add- 
ed. It was taken down in 1798, and the present house 
erected on the same lot, and partly on the same site, in 
the same year. The present house, in the outward form, 
was constructed with the worst possible taste, with two 
cupolas, with an ill-shaped roof, and gutters which are 
rarely made to shed water. It was built at that time 
when a perverse taste prevailed, threatening to amputate 
all those spires which add a sublime view to all our large 
towns, and which beautify the prospect of villages and 
parishes, through the country. 

The interiour part of the house is convenient, having 
68 pews on the lower floor. It was opened for publick 
worship the 16th of September, 1798, but not finished 
till the following year. 


The town of Kingston had been remarkable for peace, 
unanimity and concord, for a long course of years, till 
1802, when there originated a great contention and bitter 
quarrel, which destroyed the peace and harmony of the 
town, and resulted in the formation of a new religious 
society, adopting the name, rites and formalities, of a dif- 
ferent denomination, from what had existed in the town 
till that period. The circumstances of this event were 
as follows. 

After the building of an house of publick worship, in 
the year 1798, and discharging the expense, which was 
done by the sale of pews, there was left a surplus of mo- 
ney, about $1100. Some of the most judicious and dis- 
cerning men of the town, viewed this as a favourable 
opportunity, to lay a foundation, and make a beginning, 
for an accumulating fund : which at a future period, 
might be sufficient for the support and maintenance of 
the publick institutions of religion, according to the con- 
gregational order. A town-meeting was called 1801, 
and an almost unanimous vote was passed, to appropriate 
the said sum, to the proposed object. In 1802, applica- 
tion was made to the legislature ; and an act passed, es- 
tablishing the appropriation, and incorporating the Rev. 
Zephaniah Willis, Ebenezer Washburn, Esq. Col. John 
Gray, Jedediah Holmes, Esq. Mr. John Faunce, Col. 
John Thomas, and Mr. Jedediah Holmes, jun. seven 
persons, as trustees for the management of said fund ; 
and to fill up vacancies in their number. Soon after this, 
certain men of the town, seeking popularity, and exert- 
ing themselves to influence others, began to sow dis- 
sension; alleging that the town had been circumvented 
in making the aforesaid appropriation, and obtaining said 
incorporating act ; and by artfully addressing passions 
and prejudices, and by misrepresentations and falsehoods, 
they obtained so much influence, as to procure a town- 
meeting, and obtain a vote, to petition the legislature to 
repeal the incorporating act. A remonstrance against 
the prayer of the said petition was presented by a large 
number of the most respectable inhabitants of the town. 
A counter remonstrance w T as presented, signed by ninety 



of the habitations, influenced by various motives. As a 
great contention had arisen, and the peace and happiness 
of the town was destroyed, many voted for the petition 
for repeal, and signed the counter remonstrance, suppos- 
ing, that if the incorporating act was annulled, it would 
be a means of restoring that peace and harmony, which 
had been so unhappily interrupted. The petition for a 
repeal, supported by the counter remonstrance, was not 
sustained ; and the incorporating act, by the wisdom and 
justice of the legislature, was confirmed and established. 
The Honourable William Sever, Esq. who had generous- 
ly subscribed one hundred dollars in aid of said fund, 
came forward in town-meeting, and offered to pay to 
those who had petitioned and remonstrated for the repeal 
of the incorporating act, their whole proportion of the 
money which had been funded, together with the inter- 
est which had accrued ; but through shame, or rage, or 
for some other reason, the benevolent and generous offer 
was not accepted. 

About thirty of the petitioners and counter remon- 
strants, mortified and enraged at the failure of their at- 
tempt, withdrew with their families, and formed them- 
selves into a separate society, assuming the denomination 
of Baptists, and erected an house for publick worship, 
1806, and the Rev. Samuel Glover was ordained their 
pastor, 1810. 

The above said fund, by interest and donations, has 
accumulated to the sum of $2700. 

There are in the town, two hundred and forty dwell- 
ing-houses ; a great proportion of them low, poor, con- 
structed of wood. There are few which can be called 
good and handsome. About eighty of them stand with- 
in one mile of the meeting-house. 

According to the census, the town contained in A. D. 
1800, 1037 inhabitants; in A. D. 1810, 1137 ; both of 
which were below correctness. At this time, 1 815, there 
are three hundred families, containing about 1250 souls, 
a fraction more than four to a family. 

Major John Bradford, soon after the parish was set off 
from Plymouth, gave the first minister, Mr. Stacy, two 


acres of land, on which lie built an house ; also for the 
use of the ministry, one acre nigh the meeting-house, 
and a wood lot of eleven acres ; also to the town, two 
acres, on which the meeting-house stands, and a small 
lot for a school-house in the centre of the town. 

The local and natural conveniences of Kingston, are 
the following : A post-road from Boston to Plymouth, 
passing through the town and village, (in which is a post- 
office) on which the stage passes and repasses each day 
in the week, sabbath excepted ; A communication by 
water with Boston and other ports ; Articles for market 
at Plymouth, from Bridgewater, Abington, and several 
other towns, passing through, affording a supply to those 
who are able and wish to purchase ; A good supply of 
cod-fish, haddock, halibut, and mackerell, in the temper- 
ate season, by boats, which must go six miles at least, 
into the bay between Cape-Cod and the main ; Alewives, 
frost fish, smelts, clams, and abundance of eels in their 
season. The latter are chiefly taken during two months 
in the fall of the year, while they are passing up the 
streams to the ponds, springs, swamps, and marshy 
places, where they remain through the winter, and return 
in the spring to the bay. In the month of June, myriads 
of their young pass down the streams ; but how they 
are propagated has hitherto escaped the researches of the 
most diligent and discerning naturalist. 

Not more than one half of the town being under cul- 
tivation, it has the best supply of wood of any town in 
the county, excepting Plymouth. 

The tow 7 n maintains one grammar school the year 
round, at four school houses, in different quarters of the 
town, with a permanent master, who has a salary of $400 
per year; and an English school about six months. 

The expense for supporting the poor has averaged, 
say for ten years, about $'600 per annum, but is increas- 
ing. The hard, not to say barbarous, practice, of dis- 
posing of the poor at publick auction, to the lowest bid- 
der, thereby throwing them into those families, where 
they are treated in the worst manner, has not yet obtain- 
ed ; though with a view to lessen the expense, there are 


many advocates for it. The selectmen contract with 
private persons to take the poor into their families, where 
they are comfortably provided for, and do not endure 
cold, and hunger, and insult, in addition to the misfor- 
tune of being unable to minister to their own necessities* 
Orchards in Kingston have always been few in num- 
ber, the soil being unfavourable. As the old ones de- 
cayed, the planting others has been too much neglected. 
The few of the early planted trees which remain show, 
that, at that period, they arose to a much larger size, and 
different form, from those of modern times. The vari- 
ous kinds of plums that used to prosper, and the kentish 
cherry, which used to abound, have almost wholly dis- 

Kingston is generally a dry soil, and an healthy situa- 
tion. The extreme heat of summer is mitigated by sea 
turns : the cool air flowing in from the east, during some 
part of the day, not extending far inland, and returning 
from the west at the close of the day. In the months of 
April and May, there is generally a long course of east- 
erly raw winds, which retard vegetation, and the bloom 
of the orchards, about one week, compared with the 
towns a little remote from the sea. Frosts in the fall are 
retarded by the sea air, about the same length of time. 

The disorders most prevalent are, pulmonary con- 
sumption, and putrid fever ; of the former, seventy per- 
sons have died in thirty-four years. The throat ail, which 
prevailed in many places in the years 1747 and 8, severe- 
ly visited this town. More than forty persons, mostly 
children, died. In the family of Thomas Cushman, out 
of six, four died in eight hours, and were interred in 
the same grave. That disorder was a violent putrid 
fever, with sore throat, not attended with eruption. The 
dysentery, which prevailed in most parts of the United 
States in the year 1776, was very mortal in this place- 
When our fathers arrived at this place, they found it 
in great measure vacant, a pestilence having swept off 
the natives ; but it had been populous. 

The land which the natives cultivated was easily tilled, 
and aided by fish as manure, produced considerable quan- 


tities of Indian corn. The bay abounded with fish and 
fowl, the shores and flats with shell-fish, the streams with 

alewives, frost-fish, smelts, and eels, in their season ; the 
woods with turkeys, deer, and other animals ; and the 
population was in proportion to the means of subsistence. 
The frequent places of their habitation are discoverable 
by shells, and marks of lire, arrow-heads, and simple 
stone utensils, turned up by the plough ; implements im- 
portant to those who knew not the use of iron, which is 
more valuable than silver, gold, or precious stones, hav- 
ing multiplied and civilized the nations of the earth, and 
produced the conveniences and comforts which mankind 

There was a large burying place of the natives, on the 
plain, a little northeast of the spot where the meeting- 
house stands, many years since obliterated by the plough. 
In ploughing and opening the ground, in many places, 
the mouldering bones of former unknown fenerations 
are frequently discovered. 

The landing place is on the bank of Jones' river, a 
little more than one mile from the mouth of the river. 
At low water, there is only the natural stream at the 
wharf, where the tide rises from eight to twelve feet. 
The landing is the only place where ship-building is car- 
ried on. The water is not sufficient for carrying out ves- 
sels exceeding four hundred tons, and few of that size 
have been built there. 

Ship timber is nearly exhausted in Kingston, and is 
brought from Middleborough, Halifax, and the back 
towns. At Rocky Nook, in the southeast corner of the 
town, is a wharf, and the most convenient place for the 
business of navigation ; it being of more easy access than 
the river, and has latterly been more used. The fishery, 
till the war, was, in latter years, wholly carried on from 
that place. Formerly, fish were cured at Sunderland, so 
called, on Jones' river, one mile from the sea. Before 
the revolutionary war, the fishery was more extensive 
than since. About twenty schooners were owned in the 



At the declaration of peace, at the close of the second 
war with Britain, the navigation owned in Kingston, was 
as follows: At the landing, three sloops, 150 tons ; one 
brig, 160 tons : At Rocky Nook, six schooners, 445 tons ; 
and two brigs, 256 tons. 

At Rocky Nook are salt-works, producing about two 
hundred bushels of salt in a season. 

Between the revolutionary, and the war now terminat- 
ed, there have been built in this town, upon an average, 
about two hundred and fifty tons of shipping annually* 
About sixty men have been annually employed in seafar- 
ing business, and thirty in ship building. 

The morals of the people are generally good. There 
has been no publick house for entertainment in. the town 
for many years, but the traders, usually about five in 
number, have been in the practice of retailing spirituous 
liquors in small quantities, to the injury of many individ- 
uals, who there spend that time and money which ought 
to be better employed. The exertions which have been 
made, in various parts of the commonwealth, to check 
the consumption of spirits, and the formation of a socie- 
ty in the town for the aid of that purpose, have produced 
some benefit, retailers having ceased to sell drams, 
Though the general use of spirits is much greater than 
in former years, instances of extreme excess are less 

The distresses consequent upon the war have fallen 
heavily upon this small town ; but the prospect of peace 
this day announced, diffuses joy, and though no object 
of the war has been obtained to compensate for the loss 
of thousands of lives and millions of property, we re- 
joice at deliverance from the evils which we have suf- 
fered. 26. 23. 

Kingston, Feb. 14, 1815. 

A bill of mortality for the town of Kingston, from 1781 
to 1815, inclusive, 34 years. 









































































Under 5 years, 



Between 5 and 10, 



Between 10 and 20, 



Between 20 and 30, 



Between 30 and 40, 



Between 40 and 50, 



Between 50 and 60, 



Between 60 and 70, 



Between 70 and 80, 



Between 80 and 90, 



Between 90 and 100, 



Between 100 and 110, 




* Ebenezcr Cobb, Dec. 3, 1801, aged 107 y. 8 m. 6 d. 


Rise and Progress of the Bass and Mackerel 
Fishery at Cape-Cod. 

IN the Historical Collections, vol. 6, first series, may be 
seen a petition of Prince and Bosworth, of Hull, to the 
magistrates of Plymouth colony, on the subject of the 
Makerel fishery at the Cape: it is dated 1671. In 
looking over the colony records, we remark frequent no- 
tices of this fishery at different periods, as follows : 

1650. Previous to this date the colonists of Ply- 
mouth had permitted the people of Hull to seine fish at 
the Cape ; but at this time some irregularities having 
occurred, the colony take it into their hands, when Mr. 
John Stone of Hull is interdicted from pursuing it there 
any more. The following extracts from " Court pro- 
ceedings " exhibit a clear view of the state of this fishery 
in 1650. 

" Whereas Mr. Thomas Prence and Mr. William 
" Paddy have desired leave to set upon a constant course 
" of bass fishing at Cape-Cod, supposing that if God 
" please to bless their proceedings, in time it may prove 
" very beneficial to this jurisdiction ; the Court, having 
" taken this their motion into serious consideration, 
" thought good for the present therefore, to condescend 
" to their motion ; and have judged it fit to give leave to 
" Mr. Thomas Prence, Capt. Standish, and Mr. William 
" Paddy, with such of the three towns of Plymouth, 
" Duxbury, and Nauset, as shall join them ; and to that 
" end to make use of any of the lands, creeks, timber, 
" &c. upon the cape-land, in such convenient places as 
" they shall choose for that purpose." 

1651. The privilege was confirmed to the same par- 
ties, "together with Mr. William Bradford, in behalf of 
" the said towns, for three years, from October ; then to 
" revert to the country's disposing." 

The regulations in 1650 were as follows: 
" Two companies with net boats, and other craft, are 
" considered as much as the place would bear : The first 


iC company to malic choice of a place to build upon ; and 
<; the second to choose, when they are suited ; that so a 
" due orderly course may be observed in the manag- 
Ci ing it." 

1677, July. Cape fishery is let for seven years, at 
thirty pounds per annum, to seine mackerel and bass, to 
certain individuals, who are named. They are restricted 
in the first instance, to take in the Plymouth colonists 
with them ; and if none offer, to admit strangers under 
due regulations. 

About this period we have occasionally noticed that 
the profits of hire, which accrued to the colony, were 
distributed sometimes to schools. The greater portion 
appears to have been given to one which, at that time, 
was kept at Duxbury by Mr. Wiswall, to another at 
Plymouth, and others elsewhere. 

Gratified in rescuing these notices on interesting sub- 
jeets from oblivion, we offer them to the Historical So- 
ciety for preservation, and if they shall deem fit, publi- 
cation. 19. 4. 

Recantation of Confessors of Witchcraft. 

[The following paper was prepared for publication in these Collec- 
tions by Dr. Belknap, who wrote on it, "Remainder of the ac- 
count of the Salem Witchcraft ; the former part in the hands of 
Rev. John Eliot, May 31, 1796." By some accident the paper 
was mislaid, and not printed according to the intentions of Dr. Bel- 
knap ; who probably designed that it should follow " Mr. Brattle's 
account of the Witchcraft in the county of Essex, 1C92 ; " which 
was published by Dr. Eliot, in the 5th volume of the Historical 
Collections, paged, and appears to be " the former part of the ac- 
count," referred to. The editor has consulted Calef and Hutchin- 
son ; and does not find that the paper has been printed by them. 
In the 2d volume of Hutchinson, page 40, there is, however, a re- 
cantation of several persons in Andover, viz. Mary Osgood, Mary 
Tiler, Deliverance Dane, Abigail Barker, Sarah Wilson, and Han- 
nah Tiler, which agrees with this paper in substance.] 

Salem, Oct. 19, '92. T^E Rev. Mr. I. Mather went 
to Salem [to visit] the confessours (so called) : He con- 
ferred with several of them, and they spake as follows : 


Mrs. Osgood freely and relentingly said, that the con- 
fession* which she made upon her examination for witch- 
craft, and afterwards acknowledged before the honoura- 
ble judges, was wholly false, and that she was brought to 
the said confession by the violent urging and unreasona- 
ble pressings that were used toward her ; she asserted 
that she never signed to the devill's book, was never bap- 
tised by the devill, never afflicted any of the accusers, or 
gave her consent for their being afflicted. Being asked, 
why she prefixed a time and spake of her being baptised, 
&c, about twelve years since ; she replyed, and said, 
that when she had owned the thing, they asked the time ; 
to which she answered, that she knew not the time ; but 
being told that she did know the time and must tell the 
time, and the like ; she considered that about twelve years 
before (when she had her last child) she had a fitt of sick- 
nesse, and was melancholy ; and so thought that that time 
might be as proper a time to mention as any, and accord- 
ingly did prefix the said time. 

Being asked about the cat, in the shape of which she 
had confessed the devill appeared to her, &c. ; she reply- 
ed, that being told that the devill had appeared to her, and 
must needs appear to her, &c. ; (she being a witch) she 
at length did own that the devill had appeared to her ; and 
being press'd to say in what creature's shape he appeared 
in, she at length did say, that it was in the shape of a cat ; 
remembering that some time before her being apprehend- 
ed, as she went out at her door, she saw a cat, &c. : not 
as though she any whitt suspected the said cat to be the 
devill in the day of *** but because some creature she 
must mention, and this came thus into her mind at that 

Deacon Fry's wife said, that the confession she made 
she was frighted into, and that it was all of it false. 

Mrs. Dean and Goodwife Barker said freely, that they 
had wronged the truth in making their confession ; that 
they in their lives time never covenanted with the devill, 
or had seen him ; that they were press'd and urg'd, and 
affrighted ; that at last they did say even any thing that 
was desired of them ; they said that they were sensible of 

* See Mrs. Osgood's confession in Hutchinson, vol. II. p. 31. 


their great evill in giving way at last to own what was 
false, and spake all with such weeping, relenting, and 
bleeding, as was enough to affect the hardest heart ; par- 
ticularly G. Barker bewail'd and lamented her accusing of 
others, whom she never knew any evill by in her life 
time ; and said that she was told by her examiners that 
she did know of their being witches and must confesse it ; 
that she did know of their being baptised, &c. : and must 
confesse it ; by the renewed urgings and chargings of 
whom at last she gave way, and owned such things as 
were utterly false, which now she was in great horrour 
and anguish of soul for her complying with. 

Good wife Tyler did say, that when she was first ap- 
prehended, she had no fears upon her, and did think that 
nothing could have made her confesse against herself ; but 
since, she had found to her great grief, that she had 
wronged the truth, and falsely accused herself: she said, 
that when she was brought to Salem, her brother Bridges 
rode with her, and that all along the way from Andover 
to Salem, her brother kept telling her that she must needs 
be a witch, since the afflicted accused her, and at her 
touch were raised out of their fitts, and urging her to 
confess herself a witch ; she as constantly told him, that 
she was no witch, that she knew nothing of witchcraft, 
and begg'd of him not to urge her to confesse ; howev- 
er when she came to Salem, she was carried to a room, 
where her brother on one side and Mr. John Emerson on 
the other side did tell her that she was certainly a witch, 
and that she saw the devill before her eyes at that time 
(and accordingly the said Emerson would attempt with 
his hand to beat him away from her eyes) and they so 
urged her to confesse, that she wished herself in any 
dungeon, rather than be so treated : Mr. Emerson told 
her once and again, AVell ! I see you will not confesse ! 
"Well ! I will now leave you, and then you are undone, 
body and soul forever : Her brother urged her to con- 
fesse, and told her that in so doing she could not lye ; to 
which she answered, Good brother, do not say so, for I 
shall lye if 1 confesse, and then who shall answer unto 
God for my lye ? He still asserted it, and said that God 


would not suffer so many good men to be in such an cr- 
rour about it, and that she would be hang'd, if she did 
not confesse, and continued so long and so violently to 
urge and presse her to confesse, that she thought verily 
her life would have gone from her, and became so terrify- 
ed in her mind, that she own'd at length almost any thing 
that they propounded to her ; but she had wronged 
her conscience in so doing, she was guilty of a great sin 
in belying of herself, and desired to mourn for it as long 
as she lived : This she said and a great deal more of the 
like nature, and all of it with such affection, sorrow, re- 
lenting, grief, and mourning, as that it exceeds any pen 
for to describe and expresse the same. 

Good wife Wilson said, that she was in the dark as to 
some things in her confession ; yet she asserted that 
knowingly she never had familiarity with the devill ; that 
knowingly she never consented to the afflicting of any 
person, &c. : However she said that truly she was in the 
dark as to the matter of her being a witch ; and being 
ask'd how she was in the dark, she replyed that the af- 
flicted persons crying out of her as afflicting them made 
her fearfull of herself, and that was all that made her say, 
that she was in the dark. 

Goodwife Bridges said, that she had confessed against 
herself things which were all utterly false, and that she 
was brought to her confession by being told that she cer- 
tainly was a witch, and so made to believe it, though she 
had no other grounds so to believe. 

Goodwife Marston said, that she had a burthen upon 
her conscience, and that she had been burthened ever 
since she had made her confession, for she had wronged 
the truth and belyed herself; she never was guilty of 
witchcraft, or having to do with the devill (as she knew 
of) in her life time. 

Sarah Churchill knew not whether it was in the day 
time or night time, that she stuck the thorns in the three 

Hannah Post said, that Margaret Jacobs was choking of 
S. Ch. and that she appeared as little as a child of two 
years old. 


Mary Post told the old story of her spirit's riding 
upon the rail ; but *********** 

[The remainder is elligible, in the manuscript.] 

The Landing of the Fathers. 

[The committee for publishing the present volume of the Collections 
have adopted from the newspapers two distinct accounts of the pic- 
ture of " the Landing of the Fathers," by Henry Sargent, Esq. writ- 
ten with such minuteness and elegance that we conld not easily 
have obtained a criticism more satisfactory to the publick.] 


J- HE fine arts are closely allied together, spring from 
the same source of inspiration, and may be said to con- 
stitute the nobility of the human mind. To show their 
intimate connexion, and the strong attractive sympathy, 
subsisting between them, they may, with perfect proprie- 
ty, be defined one by another. Poetry is at once the 
musick of words, and the painting of things ; while mu- 
sick is the poetry of sounds, and painting the poetry of 
colours. According to the established order of nature, 
requiring in all things some principal directing power, 
poetry has evidently the greatest share of influence over 
her sister arts ; and may justly be called the eldest sister, 
the presiding spirit, which pervades and animates the 
others. It is a more abstract operation of the mind, less 
dependent on external and local causes, and still less on 
a physical organization of the senses ; which is the ob- 
vious reason, why some nations, rich in poets, are poor 
in painters and musicians. 

An historical painting, then, is a species of drama pre- 
sented to the eye, where all, that is connected with col- 
ouring, forms the dialogue, and all that remains, belongs 
to invention, plot and character. In surveying it, there- 
fore, without claiming any particular acquaintance with 



what is deemed the language of painting, I place myself 
in the situation of a stranger attending the representation 
of a drama in a foreign tongue, not familiar to him ; or, 
what is still more analogous, of a spectator watching the 
progress of a pantomime, without any assistance from 
the sense of hearing, unless musick should be hyperbol- 
ically taken for a substitute of speech. As, in both these 
cases, enough is understood to appreciate the merits of 
the story, its contrivance, embellishment and general ef- 
fect ; so, with respect to a painting, one may be permit- 
ted in the like manner to form his judgment of the great 
and prominent essentials, perceptible to all, without the 
full assistance of technical knowledge, derived either 
from a previous study and education, or from habit and 
experience. Genius cannot escape observation, and, like 
a flame in darkness, is instantly visible. Nay, it is al- 
most a self evident truth, that where technical test or an- 
alysis is absolutely necessary to find out the merit of a 
production in any of the fine arts, the merit is a fugitive 
shadow, not worth catching, and the production itself has 
no soul to breathe in all its features ; and to make their 
mute discourse intelligible to every beholder. 

Without genius, there can be no invention ; no plot 
without skill, and no character without the power of dis- 
crimination. They are, like causes and effects, insepa- 
rable ; and how far they are to be discerned in Mr. Sar- 
gent's painting may appear from the following short 

The history of the landing of the Fathers is too well 
known to need a repetition. They land upon a rock at 
Plymouth, and are, unexpectedly, accosted by an Indian, 
who welcomes them in their own language. This is the 
happy moment dexterously and powerfully seized by the 
artist. The robe of snow which covers nature, the pe- 
trifying sky of winter, and the dull atmosphere shedding 
its deadening influence on every face and object, are 
touched with the pencil of truth, and a masterly hand. 
An ordinary painter would have been more solicitous, 
perhaps, about small details, by imprinting the tracks of 
feet upon the snow ; but it is the temper of genius to 


disdain the minutiae, and study the great general charac- 
teristicks. Mr. Sargent, in omitting these tracks, has 
not only given us a stronger idea of the severe cold by 
which the snow was congealed hard enough to resist the 
pressure, but excited a greater sympathy lor the suffer- 
ings of the Fathers, and contributed more effectually to 
the harmony of the whole. The ship looming at sea is 
a beautiful object ; and the whole landscape, as far as the 
season admitted, is delineated with prospective accuracy, 
and scenick effect. 

The composition, distribution and grouping of figures, 
which fill the intermediate space, shew taste, mind and 
consummate knowledge of the art. They are all large 
as life ; and remarkable for the general exact proportion 
of their limbs, and dimensions. The back figure, in 
particular, (No. 7) is an honourable proof of the artist's 
having successfully studied the anatomy of the human 
frame, and natural symmetry of form. Nor does he 
seem less instructed in the mystery and magick influence 
of contrast. Independently of the Indian, who forms 
one general contrast with respect to all the rest, each 
figure is likewise contrasted with another, and with the 
happiest effect. In the choice and disposition of drape- 
ry, the artist has again given us a proof of his superiour 
judgment, by sacrificing the opportunity of displaying 
graceful foldings to the claims of truth and consistency. 
Instead of fine and costly drapery, which alone could ad- 
mit of taste and elegance, and which would have been to 
other painters an irresistible temptation, he has clothed 
the Fathers more suitably to the season, and their actual 
condition, in colours so true that the coarse texture of 
their garments cannot for a moment be mistaken. 

The prevailing expression in each countenance is a 
! mixture of surprise, apprehension, and resolution. The 
. Indian, who is the connecting link between the groups, 
| at once the centre of attraction and repulsion, the point 
: of contrast, the life and interest of the whole subject, 
; properly causes this prevailing and mingled expression, 
and stamps the decisive character of the picture. This 
i is the most prominent, as well as the most finished and 


beautiful of all the figures. Perhaps none but an Amer- 
ican could have attempted this new personage with such 
brilliant success. His head alone is sufficient to estab- 
lish the reputation of an aspiring artist. His visage, his 
crouching attitude, are inimitably characteristick ; and 
while his lips seem in motion, one expects every moment 
to see him start from the canvas. He is all perfection, 
unless it should be contended, that the arm is faulty; 
first, because it is the left hand in an unusual position ; 
secondly, because it seems more a shadow than a sub- 
stance. It is a question, however, whether this excep- 
tion would not be a piece of injustice to the artist ; as 
the position may be peculiar to the Indian habits ; and as 
the arm, the body being so placed as to intercept the 
light, must necessarily be thrown into obscurity. With 
regard to this last, the supposition amounts almost to 
certainty, when it is perceived that, while the faces in the 
left hand group are deeply shaded by a reflection from 
the helmets, those in the group on the right side, as well 
as the upraised head of the military chief, are not shaded 
at all or very little ; because here the situation and the 
attitude are such as to admit light freely. 

The next most interesting figure is Mr. Brewster, the 
ruling elder. No one can mistake in him the guardian 
of the rest: his countenance speaks a volume of long 
suffering, care, caution, and fatherly anxiety for the pre- 
sent and future. The bend of the limbs, and particular- 
ly the foreshortening of the arm, in this as well as other 
figures, are exceedingly beautiful. 

The heads of Samuel Fuller and the lady next him 
are likewise conspicuous for beauty ; and the former is 
one of the artist's best efforts. Captain Standish forms 
a striking and peculiarly appropriate exception to all the 
other characters. He grasps the sword in one hand and 
the halberd in the other. Bold and majestick, he dis- 
dains to fix his eye upon the single Indian, but looks 
around as if in search of more enemies, resolved to en- 
counter them, and to defend his companions from all 
sudden and unforeseen attack. By these signs, the spec- 
tator immediately recognizes in him the gallant and fear- 


less warrior. The terrour and curiosity of the two chil- 
dren clinging to liovernour Carver, their father, arc also 
among the striking beauties of this painting. Nor must 
the dog be forgotten. It is worthy of the pencil of Ge- 
rard Dau. It is life itself, and is at once a judicious and 
rich appendage to the whole. 

I spoke of two children only, because the remaining 
two, one on the left and the other on the right of the In- 
dian, appear somewhat defective. Their expression is 
doubtful. Though their hands are clasped together, the 
countenances do not seem to correspond with the action ; 
and it is diiiicult to decide whether they are merely pinch- 
ed with cold, or frightened into prayers. These, how- 
ever, are small defects, if defects they be, and the artist 
will be easily consoled, when he reflects that the greatest 
masters could not escape some partial mistakes. Leon- 
ardo da Vinci, in his " Last Supper," had given six fin- 
gers to one of the Apostles ; and the great Raphael him- 
self, in his " School of Athens," had painted one of the 
legs of Alcibiades with an infortunate twist which turn- 
ed it inside out. As every thing human is inseparable 
from imperfections, it is probable, that, on this general 
principle, Mr. Sargent's picture has some other faults 
which I was not capable of detecting ; but here he may 
justly apply to himself the following lines of Horace : 

Verum ubi plura nitent in carmine, non ego paucis 

Offendar maculis, quas aut incuria fudit, 

Aut humaria parum cavit natura. Hor. Art. Poet. 

No possible fault can impair the striking beauties of 
" the Landing of the Fathers." In the grandeur of con- 
ception, boldness of design, skill in composition, choice 
of subject, situation, contrast, sentiment, expression, all 
the leading requisites of invention, plot, and character, 
this admirable painting would do credit to any of the 
most eminent painters of the present age. I would not 
exclude even those of the ancient schools. It does hon- 
our to the present times, to the artist, and to the country 
that gave him birth. It ought not to be suffered to leave 


America; not even to go out of this State. It ought to 
be purchased for some publick institution. 



THE exhibition of this painting has been long and 
eagerly expected, by such of our community as are either 
amateurs or professors in this elevated department of 
the arts. The formal annunciation of this performance 
more than twelve months ago, in some one of our news- 
papers, excited unusual attention. For a long time, how- 
ever, no information respecting the fate of this painting 
had reached our ears, and among other speculations on 
this subject, it was surmised that Mr. Sargent had re- 
linquished his design. 

This long expected work has at length so far become 
the property of the publick, as to render the artist liable 
to the praise and censure of all, who feel or think them- 
selves competent to speak or write upon the subject. 

We have visited this picture, and witnessed the varie- 
ty of effects which the sight of it produced on others. 
While one individual has bestowed upon it the most un- 
qualified applause, appreciating its merits above the 
claims which are made upon our judgments by the 
paintings of Raphael and Michael Angelo, another has 
expressed no sentiment but that of astonishment, that af- 
ter the exhibition of the " Battle of Leipzig " any gentle- 
man should venture to present his painting to the pub- 
lick, without the accompaniment of drums, trumpets, 
fiddles and clarionets. 

It is our intention to offer the publick a few remarks 
on this performance, founding our pretensions to bestow 
praise and censure on such advantages as have been ac- 
quired from a long cherished fondness for the art, and 
from frequent opportunities of surveying the works of 
almost all the masters of the different schools. 

The " Landing of the Fathers " is painted on an area y 
containing, as nearly as our eye can ascertain, without 


actual admeasurement, about two hundred square feet 
within a well proportioned parallelogram. It contains 
more than thirty figures of full stature, arrayed in the 
costume of that early period in the seventeenth century, 
when these Pilgrims arrived upon our rugged shores. 
The principal male figures are clad in the armour of 
that age. 

The first view of this painting produces an effect ex- 
tremely flattering to the artist ; for the eye is for a short 
time unable, amidst the general grandeur and richness of 
effect, to settle on any particular of beauty or deformity. 
We were, for an instant, however, disposed to attribute 
this effect to that specious and fantastick laying on of 
colours, which has characterized many modern artists of 
Europe, in other respects entitled to our highest praise. 
We must do Mr. Sargent the justice, however, to ac- 
knowledge ourselves mistaken. Indeed, repeated exam- 
ination has convinced us, that Mr. S. is not entitled to 
greater praise for any point of excellence than for his 
skilful adaptation of colours. The effect of which we 
speak is produced by a great display of colour, and an 
unusual breadth of light and shade. The principal mass 
of light falls with full force upon the snow near the feet 
of Governour Carver, the chief figure of the piece, who 
stands near the centre of the middle group, in an attitude 
of much grace and propriety, and with an air of dignifi- 
ed surprise, on beholding the savage stranger, whose un- 
expected visit has given the artist occasion to produce a 
great and pleasing variety of expression in the counte- 
nances of the surrounding groups. The figures are well 
drawn, and finely contrasted. In the principals there is 
much grandeur of style, and the grouping of the whole 
reflects much credit on the skill of the artist. 

The back ground represents the breaking up of a win- 
ter storm, the simplicity of which contributes much to 
the general effect, whilst its extensive breadth affords a 
fine repose for the eye, after wandering over the more 
busy portions of the picture. 

The groups on the right and left are well balanced, 
without displaying too obviously the art of the paint- 


er. These groups have certainly great merit. On ob- 
serving on the centre group, we cannot too much admire 
the expression of nature in the countenances of the fe- 
male and her children, especially the tender solicitude 
with which she approaches her husband, and the appre- 
hension for her little family, indicated not less by her 
general attitude and the position of her head, than by the 
anxiety depicted in her face, all which is eminently well 
contrasted by the strength and manly attitude of the sur- 
rounding figures. 

While surveying this group we are irresistibly called 
upon by the appearance of a dog near the feet of Gover- 
nour Carver. The instinctive nature of this animal is ad- 
mirably portrayed. It is readily discerned from this 
animal's cautious approach, that the savage visitor is a 

In one corner of this picture, hovering over the dreary 
scene, is a solitary sea-bird, which single circumstance is 
capable of producing in the mind a powerful association 
corresponding with the feelings of our ancestors in this 
period of their pilgrimage. 

The contrast of colour, age, sex, &c. is productive of 
much interest, and though there is a great variety, the 
harmony of the whole is exceedingly well preserved. 
The eye of the spectator floats quietly over its surface 
uninterrupted by any discordant matter. 

This performance undoubtedly has some faults, but we 
are much mistaken if they are not greatly overwhelmed 
by superiour beauties. In a work, so elaborate, and of 
such arduous performance, an artist, to be faultless, must 
be immortal. 

The execution of a picture like the present requires 
much mental and corporeal labour, and the design could 
have been formed only by the aid of a powerful genius. 

We feel a mingled sensation of pride and pleasure, 
that this performance is the effort of a native artist. We 
sincerely hope it will remain among us, and, at the same 
time, perpetuate the reputation of the artist, and add lus- 
tre to our national fame. C. 

Cambridge, March 5th, 1815. 


notices of the llfe of major general benjamin 


(jENERAL LINCOLN was a native of Hingham, 
Massachusetts ; a post town situated on a small bay, 
which sets up south from Boston ; and distant from the 
capital about thirteen miles. He was born January 23d, 
(O. S.) 1733, in the house in which he died. His father 
Benjamin Lincoln, Esq. was a malster and farmer, in 
good circumstances ; a magistrate and a principal char- 
acter in his town and county. He was frequently the 
representative of the town in the General Court, and for 
several years a member of the Council before the revolu- 
tion. He lived till his son Benjamin came into life, who 
was accustomed to mention the opinions and remarks of 
his father in a manner which showed their authority over 
his mind and conduct. 

General Lincoln enjoyed no advantages of early educa- 
tion, proportioned to the eminence which he attained. 
The native force and perspicacity of his mind, and the 
happy turn of his disposition, chiefly contributed, no 
doubt, to his superiority over multitudes having equal 
means and excitements to gain distinction. Yet he owed 
something to culture, and much to circumstances. His 
common school education was good of the sort, and he 
was sufficiently initiated in the first parts of instruction. 
There were no marks of illiterateness in his reading, spel- 
ling, or handwriting. He had the society of a sensible 
father, and more access to intelligent men and to books 
than most farmers' sons. His advantages for moral edu- 
cation were greater than for intellectual or literary im- 
provement. The morning and evening devotion, the 
orderly habits and the cheerful temper and manners of 
the family in which he was reared ; the weekly services 
of the church, where he attended, under the ministry of 
the learned and good Dr. Gay, who was of the school of 
Tillotson and Samuel Clarke ; the sobriety, industry, 
economy, good neighbourhood ; the piety without sour- 


ness or superstition, which marked the character of the 
people among whom he lived, were calculated to form an 
ingenuous and well disposed youth to those qualities and 
habits, which were developed in the subsequent life and 
conduct of General Lincoln. His circumstances and con- 
nexions in early years had some effect to give him that 
feeling for the publick which he cherished, and prepare 
him to act the patriot in such a sphere, wide or limited, 
as events might present. His vocation was farming. 
Till he was more than forty years old, he was steadily 
employed in tilling his ground, with the exception of 
such occasional interruptions as the civil and military of- 
fices he filled might require. His constitution was ro- 
bust, and enabled him through successive seasons to per- 
form, each day, a full day's work. 

He for many years sustained the office of town-clerk 
and other town offices. He was a magistrate, and a 
representative of the town in the legislature. He was 
early an officer in the militia, and at the commencement 
of the war of the revolution, in the year 1775, was Lieut. 
Col. of the 2d regiment of militia in the county of 

In the disputes between the mother country and the 
colonies, he espoused the side of the latter, and was a 
sincere and determined, though temperate whig. He 
was a member of the Provincial Congress, assembled in 
1775 at Cambridge and Watertown, and one of the sec- 
retaries of that body : and also a member of the commit- 
tee of correspondence appointed to communicate with 
the several towns in Massachusetts, and with the other 
colonies, upon the circumstances of the times. 

On the 19th of April, 1775, when the British first at- 
tacked the Americans at Lexington and Concord, and 

* Before the revolution he received commissions as follows : — 

Civil. Justice of the peace in the county, March, 1762. Through the province, April, 
1763. (Francis Bernard Governour.) 

Justice, 6 September, 1775. Through the province, 8 November the same year, by 
the Council. 

Military. Adjutant of the 3d regiment in Suffolk county. (Benjamin Lincoln, Esq. 
Col.) July, 1755, by Governour Shirley. 

Second Major 3d regiment. (Josiah Quincy, Esq. Col.) June, 1763. (Francis Ber- 
nard, Governour.) Do. May, 1771. (Thomas Hutchinson, Governour.) 

Lieut. Col. Jan. 1772. (The same Governour.) 


the call to arms was echoed through all the neighbouring 
towns, he summoned the military under his command 
with a view of repairing to the scene of action, twenty or 
thirty miles distant. The return of" the royal troops to 
Boston, the same night, prevented his marching. Being 
appointed by the Council a Brigadier in February 1776, 
and a Major General in May of the same year, he was 
much employed in training and exercising the militia. 
On the second day of August he was appointed by the 
council of the state, to whom belonged the supreme ex- 
ecutive power, to the command of all the troops of the 
State doing duty at and near the harbour of Boston. The 
impression entertained of his military talents, and his 
weight and influence with the militia, led the General 
Court at their meeting in September to give him the 
command of the regiments to be raised by the State to 
reinforce the army under the commander in chief at 
New York and in Jersey, which had now become the 
seat of the war. On the 11th of February he arrived at 
General Washington's camp with one of the regiments, 
which was soon to be followed by others to the amount 
of several thousands. 

The commander in chief, while at Cambridge and 
Boston, had become acquainted with General Lincoln, 
and had recommended him to Congress as an excellent 
officer, whom it was desirable to place in the continental 
line. Accordingly, soon after he joined the army in Feb- 
ruary 1777, our officer was created a Major General by 
Congress. From this time till he was ordered to join 
the northern army, he was stationed at different impor- 
tant posts, with the charge of detachments or divisions 
of the troops. The uncertainty of the plans and opera- 
tions of the British commander, and the great inferiority 
of the force of Washington, rendered the campaign a 
perpetual exercise of vigilance and caution, joined to re- 
solution and vigour on the part of the commander in 
chief and his general officers. The calm courage and 
good judgment of Lincoln were always evident. He was 
placed at Bound Brook on the Rariton, near the enemy, 
with a limited force, not exceeding five hundred men fit 


for duty, where he was to guard an extent of five or six 
miles. Here, about day break on the 13th of April, he 
was, through the neglect of his patroles, surprised by a 
large body of the enemy, under Cornwallis and Grant. 
The assailants had advanced within two hundred yards 
of his quarters before they were discovered.* The gen- 
eral and one of his aids had just time to mount and leave 
the house, before it was surrounded. The other aid 
with the general's baggage and papers fell into the hands 
of the enemy. His artillery, consisting of one six pound- 
er and two three pounders, was taken. He led his troops 
off between two columns of the enemy, who had nearly 
closed, and made good his retreat to the pass of the 
mountains just in his rear, with the loss of about sixty 
killed and wounded. 

On the 24th July 1777, the commander in chief direct- 
ed General Lincoln, to join the northern army under Gen- 
eral Schuyler and afterwards under General Gates, which 
was to oppose Burgoyne, saying, " My principal view in 
sending you there, is to take command of the eastern 
militia, over whom, I am informed, you have influence, 
and who place confidence in you. Yesterday," he ob- 
serves in his letter, " 1 was in some doubt, whether I 
should send you to the northward or not ; but I have 
this day received two letters from General Schuyler, in 
such a style as convinces me, that it is absolutely neces- 
sary to send a determined officer." 

He was detached to Manchester in Vermont, to form 
the militia as they came up from the northwestern parts 
of New England, and to operate in the rear of the ene- 
my. f A considerable force being assembled, on the 13th 
of September he sent Colonel Brown, with five hundred 
men, to the landing at Lake George, to release the prison- 
ers and destroy the stores. The expedition succeeded. 
Brown surprised the enemy, took possession of the 
post and of two hundred batteaux, liberated one hun- 
dred American prisoners, and captured two hundred and 

* Gordon. Vol. 2, p. 455. t Marshall. Vol. 3, p. 279. 


ninety three of the enemy, with only three killed and five 
wounded. This instance of success contributed, with 
the result of the battle of the lDthof September, at Stillwa- 
ter, to raise the spirits of the troops and excite the militia 
to join their brethren. Having directed Colonel Johnson 
with another party to march towards Mount Indepen- 
dence, and Colonel Woodbridgc with a third to Skecnes- 
borough, to cover the retreat of both the others, Lincoln 
proceeded with the remainder of the militia, to join 
Gates, to whom he was second in command, and arrived 
in camp, the 29th September. On the 7th of October the 
two armies were warmly engaged till darkness put an end 
to the action, the Americans having obtained a decisive 
advantage. During the day General Lincoln command- 
ed within the works. Between twelve and one o'clock 
at night he marched with his division to relieve the troops 
that had been engaged, and to occupy the ground they 
had gained. In the course of the night Burgoyne chang- 
ed his position, and General Gates did not think it pru- 
dent to attempt to force it. The next day General Lin- 
coln had occasion to ride from one part of his line of 
command to another, nearly a mile distant, to see to the 
disposition of the troops in that quarter. Before his re- 
turn, which was in the same course that he had taken in 
going, a small body of the enemy had been marched for- 
ward, and were near to the line in which he was riding. 
A number of the captured uniforms of German soldiers 
had been placed upon the American troops, and the Gen- 
eral supposed the body of the enemy thus advanced were 
a portion of his own men, who had assumed this foreign 
dress. He did not perceive his mistake till he came 
within reach of their fire ; on which they discharged a 
volley at him and his aids, and wounded him in the low- 
er part of the leg. He was obliged to be carried from 
the field. It w 7 as at first uncertain whether the limb 
could be saved. But before the 20th the apprehension 
on this account nearly ceased, though the wound was 
very severe aud troublesome. He was removed first to 
Albany, and some time afterwards to Hingham. But he 




was not so far recovered as to be able to take the field 
till the latter part of the following summer, (August 7th) 
when General Washington in his letter to the President 
says, " f have the pleasure to acquaint Congress that 
Major-General Lincoln arrived here yesterday, and that 
he is happily so far recovered from his wound, as to be 
able to take his command in the line." His restoration 
was not complete, however, till after several years, dur- 
ing which the wound was frequently open and required 
constant attention. 

No inconsiderable share in the success of the northern 
army, in the capture of Burgoyne, had been always known 
to be due to General Lincoln. His excellent character 
as a man, and his military reputation as a commander, in- 
duced the delegates from South Carolina to request Con- 
gress to appoint him to the chief command in the south- 
ern department. 

He arrived at Charleston early in December 1778, hav- 
i ng been detained several days by an injury, received in his 
knee by a fall from his carriage. He soon had knowl- 
edge that a British armament had sailed from New York, 
supposed to be destined for the southern states ; wheth- 
er Georgia or Carolina was uncertain. General Lincoln 
was immediately and incessantly occupied in forming an 
army, and providing supplies, that he might be able to 
meet the enemy on equal terms, should they invade that 
part of the United States ; or if this should not happen, 
might make an expedition against East Florida, agreea- 
bly to the resolutions and hopes of Congress, communi- 
cated to him, soon after he was appointed to the south- 
ern department. It soon appeared that he would be em- 
ployed without any foreign enterprise. 

On the 25th December he was informed that the ene- 
my's fleet had arrived at Tybee ; on the 29th that they 
had effected a landing, being twenty five hundred or 
three thousand men ; and had routed the American 
forces, which were much inferior in number, under 
General Robert Howe, and gained Savannah. Our com- 
mander immediately put his troops in motion, and on the 


4th of January, took post at Potysburg on the east side 
of the Savannah, ahout twenty miles from the city. The 
enemy extended himself in Georgia. General Lincoln 
was not in force to commence offensive operations till the 
last of February, when General Ashe was detached to 
Brier Creek, the south side of the river. Through de- 
fect of precaution, he was surprised and beaten on the 
3d of March, and our general thus deprived of nearly a 
quarter of his army. On the 23d of April, being rein- 
forced, he resumed his plan of covering the upper parts 
of Georgia, by marching to Augusta, and down the river 
on the south side. After he had decamped, General Pre- 
vost, the British commander, to induce Lincoln to relin- 
quish his design, crossed the river into Carolina, deter- 
mined to threaten Charleston. The latter, justly regard- 
ing this movement as a feint, continued his march. But, 
lest he should be mistaken, sent three hundred men to 
General Moultrie, who was between the enemy and 
Charleston. After some days, about May 10th, it ap- 
peared that Prevost, encouraged from day today to pro- 
ceed, by the little opposition he met, might probably 
have converted a feint into a fixed operation, and really 
attempt Charleston. The general, therefore, recrossed 
the Savannah, and marched for that city, near to which, 
at Dorchester, he arrived on the 14th, the enemy having 
retired from before the town during the previous night. 
The enemy sat down at John's island, having a de- 
tachment, supposed to be about six hundred men, under 
Lieutenant Colonel Maitland at Stono Ferry, on the main, 
opposite the island, where they erected works for their 
security, the main body having vessels to convey them 
back, if occasion should require. On the 19th June, 
General Lincoln resolved to attack the enemy at the latter 
place, having directed Brigadier General Moultrie to make 
a diversion with the Charleston militia on the island. He 
moved at two o'clock on the morning of the 20th, and 
came before the enemy, and made the attack at seven. 
It lasted an hour and twenty minutes, with the loss of 
one hundred and sixty killed and wounded on the Amer- 


ican side, and about the same on that of the enemy. 
" On driving the enemy into their lines," says the gen- 
eral,* " we found that their works were much stronger 
than they had been represented, that our artillery was 
quite too light to annoy them therein, and that the ene- 
my were reinforced from John's island. It became neces- 
sary to withdraw the troops, which was effected with lit- 
tle interruption. The enemy," says he, "suffered much in 
their attempt to turn our flanks, and were soon driven in- 
to their lines." 

"Our right," he says, "began the attack by a brisk 
fire of field pieces and musquetry ; our left were ordered 
to march up without firing, and charge the enemy with 
fixed bayonets, but were foiled in that attempt , a warm 
fire from the enemy, in spite of every exertion of the of- 
ficers, drew our fire, after which it was impossible to 
bring up the men." It was a day of great fatigue, in 
which the general, besides being without sleep the pre- 
vious night, was ten hours on horseback. 

Early in June General Lincoln had received permis- 
sion from Congress, agreeably to his request, to re- 
turn to the northwards the command in the southern de- 
partment being given at his instance to General Moul- 
trie. He was induced to ask this respite, or release, to 
avoid the risk of health incident to northern constitutions 
during the hot season in Carolina. He also found, that 
some persons in that quarter were disposed to judge his 
military conduct without due allowance for the nature of 
the service, and the inadequacy of his force to any bril- 
liant achievement. The governour and council, how- 
ever, and General Moultrie earnestly desired him to sus- 
pend for the present, at least, his purpose of retiring from 
that post. He therefore continued in command, and 
without suffering in his health from the climate. His 
wound gave him some trouble by opening again after be- 
ing healed, and was attended with small occasional ex- 
foliations. In the subsequent autumn, the state of the 
war in that department, at first promising and afterwards 

* Letter to President of Congress, June 21. 



very critical, in his view forbade his relinquishment 

of the command. Though unkind remarks were made 

by individuals, the Carolinians in general, and especially 

the most discerning, did him justice, showing themselves 

supcriour to the common weakness of deciding merit by 

fortune. In the events which afterwards took place, 

they had further opportunity to vindicate their title to 

the praise of equity and liberality towards their prudent, 

brave, and amiable, but unfortunate commander. 

Soon after the battle at Stono ferry, the British forces 
retired, one part, under General Provost, to Savannah, 
and the other, under Lieutenant Colonel Maitland, to 
Beaufort, in the island of Port Royal ; whilst Lincoln sat 
down at Sheldon, so situated as to attend to the enemy 
at Beaufort. Both armies rested in their summer quar- 
ters till September. 

Governour Rutledge, General Lincoln, and the French 
Consul at Charleston, had represented to Count d'Es- 
taing, that his cooperation would probably be attended 
with signal success to the allied arms, perhaps the com- 
plete overthrow of the British force in the south. The 
Count sailed from Cape Francois with his fleet and ar- 
mament, and arrived off Savannah in the beginning of 
September. Instantly the American forces were put in 
motion to join their allies, and the militia sent in by reg- 
iments. The great and unexpected rise of the river Sa- 
vannah, and the destruction of bridges, obliged General 
Lincoln to make a circuitous route, and from scarcity of 
boats he met with much delay, and his men suffered great 
fatigue. The French troops, nearly three thousand, 
were landed between the thirteenth and sixteenth, on 
which latter day, at noon, General Lincoln made a junc- 
tion with about one thousand men. The enemy had so 
well improved their time since the appearance of the 
French fleet, that their lines were well covered. Lieut. 
Col. Maitland, in spite of attempts to prevent it, was able 
to enter Savannah the 17th, the day after Count d'Es- 
taing had summoned the garrison, and whilst Prevost 
was asking time to arrange articles of capitulation. It 
was concluded to try the effect of cannon and mortars. 


The allies, through the distance of the ships, want of 
wheels, and five days of very bad weather, were not ready 
to break ground till the 23d. The batteries were open- 
ed on the 5th of October, and the cannonade and bom- 
bardment continued until the 8th October, without produ- 
cing the effect desired. The period having long since 
elapsed which the Count had assigned for this expedition* 
and the engineer having announced that much more time 
would be requsite for reducing the garrison by regular 
approaches, which time it was impossible for the French 
commander to give, there was no alternative but raising 
the siege or storming the works of the enemy. The lat- 
ter being chosen, on the morning of the 9th, the princi- 
pal column led on by cl'Estaing and Lincoln united, and 
another by Count Dillon moved to the attack. The lat- 
ter column missed their way in the darkness, and failed 
of cooperation. The body headed by the two com- 
manders proceeded, unappalled by the destructive fire of 
their covered enemy, forced the abattis, and planted two 
standards on the parapets. But the besieged, bringing 
superiour force to the point where the lines had been 
pierced, drove back the assailants. At the same mo- 
ment Count Pulaski, at the head of a body of horse, 
throwing himself upon the enemy's works in order to at- 
tack their rear, was mortally wounded. The allied gen- 
erals drew off their troops, the French killed and wound- 
ed being seven hundred, the American regulars, in pro- 
portion, two hundred and forty; of the militia, one cap- 
tain was lost, and six men were wounded. Count d 7 
Estaing soon reembarked his troops, and sailed for the 
West Indies, and the Americans, on the 18th, recrossed 
the Savannah into Carolina. General Lincoln made his 
head quarters at Charleston, and applied himself to the 
defences of the town, and the preparation of force. 

At this time General Lincoln stated to Congress his ( 
conviction, that the British would soon attempt to make 
permament acquisitions in the south ; and the urgent call 
for regular troops and supplies to meet the exigence. 
By the measures of Congress and of the Carolinas, he 
was reinforced, but not to any sufficient extent. In the 


beginning of winter, Gen. Sir II. Clinton set forward 
from New York a great expedition against South Caro- 
lina. On the 12th of February the enemy landed in 
force on John's island, and on the 80th of March en- 
camped in front of the American lines at Charleston. 
General Lincoln felt it his duty to attempt the defence 
of the city, especially as the communication with the 
country was open for reinforcements, which he had rea- 
son to expect, or for an evacuation, should it be neces- 
sary ; and continued so till the 16th of April. The 
first parallel of the besiegers being completed on the 10th, 
the garrison were summoned to an unconditional sur- 
render, which was promptly refused. Firing on our side 
was immediately commenced to annoy and retard the 
enemy in their approaches, and so continued till the 13th, 
when their batteries were opened, and a constant fire was 
kept up by both parties till the 20th, when the second 
parallel being finished, within three hundred yards of our 
lines, terms were offered by the garrison, but rejected. 
Hostilities commenced on the 21st, and continued with 
redoubled fury to the 2od, when the enemy commenced 
their third parallel from eighty to one hundred and fifty 
yards from our lines ; from this to the 8th of May they 
were employed in making three batteries thereon, when 
another demand of surrender was made by the besiegers. 
Terms were again sent out, but not acceded to in the 
form proposed, and a heavy and incessant firing was 
maintained from the 9th to the 11th, when it was found 
necessary to capitulate. " Having received," says the 
general, " an address from the principal inhabitants and 
from a number of the country militia, desiring that 1 
would accept the terms ; and a request from the Lieut. 
Govcrnour and Council that the negotiations might be 
renewed ; the militia of the town having thrown down 
their arms ; our provisions, saving a little rice, being ex- 
hausted ; the troops on the line being worn down by fa- 
tigue, having for a number of days been obliged to lay 
upon the banquette ; our harbour closely blocked up ; 
completely invested by land by nine thousand men at 
least, the flower of the British army in America, besides 


the large force they could at all times draw from their 
Marine, and aided by a great number of blacks in their 
laborious employments ; the garrison at this time, (exclu- 
sive of sailors) but little exceeding 2500 men, part of 
whom had thrown down their arms ; the citizens in gen- 
eral discontented, the enemy being within twenty yards 
of our lines, and preparing to make a general assault by 
sea and land, many of our cannon dismounted, and 
others silenced for want of shot ; a retreat being judged 
impracticable, and every hope of timely succour cut off, 
we were induced to offer and accede to the terms exe- 
cuted on the 12th of x^iay." 

The motives and feelings, that prompted General Lin- 
coln, rather to risk a siege, than evacuate Charleston, 
were most honourable to him as a man and a soldier. 
There was such a balance of reasons on the question, 
as under the circumstances should exempt his decision 
from blame or distrust. He could not calculate on the 
utter despondence and inactivity of the people, who 
should have come to his succour. The suspense and 
anxiety, the toil and hazard attending the siege, gave the 
fullest scope to his wisdom and patience and valour. 
His exertions were incessant. He was on the lines night 
and day, and for the last fortnight never undressed to 

Notwithstanding this unfortunate termination of his 
command, " so established was the spotless reputation 
of the vanquished general, that he continued to enjoy the 
undiminished respect and confidence of the Congress, 
the army, and the commander in chief." * 

" Great praise is due to General Lincoln," says Ram- 
say, " for his judicious and spirited conduct in baffling 
for three months the greatly superiour force of Sir Hen- 
ry Clinton and Admiral Arbuthnot. Though Charles- 
ton and the southern army were lost, yet by their long 
protracted defence, the British plans were not only re- 
tarded, but deranged, and North Carolina was saved for 
the remainder of the year 1780." 

General Lincoln was admitted to his parole, and in 
the summer returned to his residence in Bingham. In 

* Lee's Memoirs of the war in the Southern Department. 


November following he was, to his great joy, exchanged. 
In the month of September preceding lie had, by ap- 
pointment, met at Elizabethtown, Major General Phil- 
lips, who had been an American prisoner ever since the 
convention of Saratoga. They agreed upon a plan for a 
general exchange of prisoners, which was assented to by 
the Congress, and carried into cilcct in the course of the 

On the commencement of the campaign in the spring 
of 1781, General Lincoln joined the army under Wash- 
ington, occupying the high grounds bordering on the 
North River. When, with a view to operations against 
New York in July, the commander in chief marched his 
army from its winter encampment near Peekskill to 
Kingsbridge, General Lincoln, with his division, fell 
down North River, and took possession of the ground 
where Fort Independence formerly stood. Before the 
end of summer the plan of the campaign was changed, 
and the movements of the army directed against Lord 
Cornwallis in Virginia. Our general commanded a cen- 
tral division at the siege of Yorktown, and had his full 
share of the honour of that brilliant and auspicious event. 
The articles of capitulation stipulated for the same hon- 
ours in favour of the surrendering army as had been 
granted to the garrison of Charleston. General Lin- 
coln was appointed to conduct them to the field where 
the arms were deposited, and receive the customary sub- 
mission. In the general order of the commander in 
chief the day after the capitulation, General Lincoln was 
among the general officers, whose services were particu- 
larly mentioned. 

On the last day of Oct. 1781, he was chosen by Con- 
gress Secretary at War, with power to retain his rank in 
the army. He soon entered upon the duties of this of- 
fice, residing at Philadelphia, and continued in it till Oc- 
tober, 1783, when he proffered his resignation to Con- 
gress. They accepted it, with an emphatical expression 
of respect and regard, as follows : " Resolved, that the re- 
signation of Major General Lincoln as Secretary at War 
for the United States be accepted, in consideration of the 


earnest desire which he expresses, the objects of the war 
being so happily accomplished, to retire to private life, 
and that he be informed, that the United States, in Con- 
gress assembled, entertain a high sense of his persever- 
ance, fortitude, activity, and meritorious services in the 
field, as well as of his diligence, fidelity and capacity in 
the execution of the office of Secretary at War, which 
important trusts he has discharged to their entire appro- 

Having thus laid down the load of publick cares, 
General Lincoln retired with heartfelt pleasure to the se- 
curity and repose of private life, and the society and con- 
cerns of his beloved family. Neither his circumstances 
nor his disposition, however, would permit him to be 
idle. His military service had brought little or no addi- 
tion to his property, and his living was to be earned 
by such business, as he should have opportunity to pros- 
ecute. He resumed the care of his farm, and also en- 
gaged in settling a tract of land in the District of Maine, 
where he established one of his sons. In 1784 and 1786 
he went to the eastern part of the State, as one of the 
commissioners and agents on the part of the State to 
make and execute a treaty with the Penobscot Indians, 
and receive their relinquishment of lands sold by them to 
the Commonwealth. Although he had intended to avoid 
any stated publick employments, he was persuaded to take 
command of the first division of the militia of the State. 
He was willing, with many other distinguished officers of 
the late army, to make a considerable sacrifice for the sake 
of preserving to the community the benefit of the mili- 
tary knowledge and skill, which they had acquired by the 
experience of the war. 

In the summer and autumn of the year 1786, and the 
beginning of 1787, the insurrection took place in Massa- 
chusetts. Bodies of armed men in several counties 
obstructed the sitting of the courts of justice, and pro- 
ceeded to such lengths as to make it necessary to ap- 
ply the publick force to restore order. General Lincoln 
was appointed by the governour and council to the com- 
mand of the militia, between four and five thousand, de- 


tachcd for this service. He was to protect the judicial 
courts, to assist the magistrates in the execution of the 
laws, and in repelling and apprehending disturbers of the 
peace, and in all instances to act in subserviency to the 
civil magistrate, except where an armed force should op- 
pose him. 

He commenced his march from Boston on the 20th of 
January to Worcester, where the Court was to sit on the 
23d, who accordingly held the session in security. The 
insurgents were embodied in large numbers under Shays 
at Wilbraham and Day at West Springfield. The for- 
mer body made an attempt on the 25th upon General 
Shepherd, stationed at the arsenal at Springfield, and 
was routed, but soon collected again. 

Lincoln hastened to the relief of Shepherd, threw one 
regiment and some horse into his camp on the night of 
the 26th, and arrived with the main body at noon the 
27th. After the troops were refreshed, he ordered them 
under arms, at three o'clock, though many of them had 
been so from one in the morning. Part of them were 
moved up the river on the ice, to prevent the junction of 
Day and Shays ; and if that was not attempted, to cut off 
Day's retreat. With the other part, our commander pro- 
ceeded across the river against Day's main body, who 
made some disposition to resist, but soon retreated to a 
high piece of ground in their rear, where they were met 
by the light horse ; thence they fled in every direction. 
Shays being thus left uncovered on his right, moved off 
the same night to Amherst, twenty miles from Spring- 
field. At 3 o'clock in the morning of the 29th, General 
Lincoln moved towards Amherst, where Shays had been 
joined by Day. On the arrival of the government force 
at Amherst, the rear of the Insurgents left it, Shays hav- 
ing taken his position at Pelham. The next morning the 
general filed off to Hadlcy and Hatfield, and sent an ad- 
dress to Shays, calling on him to disband his followers, 
and warning him against the consequences of resisting. 
" To prevent bloodshed, you will communicate to your 
privates, that if they will instantly lay down their arms, 
surrender themselves to government, aud take and sub- 


scribe the oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth, they 
shall be recommended to the General Court for mercy." 
The answer from the insurgents was a proposal to sus- 
pend hostilities, till they could learn the result of their 
application to the legislature for a general pardon, on the 
condition of laying down their arms. On the next day, 
the general renewed his former summons and proffer. 
He told them their request was inadmissible, and that 
they must immediately disband themselves. The 2d of 
February, he reconnoitered Shays, who took the alarm, 
and on the evening of the same day pointed his route 
towards Petersham, where he purposed to make a stand ; 
a number of towns in the vicinity having engaged to 
support him. The general put his troops in motion, 
in pursuit, about 8 o'clock in the evening. The first 
part of the night was pleasant, and the weather mod- 
erate ; but between two and three in the morning, the 
wind shifting to the westward, it became very cold and 
squally, with considerable snow. Being where the men 
could not be covered in the distance of eight miles, 
they were obliged to continue their march, and reached 
Petersham about nine o'clock, exceedingly fatigued 
with a march of thirty miles in deep snow and intense 
cold ; great numbers were frozen in some part or other, 
though none dangerously. The troops approached 
near the centre of the town and surprised the insurgents, 
who had not time to call in their out parties, nor even 
their guards. About one hundred and fifty fell into 
their hands, and the rest escaped by a precipitate flight. 
The main body of the people, who were in arms 
against the government, was thus finally defeated 
with almost no bloodshed. Whilst General Lincoln 
was taking these effectual steps, the General Court 
declared a rebellion to exist, with an offer of pardon to 
certain descriptions of persons, agreeably to the tenor 
of General Lincoln's proclamation on the 30th of Jan- 
uary. He distributed his force in a manner to awe the 
disaffected ; proceeding to Pittsfield in Berkshire county, 
in which part of the state great numbers had been 
in arms. Excepting a party of insurgents who, on the 
27th of February, made an inroad into Stockbridge, car- 


rying off many inhabitants with some plunder, and who 
were met in Great Barrington and Sheffield, and routed 
and dispersed, there was no forcible opposition to gov- 
ernment after the middle of February. The rebellion 
being suppressed, it remained to ascertain how far the 
publick good required the punishment of the offenders. 
A disqualifying act was passed by the legislature, ex- 
empting certain descriptions of the insurgents from trial, 
on specific conditions. General Lincoln, witli the late 
Lieut. Governour S. Phillips, and Hon. Samuel A. Otis, 
were appointed commissioners to determine, who should 
have the benefit of this act ; and in the month of March, 
previous to the sitting of the Supreme Judicial Court in 
the western counties, executed this delicate and impor- 
tant duty. 

The April succeeding, General Lincoln had a plural- 
ity of votes for the office of Lieut. Governour, and was 
elected by the legislature. By the next election, howev- 
er, the democratic party, so called, gained the ascen- 
dancy, and he was supplanted by Mr. Samuel Adams. 
He was a member of the convention for ratifying the new 
constitution. When this constitution was put in operation 5 
General Lincoln in the summer of 1789 was made collec- 
tor of the port of Boston, which office he held till within 
two years of his death, when his earnest desire to resign it 
was complied with by Mr. Jefferson. Every one was grat- 
ified, that the service of the country was allied with the per- 
sonal convenience and comfort of a man so revered and 
beloved as General Lincoln. In this station he acquitted 
himself of his obligations with judgment, fidelity and suc- 
cess, never forgetting his allegiance to the government, 
through the change of parties, at the same time nev- 
er giving cause to the individual to complain of the 
insolence of office. In the fall of 1789 he was appointed 
with the Hon. Cyrus Griffin and David Humphreys a 
commissioner to treat with the Creek Indians on the fron- 
tiers of the southern states, and had the pleasure of meet- 
ing General Washington for the first time since 1783, 
stopping at Mount Vernon on his way. In the year 1793, 
General Lincoln, Hon. Timothy Pickering, and Beverley 



Randolph of Virginia were commissioners to make peace 
with the western Indians, but did not succeed in the nego- 
tiation. The British, considering the American adminis- 
tration at that time as divided, and the American people as 
almost united in favour of revolutionary France, were 
willing to discourage the Indian tribes from making a 
treaty. The Indian traders also intrigued against us. 

From his twenty eighth year Benjamin Lincoln, Esq. 
was in the commission of the peace in the county or 
throughout the Commonwealth. The subject of this no- 
tice received acknowledgments of his merits as a man of 
intellect and science. Our University gave him, in 
1780, the honorary degree of Master of Arts. He was 
one of the first members of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society. 

Several of his letters and essays are in print, and con- 
tain many thoughts ingenious, new, and useful. 

1. Observations on the climate, soil, and value of the 
eastern counties in the District of Maine, written in the 
year 1789, and published in the Collections of the His- 
torical Society, Vol. IV. p. 142. 1st Series. 

2. On the religious state of the eastern counties. 
Hist. Coll. Vol IV. p. 153. 1st Series. 

3. On the migration of fishes, 1791. See Appendix 
to Belknap's New Hampshire, Vol. III. 334. 

4. On the growth of vegetables and worms in trees. 
See Gary's American Museum. 

5. On the Indian tribes, causes of their decrease, their 
claims, &c. Hist. Coll. Vol. V. p. 6. 1st Series. 

The interval between General Lincoln's relinquish- 
ment of the office of Collector and his death, passed in 
much serenity. He daily experienced the increasing 
weight of years, but without any severe pain. After a 
short attack of disease he expired on the 9th May, 1810, 
aged seventy seven years. 

In General Lincoln's character, strength and softness, 
the estimable and amiable qualities were happily blend- 
ed. His mind was quick and active, yet discriminating 
and sound. He displayed a fund of thought and infor- 


mation, derived from select, though limited reading, 
from careful observation of men and things, from habits 
of thinking, and from conversation. A degree of enthu- 
siasm, or exaltation of feeling upon the objects of his 
pursuit, belonged to his temperament, but it was under 
the control of good sense and sober views. He was pa- 
tient and cool in deliberation ; in execution, prompt and 
vigorous. A real and effective, but not forward or bust- 
ling energy pertained to his character. His virtues main- 
tained their proper bounds and were well tempered to- 
gether. He was conspicuous for plain, strict, inflexible 
integrity, united however with prudence, candour, a lib- 
eral and compassionate disposition. He had, it was said, 
by constitution, strong passions, but they were so dis- 
ciplined by reason and religion, and qualified and coun- 
teracted by good sentiments and generous feelings, that 
they never betrayed him into any extravagance, nor suf- 
fered him to give way to any impulse of anger. His 
composure and self-possession, his exemption from any 
apparent weakness or folly, uniform discretion and integ- 
rity made him revered, whilst the goodness of his dispo- 
sition, and his frank and cordial manners, engaged affec- 
tionate regard. He knew how to exercise command 
without exciting aversion. Paying deference to the 
rights and feelings of others, whether present or absent, 
his own were not likely to suffer injury or insult. He 
made no extraordinary demands of attention, but had an 
exact perception of propriety in intercourse. By an ex- 
pressive look, which was understood, by an anecdote, by 
pleasant irony, or more directly, he was sure to notice and 
to repress any symptoms of impertinence or rudeness 
which any might show in his presence.* 

He was always an early riser, temperate in his habits, 
frugal without parsimony, diligent and methodical in his 

* A certain officer of some rank, and much impudence, at the table at head quarters, 
showed a disposition to more freedom with General Lincoln than he chose to admit. 
The history of this man, it was known to the general, contained some acts of a very 
bad character. Alter the general was satisfied of the officer's intention to be rude. !;..■ 
observed, " I apprehend. Sir, you are disposed to take too much liberty. If you repeat 
any thing of this kind, I shall be obliged to tell this company facts, which I know re- 
specting you, that will make their hair stand on end." Our general had no occasion to 
execute his threat. 


business, and able to do much without inconvenience or 
hurry. The qualities and habits mentioned, with a ra- 
tional religious faith and sincere piety, would naturally 
be attended by ease and health of heart. Gen. Lincoln 
was habitually cheerful, and was accustomed to look on 
the bright side of objects. He was tender, but not given 
to indulging the wail of sensibility, or a spirit of repining 
and discontent. He believed in the great preponderance 
of good in the human condition ; often mentioning par- 
ticularly the resources and comforts accommodated to 
the successive periods of life, as affording proofs of the 
goodness of the Creator. He thought gratitude, acqui- 
escence and hope a tribute, at all times due to a wise and 
benevolent providence. He was called to encounter ad- 
versity in different forms ; some of which were of a na- 
ture to dishearten an ordinary man ; but his fortitude and 
equanimity never forsook him, and he always maintained 
an erect attitude. 

As a military commander, he was judicious, brave, 
determined, indefatigable. His distinguished merit in 
this character was never denied ; whilst all have not 
agreed in opinion upon some of his plans in the southern 
command. Being a soldier of the revolution, he had to 
anticipate the effect of experience, and might commit mis- 
takes. He was surrounded by difficulties : he met ex- 
traordinary disappointments in his calculations upon sup- 
plies and succours. In the principal instances which is- 
sued unfortunately, the storming of Savannah and the 
siege of Charleston, he had but a choice of evils ; and 
which ever way he decided, the course rejected would 
have seemed, to many persons, more eligible. He had 
true courage without rashness. His calmness in danger 
seemed like unconcern ; but he affirmed that he never 
was exposed without feeling deeply interested for his own 
life and the lives of others. 

At the siege of Savannah, the British commander, 
General Prevost, when he had determined to defend the 
place and apprehended a storm by the besiegers, request- 
ed the commanding generals of the allied army to suffer 
him to send out of Savannah the women and children. 


The refusal of this request has been condemned as inhu- 
man by an English historian of the war,* and as unac- 
countable by an American writer of the southern cam- 
paigns. f The generals considered the British command- 
er, under the circumstances, as responsible, and had 
strong military reasons for the refusal. They were so 
situated in respect to time, that they must succeed soon, 
or not at all ; and diey doubtless were confident of car- 
rying the place. The answer of the British commander's 
request intimates the grounds of refusal.! 

In civil functions of a publick nature, such as the of- 
fice of Lieut. Governour, magistrate, and member of the 
legislature or other political bodies, he took the plain way 
of probity and patriotism, not despising popular favour, 
but never pursuing it as an end, and never thinking it an 
equivalent for the sacrifice of principle. By the change 
of political parties in the Commonwealth, his agency in 
supporting the laws and suppressing the insurrection 
came, at one time, to be considered as demerit, and the 
office of Lieut Governour, when held by him, was, by 
this sinister influence, deprived of the limited salary, 
which the second magistrate of the state had always be- 
fore received. 

General Lincoln was a federalist of the Washington 
school. From 1801, the party, which had opposed the fed- 
eral administration, held the supreme power in the general 
government. He experienced the benefit of his weight 
of character, and the sense entertained by the community 

* Stedman. t Gen. H. Lee. 

t Sir, , Camp before Savannah, Oct 6, 1 7 7 y . 

We are persuaded that your excellency knows all that your duty prescribes ; 
perhaps your zeal has already interfered with your judgment. "The Count d'Estaing, 
in his own name, notified to you, that you would be personally and alone responsible 
for the consequences, of your obstinacy. The time, which you informed him in the com- 
mencement of the siege would be necessary for the arrangement of articles, including 
the different orders of men in your town, had no other object than that of receiving 
succour. Such conduct, Sir, is sufficient to forbid every intercourse between us, which 
might occasion the least loss of time ; besides, in the present application, latent reasons 
may again exist; there are military ones, which, in frequent instances, have prevented 
the indulgence you request. It is with regret that we yield to the austerity of our func- 
tions ; and we deplore the fate of those persons, who will be the victims of your con- 
duct, and the delusion which appears to prevail in your mind." 



of his publick services, in being suffered to retain his 
office of collector. 

Religion exerted its full influence over the mind and 
conduct of general Lincoln. He was a christian of the 
antisectarian, catholic, or liberal sect. He was firm in 
his faith, serious and affectionate in his piety, without su- 
perstition, fanaticism or austerity. He was from early 
manhood a communicant, and for a great part of his life 
a deacon of the church. He never shunned an avowal 
of his belief, nor feared to appear what he was, nor per- 
mitted the reality of his convictions to remain in doubt. 
But avoiding ostentation and bitterness, thinking the 
excellence of the tree more apparent in the fruit than 
the leaves, and being a good man, the best proof of 
being a good christian, he was able to reconcile fidelity to 
his religion with the spirited and graceful exercise of his 
military functions and all the offices of civil and social 
life. Amidst the license so common in armies, no pro- 
fane expression or irreverent sally escaped his lips ; and 
no stain came upon the purity of his life. 

The person and air of General Lincoln betokened his 
military vocation. He was of middle height, and erect, 
broad chested, muscular, in his latter years corpulent, 
with open, intelligent features, a venerable and benign 
aspect. His manners were easy and unaffected, but 
courteous and polite. He delighted in children, and 
made himself loved by them. He admitted young per- 
sons of merit to his intimacy ; let them into his senti- 
ments on interesting subjects, and was forward to aid 
their reputation and advancement in the world. He had 
a high relish for the pleasures of conversation, in which 
he bore his part without tediousness or prolixity, with 
good sense, delicate raillery, well timed anecdote, and 
always a moral vein. He was a constant and zealous 
friend. If his judgment was ever surprised by his feel- 
ings, it was when he was requested to take pecuniary 
responsibilities for an old companion in arms, which sub- 
jected him to much temporary inconvenience, though 
not great ultimate loss. 


Elis house was the seat of real hospitality. The acces- 
sion to his income, during the last twenty years of his life, 
was applied to a decent provision for his advancing age, 
to the increase of his charities, and to the benefit of his 
numerous family. He twice made a distribution of con- 
siderable sums among his children. As they had good 
habits and knew the use of property, he thought it unne- 
cessary to leave their claims upon his estate to be chiefly 
or wholly answered by his executor. 

He lived in great conjugal happiness with the wife of 
his youth more than fifty five years, and had sons and 
daughters, in whom, and in their descendants, he found 
the greatest solace. He saw his children established 
chiefly in his town or in neighbouring places. His eldest 
son, a lawyer of rising reputation in Boston, died much 
lamented at twenty eight years of age. In these domes- 
tick relations, General Lincoln was distinguished by his 
accurate and amiable discharge of every duty. 

May the principles and virtues of such men as General 
Lincoln be exemplified in successive generations in our 
country, that the blessings purchased by the wisdom and 
valour of the fathers may be inherited by the children 
to the latest time. 

P. C. 


[The several expeditions against Canada required considerable sacri- 
fices of human life and absorbed a very large part of the disposa- 
ble wealth of this quarter of the country in former times. One only, 
of six attempts at the subjugation of that colony, has been success- 
ful. The history of the earliest of these, contained in the journal 
of Walley, who was next in command under Sir William Phips, is 
printed in the appendix to the first volume of Hutchinson. It is 
an official report given in to the council of this province, 27 Novem- 
ber, J690. A private account from the commander of one of the 
regiments, in a letter to his brother, admitting the laxity of epistola- 
ry narrative, may explain the op-inions of that day, and be not 
wholly destitute of entertainment. It was published at London 
the next spring after the expedition, and perhaps the pamphlet was 
not often seen for the century succeeding. 


A slight variance between the statement given by Hutchinson and 
that of this publication, as to the nominal value of bills, then issued 
for the first time to satisfy the soldiers and sailors, is easily explain- 
ed by recurrence to the records of the General Court. The emis- 
sion was restricted by the first statute, as the following narrative 
represents; but the country being not able to redeem the paper, the 
commissioners were permitted by a statute at the next session to 
issue both smaller and larger bills, from two shillings to ten pounds 
as related by Hutchinson. z.] 

An Account of the late action of the New-Eng landers under the com- 
mand of Sir William Phips, against the French at Canada. 

Sent in a letter from Major Thomas Savage of Boston in New-Eng- 
land, (who was present at the action) to his brother Mr. Perez Sav- 
age in London. Together with the Articles of War composed and 
agreed upon for that purpose. 

Licensed April 13, 1691. 

London, Printed for Thomas Jones at the White Horse without Tem- 
ple Bar. 1691. 

Boston, Feb. 2, 169?. 
Loving Brother, 

/iS for News, here is very little, only about our 
Defeatment at Canada ; and least some ill Tongues should 
abuse any with you, this will give you a brief Narrative 
of it. We went from Boston thirty two Ships, and other 
Vessels, with about 2000 Men, with four Months Provis- 
ion, and Ammunition, little enough, but had not One Man 
for a Pilot. When we came to the River, (which we had 
a hundred leagues to go up, before we came into the Riv- 
er, which was the occasion of our having a long Passage, 
but at length we got up to it ;) a Council was call'd, to 
think what was best to be done. It was agreed, That the 
Soldiers should be put ashore upon a Beach about two 
Miles from the Town, and to get as near the Town as we 
could, and to Encamp that night ; for there was a River 
between us and the Town, that was Knee deep at low 
Water, which we were to go over to the Town : and in 
the night they were to send in some small Vessels that 
had Guns, with Ammunition and Provision for us, and 


to bring our Field-pieces ashore with them, to secure our 
Passage over the River ; and when we were over the 
River, then the four great Ships should fall upon the 
Town to Batter it. Accordingly we landed, I being the 
first Field-Officer ashore. We landed about 1200 Men, 
and as soon as we came ashore, at the side of 
the Beach, was a * Swamp, where lay an Am- * a Bogover- 
buscade of about GOO French, who gall'd us wood.™ 
at our landing, but our Men running very 
briskly on them, beat up their Ambuscade, and followed 
them a great way ; all our Men in their landing, waded 
some up to their middle, none less than to their Knees. 
By that we had Rallied the Sun was near set; so we 
marched about half a Mile from the River, and so encamp- 
ed. Our Men had spent the greatest part of our Am- 
munition in this Skirmish, having taken ashore with them 
about three quarters of a Pound of Powder a Man, and 
about fifteen or eighteen Shot, and but two Biskets a Man ; 
and the reason why they carried no more was, because 
the small Vessels were to carry it into the River that 
night. We had in this Skirmish about five Men killed 
outright, and about twenty Men wounded. About mid- 
night they sent us ashore six Field-pieces, about 800 
Pound a piece, which we could not tell what to do with, 
it being a Marshy place, and several small Gullies to go 
over. We sent aboard for Ammunition and Provision, 
but they sent us half a Barrel of Powder, which what that 
was you may judge, amongst near 1200 Men, and sent no 
Provision. We were no sooner ingaged at our coming 
ashore, but contrary to Orders, those four Ships of War, 
as they called them, wayed their Anchors, 
and fell to Battering the Town,* and there *At Random. 
spent the greatest part of their Ammunition 
by that time they got back : the Admiral being, as they 
say, forced to leave their best Cable and Anchor behind 
him and get back again. We met with several Skir- 
mishes from the Enemy while we were ashore, but we 
received little Hurt. We had some that we took inform- 
ed us, that if we had come but four days sooner, they 


had not above 600 Men in Town, but being so long in 
the River before we got up, they had notice of us, and 
had sent for all their Strength thither, so that there was 
now in the Town 3000 Men, and eight hundred that were 
near us in Swamps and Woods, to keep us continually 
alarmed. But sending aboard often to see to get some 
Victuals, for we could meet with little ashore, the Enemy 
having drove their Cattle into the Woods, they at length 
sent us word that they had no more Ammunition to spare, 
but sent us about a Bisket Cake a Man, and ordered that 
we should come aboard again (for they understood that 
was not a good place to set upon the Town, being a very 
strong place, Walled all round, and a Battery of Guns at 
our coming over the River,) and did send fifty Seamen to 
look after the six Field-pieces. At night we began to go 
on board, and I with my Regiment was to go aboard 
first, by the Lieutenant General's Order, because we 
w T ere ashore first. We did so, and got well aboard, and 
by twelve of the Clock were all aboard. But how it came 
to pass I know not, but some say it was the Lieutenant 
General's Fault, but I rather think the Seamens, that was 
to look after the Guns ; but there was five of the Field- 
pieces left on shore. And then when all was on board, be- 
cause Provisions was Scarce, we thought good to make the 
best of our way back again. So that we are all well arriv- 
ed, only two Vessels cast away, nine of the Men lost, one 
Ship burnt, but saved all the Men, and four Vessels not 
yet come in, who we believe are beat off the 
* Not arrived Coast.* You will without doubt hear many 

in 5 or 6 weeks ....... ' 

after the Fleet Reflections upon Lieutenant General W alley: 
came os- ^ ^ e . g n ^ guilty f what they charge him 

with ; but there are some, who to make 
themselves Faultless, lay the Fault upon him, which 
might be easily evinced to a Rational man. We 
killed of the French at our coming ashore above Thirty, 
as some who have made a Computation of what they saw 
in several places lay dead, say. We lay not far from the 

shore, and the General sent his Boat ashore 
Frenchwomen. * to Treat about Change of Prisoners, which 


we did, and changed 17 we had taken,* for * Amongst 
]7 English Prisoners that had been with them Mr. Petit, W M 
a pretty while. Our Prisoners informed us of encedoScer' 
the truth of the quantity of men in the town, JS ^7,^ 
as is above ; and that if we had gone over ! )een formerly 
the River, we had certainly been destroyed ; weiucaukmt- 
So that 1 look there was a Providence of God stte^f New! 
in it ; yet if they had sent Ammunition and En s land 
Provision we had certainly been with them. 

Thomas Savage. 

[Next follows the order, in five pages, adopted " At a council of War 
held on Board their Majesties Ship * Six-Friends, Riding at Anchor 
in Canada-River, September 23d. 1690," of which it is enough to 
say, that, referring only to rules of conduct and discipline in officers 
and men, it has not been thought necessary to be copied. 

In the margin is this note, * " Their Majesties have no such Ship in 
New-England, but this Ship belongs to Merchants of Barbadoes.' , 

The work then proceeds :] 

By other Letters from New-England are these farther 
Particulars, that the Fleet, for want of Pilots, was nine 
Weeks getting to Quebeck, and that they Landed about 
1200 Men, many aboard being Sick of the Small pox 
and Feaver : That at the time they Landed, the French 
had not above five or six Hundred Men in the Town ; 
but when they beat up their Ambush, and forced the 
French to retreat towards the Town, had our Men pur- 
sued them, they might have entered the Town with them, 
and made themselves Masters thereof; which Miscar- 
riage is attributed to the Unskilfulness, if not Cowardise, 
of their Officers : The Men that were Landed endured 
great Hardships ashore, it being very Cold Weather, and 
they had nothing but the Ground for their Lodging, 
without any Shelter or Covering. Sir William kept 
Firing against the Town, or, as some write, the Rocks 
of Quebeck, till he had spent almost all his Ammunition, 


and then slipt his Cable and fell down, and the other Ves- 
sels followed ; they Anchored below the Island Orleans, 
and were by stress of Weather forced out of the River 
to Sea and dispersed. Some Vessels by Sickness were 
very much disabled, and those that arrived lost some 
half, and others more, of their Men : In their return one 
of their Fire-ships was burnt by Accident, and Twelve 
Men lost ; two other Vessels cast away, but the Men 
saved ; and the last Vessels that sailed in February past 
from New-England say, that four of the Fleet was not 
then Arrived, nor any News of them, in which were 
about three hundred Men, supposed to be cast away, 
having been about three Months missing. After the 
Return of the Vessels, many Men died of the Distemper, 
which has infected the Inhabitants, Spreads and proves 
very Mortal amongst them. 

This Expedition has brought the Colony of the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay above 50000/. in debt, for payment 
whereof the General Court hath laid Grievous Taxes up- 
on the Inhabitants, which they force from those who re- 
fuse to pay. And for the satisfying the Clamours of the 
Soldiers and Sailors, of whom most were Pressed and 
sent in this Service. They, upon the return of their Ships 
from Canada, made a Law, dated at Boston the Tenth 
of December 1690, ordering a Committee of five Per- 
sons, three whereof should be impowered for granting 
forth Printed Bills (none to be under 5s. nor exceeding 
the Summ of 5/. in one Bill) by which some of the Sol- 
diers and Seamen are paid, and the Colony is thereby 
engaged to satisfie the Value of the said Bills, as the 
Treasury shall be enabled. But they will not pass in 
Trade between Man and Man, nor can these poor Sol- 
diers and Seamen get any thing for them to above half 
their value, they being only used to pay Rates with. 
The form of which Bills are as herein decyphered. 


I No. (2161) 10s. 


THIS Indented Bill of Ten Shillings, due 

from the Massachusetts Colony to the Posses- 
sor, shall be in value equal to Money, and 
shall be accordingly accepted by the Treasurer 
and Receivers, subordinate to him in all Pub- 
lick Payments, and for any Stock at any time 
in the Treasury Boston in New-England, 

i December the 10th. 1690. 

< By Order of the General Court. 

I Penn Townsend "I 

| Adam Winthrop [> Com'tee, 

I Tim. Thornton J 

I m m 

i i L. S. \ 


A Topographical and Historical Description of 
VValtham, in the County of Middlesex, Jan. 1, 

Situation, boundaries, &c. 

WALTHAM is situated near the south-eastern ex- 
tremity of the county of Middlesex, upon the main road 
from Boston to Worcester. It is ten miles from the 
former, and thirty four from the latter place. It is 




bounded N. by Lexington ; N. E. by West Cambridge ; 
E. by Watertown ; S. by Charles River, which sepa- 
rates it from Newton ; W. by Weston, from which it is 
separated by Stony Brook ; and N. W. by Lincoln. Its 
greatest length from E. to W. is nearly five miles; its 
greatest breadth, about four ; and its least breadth, not 
quite three miles. 

Face of the country, soil, &c. 
The land in the south part of the town, which runs 
parallel with Charles river, the distance of two miles, and 
half a mile in breadth, is very level, and is mostly of a 
light, sandy soil, not very deep. Adjoining the river it 
is fertile. The interiour of the town is of a hard, loamy 
soil, upon a gravelly bottom, and tolerably fertile ; in 
general the land is uneven, and in some parts rocky. 
Almost every farm is, or may be fenced with stone wall, 
from its own grounds ; and probably few towns in the 
county exhibit more excellent walls. The part of the 
town, between Beavers'-brook, on the east, and Masters'- 
brook, on the west, and through which is the main post 
road, has long been denominated, " Waltham Plain," 
from its being uncommonly level. It is a mile and an 
half in length. In the north and westerly parts of the town, 
the land is much broken, and somewhat hilly, but pro- 
ductive. There is not much wood in the town ; the 
natural growth is white and black oak, walnut, and birch. 

Produce, and state of agriculture. 
As most of the inhabitants are farmers, and cultivate 
their farms with a view to the constant supply of the 
market of the metropolis, the fruits of their labour are 
various. Corn, barley, hay, butter, and vegetables of 
every kind, are the general productions of the place. 
The fruits of every season, especially apples, pears, and 
peaches, are raised ; and considerable quantities of cider 
are made upon several farms. Horticulture is brought 
to some perfection, and a taste for it seems to be gradu- 
ally increasing. In some parts of the town, rye can be 
raised, but is not much cultivated, owing to its liability 


to be blasted. There arc various opinions as to the cause 
of this blast; sonic persona attribute it to the barberry 
bush, which, however, is ascertained to be but partially 

injurious. It is probable, that the cold east wind, which 
prevails in the months of May and June, and the fre- 
quent fogs produced by sea breezes, are the great pre- 
ventives to the growth and maturity of rye, in this and 
the neighbouring towns. Very good spring wheat lias 
been raised here ; and, with proper attention, there is 
reason to believe the cultivation of it would be profit- 

The state of agriculture has been improving among 
our farmers, for several years. The residence of gen- 
tlemen farmers in the town and vicinity has undoubtedly 
contributed to this improvement; but the chief causes 
are the increasing demands of the market and the enhan- 
ced price of labour, which have taught the owners of the 
soil, that it is more profitable to cultivate a few acres 
highly, than many in the ordinary way. The larger the 
surplus, that the farmer is enabled to sell, the more he 
enriches his land. 


There are but two manufactories of any importance, 
in the town ; but the facilities afforded by Charier river, 
and the increasing rage for making ourselves many ar- 
ticles, which, in time of peace, can be imported at less 
expense, will probably cause them to be multiplied. 

The " Waltham Cotton and Woollen Manufacturing 
Company " w 7 ere incorporated in 1812. It is an exten- 
sive and profitable establishment. The Company com- 
menced building early in 1810, and the Cotton factory 
was in operation the same year. It contains 2,000 spin- 
dles, and works 300 lbs. of cotton per day. The woollen 
factory has 380 spindles, 4 jenneys, and 2 jacks, and 
spins 60 lbs. per day. The number of looms in constant 
operation is fourteen. Probably upon an average 10,000 
yards of cloth are made every month, under direction 
of the institution ; though a considerable portion of the 
weaving is done in the neighbouring, and some of the 


distant towns. More than 200 persons are attached to 
this manufactory, about 150 of whom, chiefly women 
and children, are daily employed in spinning, weaving, 
dyeing, &c. They compose twenty families and up- 
wards. The cotton factory is a large wooden building 
of four stories ; there are besides four dwelling houses, 
two of them very large, for the convenience of the people, 
a large store and warehouse, dye house, grist mill, rae- 
chanick's shop, woollen factory, weaver's and school 
house. These buildings, situated near to, or upon the 
bank of the river, and shaded by a grove of lofty oak and 
ash trees, present a pleasant object to the traveller 
upon the main road, about half a mile north. They are 
at the S. E. extremity of the town, within a few rods of 
the line. 

There is perhaps no institution of the kind in our 
country, under better regulations. Unlike most manu- 
facturing establishments, this is free from the disorder 
and immorality which, in general, are found to exist, and 
by many are supposed to be almost their necessary evils. 
There is as much peace, order, and propriety of behav- 
iour among these persons, as with any other portion of 
the inhabitants. This may in part be attributed to the 
employing of several families, of established good char- 
acters, with whom others, and those who have no guar- 
dians or parents to inspect their conduct, are obliged to 
live. Such parents will carefully watch the manners and 
habits of their own children, and permit none to dwell 
under their roof, of positively bad characters. Very 
much too depends upon the character of the superin- 
tendent. If he be, as is too often the case, young and 
thoughtless, uninterested in the success of the institution, 
and desirous only of immediate emolument, there will be 
much disorder and immorality among those under his 
care. Here, the superintendent is also a proprietor, of 
an established moral character, who has every motive to 
promote virtue, subordination, and industry among his 
people. The proprietors support a school for the instruc- 
tion of the children and youth employed in the factory. 
A school is taught six months by a woman, and in the 
evenings by masters during the winter. 


The " Boston Manufacturing Company," incorporated 
in 1813, erected their manufactory about a mile above 
the other, upon the same river, in 1814. Their object, 
at present, is to make cotton yarn and cloth, which they 
have just commenced carrying into effect. Their build- 
ing is of brick, five stories high, ninety feet, by forty 
five, and is calculated to contain three thousand spindles, 
exclusive of sufficient room for weav ing, &c. The loom, 
which they use, is of a peculiar construction, and is car- 
ried by water. Should it succeed, it will cause a vast 
saving of expense and labour. 

Above this latter factory, there is a paper mill, which 
manufactures white and brown paper. 

Leather shoes are made in considerable numbers for 
the market. 

Rivers, Ponds, and Brooks, 

Charles River, as before mentioned, forms the south- 
ern boundary of Waltham, and is so well known, as to 
require no description. It is one of the most valuable 
streams in the State, on account of its support of many 
important manufactories, mills, &c. 

There are two ponds in the town. Beaver Pond, which 
has its name from the circumstance of there formerly 
having been dams made in its neighbourhood by the bea- 
vers, lies about half a mile west from the meeting-house, 
and is nearly one mile in circumference. It contains 
several kinds of fish, and every facility for taking them. 
Mead's Pond is much larger, being a mile in length, and 
one half or three quarters of a mile in breadth, and is sit- 
uated in the N. W. part of the town, two miles from the 
meeting-house. It affords abundance of small fish, par- 
ticularly the perch and pike. 

Beaver and Masters' Brooks are of importance, as hav- 
ing been first pointed out and named by *Gov. Winthrop 
and the company, who in the year 1632 surveyed this part 
of the country, forthe purpose of laying outapublickroad. 
Beaver Brook is a large and valuable stream, and empties 
into Charles River at the lower end of Waltham Plain, 

* Kendal's Centu. Ser. note. p. 27. 



crossing the main road in its course. Its principal branch 
takes its rise from Mead's Pond, supports a grist mill, 
and passes through the grounds of T. Lyman, Esq. which 
it greatly beautifies. The other branch rises in Lexing- 
ton, and runs nearly parallel with the east boundary of 
Waltham, until it unites with the main branch, about 
half a mile from the river. This also, for many years, 
supported a grist mill, and still affords sufficient water for 
the purpose. 

We are informed in the journal of Gov. Winthrop, 
that they gave its present name to this brook, " because 
the beavers had shorn down divers great trees, and made 
divers dams across the brook." * The governour and his 
friends supposed, that the brook came " from a pond a 
mile from the river," which we have described as Beaver 
Pond ; but they were probably induced to form this opin- 
ion, as the meadow adjoining it was flowed in the winter 
by the above mentioned dams, and had the appearance 
of a pond. Mead's Pond, the principal source of the 
brook, is more than two miles from the river. 

In the same journal is found a partial description of 
Masters' Brook. " They came to another brook, greater 
than the former, which they called Masters' Brook, be- 
cause the eldest of their company was one John Mas- 
ters." At present, this brook can hardly be recognized 
by this description, on account of its smallness. The cau- 
ses of its diminution cannot now, perhaps, be ascertained. 
But I suggest the probability, that, as the lands about and 
at its source were cleared and cultivated, its springs have 
been gradually filled till they are almost stopped ; for if 
the summer be dry, there is scarcely any water in the 
usual course of the brook, which, as it approaches the 
river, has every appearance of having once been quite 
deep and broad. 

The late Dr. Kendal, in his Century Sermon, f Janu- 
ary 12, 1813, speaking of this brook, in reference to the 
mention of it, in Governour Winthrop's Journal, says, 
" Masters' Brook is now known by the name of Stony 
Brook." I am sorry the author did not assign the rea- 

* Winthrop's Jour. p. 32. t Page 28, note. 


sons for this assertion, which lie undoubtedly made from 
not knowing that there was a brook thus named in Wal- 
tham, and because he could not determine the situation 
of other objects described in the Govcrnour's Journal, as 
beinj* in its neighbourhood. From the oldest inhabitants 
of the place I learn, that Masters' Brook has within their 
remembrance been known by its present name. It is 
one mile and a half west of Beaver Brook, and nearly a 
mile this side of Stony Brook. Several reasons induce 
me to believe that these are separate streams, and that the 
former is the one anciently designated by Gov. Winthrop. 
First, because Masters' Brook is near to Mount Feake, 
Adam's Chair, &c. mentioned in the journal before 
quoted ; 2dly, because Stony Brook is the western 
boundary of Waltham, on record, and in no record is it 
found, that Masters' Brook is made the said boundary; 
and 3dly, because, by a vote passed and order given, to 
ascertain and fix the true bounds, &c. of the main road 
from Watertown line to Masters' Brook, I find the com- 
mittee proceeded in executing said order to the western 
extremity of Waltham Plain, which is bounded by said 
brook. If these remarks should seem to any too minute, 
about an unimportant object, they may recollect, that no 
description is of much value, which is not correct ; and 
that to many at this day it is pleasant and delightful to 
trace the course, mark the resting places, and view the 
land marks, made by their ancestors in settling our 


Though the interiour of the town is very uneven, 
there are but few elevated points of land. Prospect 
Hill, about half a mile west of the centre of the town, is a 
very considerable eminence. Formerly a large pine tree 
grew upon its summit, and was one of the first objects 
seen by mariners entering our harbour. It commands a 
very extensive prospect to the S. E. with a full view of 
Boston harbour, and its environs. The highly cultivated 
lands in Watertown, Newton, and Brighton, diversified 
with neat and elegant mansions, and the various wind- 


logs of Charles River, for the distance of several miles ? 
forming a most rich and picturesque landscape, are hence 
seen to great advantage. 

Mackerel Bill, in the N. E. part of the town is less 
elevated than the other, yet affords a charming prospect 
of the country, from the S. W. to the E. including Bos- 
ton and its harbour. Bear Hill lies west of Prospect, 
and borders upon Weston, and was formerly thickly 
wooded with oak and walnut. 

Mount Feake is a small eminence in the south part 
of the town, within a few rods of the river, and noticed 
in this description, because one of the spots mentioned 
by Gov. Winthrop in his journal, to which I have before 
referred. Several persons have in vain looked for this 
hill, particularly the late Dr. Kendal ; and because they 
had not the means of finding it, they concluded it to have 
"lost its name, and to stand in the S. E. partof Weston."* 
I have, however, taken some pains to find this spot, and be- 
lieve that which is above described to be the one designa- 
ted by Gov. Winthrop. The oldest persons, living near it, 
have ever known it by the name of Mount Feake. The 
journal runs thus,f "thence they came to another high 
pointed rock, having a fair ascent, on the west side, which 
they called Mount Feake, from one Robert Feake, who 
had married the governour's daughter in law. From the 
west side of Mount Feake they went by a very high 
rock, from whence they might see all over Whipcutt, 
and a very high hill due wes.t, 40 miles off, and to the N. 
W. the high hills by Merrimack, above 60 miles 
off." This " very high rock west of Mount Feake " is 
also in Waltham, whence you plainly discern the hills 
mentioned in the journal. In ascertaining these places, 
and also " Adam's chair," mentioned in the Governour's 
journal, which is "a high stone, cleft asunder, that four 
men might go through," I am indebted to Abner and John 
Saunderson Esqrs. two of the oldest persons in the town, 
who accompanied me in the search. I have also obtain- 
ed from the former gentleman a plan of Watertown, ta- 
ken in 1640, eight years after the Hill was named by 

* Kendal's Cent. Ser. p. 28, note. t Page 32, Journal. 


Gov. W. on which Mount Feakc is marked. Though 
its situation on this plan does not exactly answer to the 
place now recognized, still it is within the hounds of 
Waltham, and so near it, as to leave no doubt in my 
mind of its beins the same. 

Schools, education, &c. 

There are but four permanent school districts in the 
town ; in each of which a school is taught from three to 
five months in the year by a master, and from three to 
four months by a mistress. In consequence of the large 
number of children at the lower factory, the inhabitants 
attached to it now form a fifth district, in which a school 
is taught six months of the year. 

Considering our vicinity to the metropolis, and the 
long established habits of the people to labour for the 
immediate supply of the market, considerable attention 
has been and is still paid to the instruction of youth, in 
the common and useful branches of knowledge. Several 
have availed themselves of the privileges offered by our 
university for a publick education, and have received its 
honours. From the year 1737 to 1810, ^nineteen 
young men were graduated at Harvard College and three 
at Nassau Hall, Princeton, N. J. Two died while at 
College, one in the senior arid the other in the junior 
class, two left College without receiving their degrees, 
and two are now junior sophisters at Cambridge. Of 
those who were graduated, six were settled ministers 
in this state ; four, practising physicians ; and four, 
lawyers. Most of them have proved, and are yet useful 
and valuable members of society. From among them 
have proceeded the judge, the philosopher, and the 

* Timothy Harrington was graduated 1737 ; Leonard Williams, 1753; Samuel Wil- 
liams, 1761 ; Elijah Brown, 1765 ; Jacob Bigclow, 1766; Amos Cotting, 1767 ; Jonas 
Dix, William Goodhue, 1769 ; William Fiske, 1772 ; Nathaniel Bridge, 1782 ; Benja- 
min Green, 1784; Uriah Hagar, 1793 ; John Dix, 1801; Charles Wellington, 1802 ; 
Charles Fiske, 1305; George Lyman, 1806; William Gale, Theodore Lyman, Cyrus 
Pierce, 1810 ; Samuel Livermore, Isaac Livermore, William Livermore, were gradu- 
ated at Princeton College, New Jersey, but not having a catalogue of those who 
have received degrees there, I cannot mention the year, I think however not far from 



divine, who have honoured the bench, enlightened the 
college, and improved and blessed the church. Several, 
after leaving college, established themselves in their na- 
tive place, and were leading and influential men in all 
the affairs of the town. In this sphere and capacity, 
very often, men of education render more essential ben- 
efit to society, than by an exclusive attention to profes- 
sional business. In every town there must be one or 
more to direct all matters of importance, and in whom 
the citizens cheerfully place confidence. If wisdom and 
education do not take this place, it will be assumed 
by ignorance and vanity. 

We do not boast of much literature among us, for the 
necessary pursuits and habits of the people are unfavour- 
able to the acquisition of it. A considerable portion of 
the youth, however, and of the rising generation, are 
well read in history, biography, general and moral 
miscellany, as there is in the town a Social Library 
containing about 300 volumes. Under good regulations, 
this privilege may be a means of diffusing much know- 
ledge among all classes, and of improving the virtue and 
increasing the happiness of society. 

Houses, population, &c. 

Considering the situation and extent of its territory, 
Waltham is well settled. A very considerable portion of 
the inhabitants live upon the Plain, it being better situa- 
ted, than any other part of the town, for mechanicks, 
tradesmen, and manufacturers. 

There are 120 dwelling houses in the town, built 
mostly of wood ; some are large and handsome. Seven 
are of brick, and are excellent houses. The other build- 
ings are the meeting-house, two cotton and one woollen 
factories, several mills, malt house, retailers' shops, 
English and W. I. goods stores. 

The present number of inhabitants is about 1,250; 
there are about 180 families. The increase of popula- 
tion has been moderate and gradual, until within the last 
five years. In 1810 there were but 148 families in town. 
In 1796 there were 230 polls ; there are now nearly 300. 


In 1790, there were 882 inhabitants; in 1800, there 
were 903; in 1810, there were 101 1. Jan. 1, 1815, 
there are probably 1250 inhabitants.* 

Bill of Mortality. 

I have no means of ascertaining the annual number of 
deaths, previously to the settlement of Dr. Cushing, who, 
accurate and methodical in every thing he did, kept an 
exact account of the deaths happening in the town for 
fifty six years ; in which time, that is, from Nov. 22, 
1752 to Jan. 1, 1809, there were 851 deaths ; of which 
number only 612 were accounted inhabitants and resi- 
dents. Since Jan. 1809, there have happened 80 deaths, 
60 of which were inhabitants ; making in 62 years and 
5 weeks 672 deaths of inhabitants and residents. The 
average annual number therefore has been about 10 
deaths. Of the 672 who died in the term of 62 years, 
129 lived to the age of 70 years and upwards, being 
about one in five, who reached the allotted period of 
our existence. Of the 129, sixty eight lived to 80 years 
and upwards, being one in nine who attained to this 
good old age. Of this latter number, twelve were 90 
years of age or more ; six lived to 95 and upwards, and 
fone numbered an hundred years, retaining her faculties 
to the close of life, spending many hours every day in 
reading, without glasses, and enjoying highly the com- 
pany of the young, whom she edified by her conversa- 
tion and example. She was one of the meekest and 
humblest of the followers of Jesus ; and having been 
educated in the days of bigotry, was a remarkablv 
cheerful and rational christian. 

From this bill of mortality, it may be inferred, that the 
inhabitants enjoy an uncommon share of health. The 
flat and level part of the town is of a dry soil, and the 
other parts are elevated ; and there are few, if any, 
swamps, marshes or stagnant pools in the place. These 
are causes for the salubrity of the air. 

* In 1764, the number of dwelling houses in Waltharri was 01 ■ of families, 107 ; 
and of inhabitants* 603. In 1776, the number of inhabitants bad increased to 870. In 
1733, it was reduced to 69S. Edit. 

t Mrs. Mary Harrington. 



In describing the situation and the local properties of 
Waltham, in general, it may be proper to notice particu- 
larly the improvements upon the farms of the Hon. C. 
Gore and T. Lyman, Esqrs. The grounds of the latter 
gentleman, from a rough and irregular condition, are 
brought into the highest state of cultivation, and arranged 
and laid out in the most convenient and regular manner. 
Through the lawn, in front of the mansion house, which 
is large and handsome, runs Beaver Brook, which it there 
formed into a serpentine canal, and over which is erected 
a bridge of three arches, made of the Chelmsford white 
stone, which is both an ornament to the place, and a 
specimen of correct taste and workmanship. A few rods 
below the bridge, the water passes over a dam, which 
makes a fall of several feet, and adds much to the beauty 
and effect of the surrounding scenery. In the adjoining 
grounds, formed, as it were, by nature for the purpose, is 
an extensive park, which contains a large number of 
deer, both of the American and Calcutta breed. The 
garden of Mr. L. is extensive, and yields in abundance 
the various fruits of the several seasons. The wall fruit 
is remarkably fine in appearance, though perhaps not su- 
periour, in flavour, to the same kind, matured upon the 
original stock. The green house, its plants and shrub- 
bery, are probably equal to any in N. England. The 
situation of the house is not elevated ; and no part of the 
highly cultivated grounds affords any prospect far beyond 
their limits. However desirable and necessary this prop- 
erty may be with respect to some situations, the want of 
it is not materially felt at Mr. Lyman's. For when there, 
you behold so much to admire and approve, so much 
taste and elegance, so great convenience and comfort, 
that you desire no other prospects, than those before and 
around you ; - — you are satisfied with contemplating the 
improvements of art and refinement upon nature, how 
they can render her more charming, more instructive, 
and bring into more full display the wisdom and good- 
ness of nature's God. 

The seat of Mr. Gore is one of the most elegant in 
this part of the country. The house is a spacious and 


noble building, of brick, after the plan of some of the 
best houses in Europe. It is situated in the centre of 
pleasant grounds, tastefully laid out, surrounded by a 
walk of a mile in circuit, intersected by several other 
walks, on all of which are growing trees and shrubbery 
of various kinds. The grounds are not improved merely 
to gratify personal feelings, or attract observation and 
receive applause ; but they are devoted to the raising of 
every variety of horticulture, grass, corn, wheat, barley, 
&c. : — and while this variety itself delights the eye of 
the beholder, it makes him feel, that utility is the main 
design of the exertions there displayed, and that it is 
compatible with the highest rank and most exalted mind, 
to study the convenience and supply the wants of society. 
Mr. Gore has paid considerable attention to the cultiva- 
tion of wheat, and has sometimes raised good crops. A 
portion of his land is well adapted to its growth. 

Chronological and Historical Account, &c. 

To give a satisfactory account of Waltham, especial- 
ly of its ecclesiastical affairs, it will be necessary to look 
back some time previously to its being incorporated a 
separate town, and even some years before it became the 
west precinct of Watertown. In making this compila- 
tion, I have access to the church records kept by Rev. 
Mr. Angier, during his ministry at the new meeting- 
house, and which were sent to Rev. Mr. Williams, by 
the son of Mr Angier, 1731, as the property of this 
church. We may conclude, therefore, that the greater 
part of Mr. A.'s congregation were composed of those 
living in the district, which soon after his decease, be- 
came the west precinct. I also consult Watertown rec- 
ords, Waltham, precinct, town, and church records, and 
the century sermon of the late Dr. Kendal, who faithful- 
ly searched all records and MSS. which had reference to 
the object he had in view. 

As early as the year 1692, the town endeavoured to 
select a place for a new meeting-house, which should be 
" most convenient for the bulk of the inhabitants." They 



did not however succeed in the attempt. The same year, 
at the request of the Selectmen, the Governour and 
Council appointed a committee to consider " and report 
on the subject ; " which business they performed, and 
made their report to the town, April 17, 1694. In this 
report, the committee advise the town, permanently to 
settle Rev. Mr. Henry Gibbs, as their minister, who had 
preached to them several years, and whom they greatly 
desired for their pastor ; and to prevent further differen- 
ces about the place of worship, they " advise and deter- 
mine," that within four years, next coming, a meeting- 
house should be erected between the house of widow 
Stearns and Whitney's hill, in which the whole town 
should worship. Although this report was not accepta- 
ble to all the inhabitants, the farmers, or most westerly 
part of the town dissenting from it, the meeting-house 
was built upon the proposed spot, and completed, in Feb. 
1696. Mr. Gibbs, however, persisted in refusing to 
preach in this house, and to become the minister of the 
town, though much and repeatedly urged by the people. 
Different motives are suggested for this determination ; 
but as he was afterwards ordained over the church gath- 
ered in the east part of the town, we may conclude his 
refusal arose from his preference to the old house and 
those who generally worshipped there. 

June 26, 1696, the town resolved to observe a day 
with religious solemnities, preparatory, I presume, to the 
choice of a minister. On the 28th of August following, 
the church chose Rev. Samuel Angier, formerly minister 
of Rehoboth, to be their pastor, and to preach in the new 
meeting-house. Sept. 21st, the town concurred with 
the church in the choice of Mr. Angier as their minister. 
It does not appear to have been the unanimous act of the 
inhabitants, as several meetings were previously held, to 
attempt the adjustment of some difference, existing be- 
tween the east and west parts of the town ; or more prop- 
erly, between the adherents of the old and new meeting- 
houses. The subject of difference is not mentioned in 
the records I have examined ; it probably arose from 


the attachment of a considerable number to Mr. Gibbs, 
whom they hoped to have for their minister. 

"Feb. 1, 1697, the fanners, that is, the inhabitants 
of what is now Weston, were by vote exempted from 
ministerial rates in the town." * 

March 9, 1G97. Mr. Angier expressed his accept- 
ance of the call of the church and town, and his readiness 
to assume the duties of his office. At the same time, the 
church chose the Rev. Mr. Easterbrook of Concord, 
" to give the pastoral charge, and to be the mouth and 
moderator of the church in the publick management of the 
whole affair of perfecting the settlement of Mr. Angier." 

On the 17th of May following, " the church voted to 
proceed to a full settlement of Mr. Samuel Angier, he 
taking charge over the church according to the rules of 
the gospel, without reordination by imposition of hands." 
This example of installing an ordained minister over 
another church proves the correctness of sentiment held 
by our fathers, concerning the qualifications of a pastor, 
and that they considered a person once regularly ordain- 
ed, thenceforward authorized to sustain all the offices of 
a minister, wherever the providence of God might call 
him, whether placed over a particular church, or not, and 
without being required to subscribe to any creed of 
man's invention. 

At the same meeting, the church deputed a committee 
" to treat with such ministers as they shall think fit, to as- 
sist them in the settlement of Mr. Angier, as their pastor ; 
they also agree, that if the help of ministers cannot be ob- 
tained, they being thereby necessitated, to proceed in the 
said settlement, with the concurrence and advice of 
Mr. A." The assistance of ministers was not obtained, 
though we are not informed of the reasons; the church, 
therefore, agreeably to their vote, proceeded on the 25th 
of May, 1697, with the aid and direction of Rev. Mr. 
Easterbrook, to induct their pastor into office. When 
Mr. Angier had performed the devotional exercises, and 
preached a discourse, it was openly declared, that the 

* Kendal's Century Sermon, p. 29, 


church had chosen and requested Rev. Mr. E. to man- 
age the whole affair, and give the pastoral charge. After 
supplicating divine aid, he accordingly read the letter 
of Mr. A.'s dismission and recommendation from the 
church in Rehoboth, desired the church to accept the 
same, and to receive Mr. A. into their fellowship ; asked 
them to renew their invitation to Mr. A. to be their min- 
ister, and him to repeat his acceptance of their call ;— 
"and then with much gravity and seriousness gave a 
most solemn and scriptural charge to Mr. Angier, to at- 
tend to the whole pastoral duty in and towards the 
church." The religious exercises were closed by prayer 
and singing the 122 Psalm.* 

I am the more particular in mentioning all the facts, 
relative to the induction of Mr. A. to his parochial charge, 
because I conceive it important that this ancient and cor- 
rect conformity to the rules of ordination, prescribed in 
the Cambridge platform, should be generally noticed. 
For at the present day we arc not unfrequently called to 
witness churches and ministers acting in opposition to 
these plain and consistent directions, — refusing to ordain 
over a society the man they have chosen for their minis- 
ter, unless he agree with them in sentiment, and some- 
times even bind himself forever to adhere to their creed. 
Whereas this platform expressly permits a church to 
choose, and consequently to ordain their minister, oncer- 
tain occasions. Why the neighbouring churches refused 
to aid in the installation of M[r. A. we know not, nor is 
it of consequence, that their reasons should be known. 
It is sufficient, that the church exercised the right grant- 
ed them by the Platform,! which all Congregational 
churches profess to receive. If no minister had been 
present, the church, by their officers, might regularly 
have performed the ceremony. It is pleasant, it is best, 
to have the direction and assistance of sister churches and 
their pastors, in ordaining ministers ; but if they refuse 
their aid and counsel, unless the candidate conform to 

* Waltham church records, sent to Rev. Mr. Williams, by Rev. John Angier, 
of Bridge water. 

t Chapter IX. 

dp:scription of waltiiam. 277 

their theological sentiments, they ought not to feel injured, 
if in such cases, churches exercise the right of ordain- 
ing their ministers. The principle here maintained is of 
vital importance to the peace, order, and improvement of 
the churches of our Lord Jesus Christ; and it is there- 
fore much to he regretted, that it is not more generally, 
acknowledged and regarded. 

"At a meeting of the two precincts, July 2d, 1697," 
the town renewed their invitation to Rev. Mr. Gibbs, to 
become an assistant minister to Rev. Mr. Angicr in the 
new meeting-house : but the call was not accepted. As 
this is the first occurrence of " two precincts" in Wa- 
tertown records, it may be, that what was afterwards 
Weston, became this year legally the west precinct. I 
think it more probable, however, that, as the farmers, 
who constituted the most westerly part of the town, were 
previously exempted from ministerial rates, and as in 
1695 measures were taken by them, in conjunction with 
the town, to build a meeting-house for their special use, 
the two precincts here mentioned have reference to the 
eastern and middle parts of the town, although they were 
not legally separated. 

In the MSS. of Judge Sewall it is recorded, " Oct. 6, 
1697, a church was gathered at Watertown, east end, 
and Mr. Henry Gibbs was ordained. The ceremony 
was abroad, because the western party got possession of 
the meeting-house." This confirms the supposition in 
the preceding paragraph. 

Though Mr. Angier and Mr. Gibbs were both minis- 
ters of Watertown, they can hardly be said to have been 
associates, as the former officiated in the new, and the lat- 
ter, in the old meeting-house ; and the adherents of each 
seem to have been somewhat at variance. Both minis- 
ters, however, were maintained from the town treasury ; 
and the several orders, which passed the General Court 
for regulating the ministry, at different times, till 1720, 
recognized but one parish, although the inhabitants con- 
sidered themselves as distinct societies, and were unsuc- 
cessful in all their attempts to worship together as one 
congregation in the new meeting-house. 


May 13, 1715, the town voted " to build a meeting- 
house for the accommodation of the inhabitants of the 
most westerly part of the town," which had reference to 
the district, now Waltham, as Weston was already incor- 
porated. This vote was never strictly executed, nor 
were any effectual measures adopted to reach its object? 
until 1721. 

The two societies remained in this state, until Jan. 21 , 
1718—19, when Mr. Angier died, aged sixty-five years. 
This notice of his death, 1 find on the inside of the cover 
of the book of records, which had been kept by Mr. A., 
and was probably made by some one of his family. Mr. 
Angier was buried in the grave-yard now appropriated to 
Waltham, which is another proof, that he was considered 
the minister rather of this part, than of the whole town. 

Mr. Angier was minister of Watertown twenty-one 
years and eight months. During this period he received 
into the fellowship of the church ninety-five members, 
and baptized 706 persons. When we recollect that there 
was another church and pastor in the town, and these 
baptisms were chiefly of those families, who lived in the 
westerly part, I think it is evident, that parents more gen- 
erally dedicated their children in baptism, than at the 
present day, although the requisitions were more formi- 
dable, than now, of those who wished to observe the 

At the request of the inhabitants, Nov. 1720, the Gen- 
eral Court appointed a committee to separate the two 
precincts, to consult as to the expediency of removing 
one, or both of the meeting-houses, and to point out the 
most suitable places for the purpose. The Committee 
made a report in Dec. following, which was accepted ; 
and the court directed Samuel Thaxter, Esq. to run the 
divisional line, agreeably to said report. This line, " be- 
ginning at Charles River, runs on a north course forty- 
nine degrees east : " that is, from Charles River, on a 
northeasterly course, until it terminates at the southwest- 
erly bounds of Cambridge, now West-Cambridge. In 
this report, the committee further advised, that within 
two years, the new, or west meeting-house should be re- 


moved to a rising ground near the house of Nathaniel 
Livermore, or a new one erected upon that spot, which 
was ahout two miles and an half west from the place 
in which it then stood, and near the spot on which Wal- 
tham meeting-house now stands. The town granted 
money to effect the ohjects contemplated in the above 
named report. 

The first precinct meeting of the westerly part of the 
town, was regularly holden, Jan. 30, 1720, when meas- 
ures were adopted to support the stated preaching of the 

At a meeting of the precinct, Feb. 24, 1720 — 21, " a 
committee of five meet persons was chosen to treat with 
the legal builders" (proprietors) " of the new or west 
meeting-house in Watertown, in order to remove said 
meeting-house, pursuant to the direction of the great and 
general court." Also " a committee of three meet per- 
sons was chosen to treat with Mr. Nathaniel Livermore, 
for a convenient spot of land, on which to set a meeting- 
house, in pursuance of the order of the great and general 

April 14, 1721, the committee, chosen to consult with 
the proprietors of the new meeting-house, made the fol- 
lowing report to the precinct. " We the subscribers, a 
committee, &c. have treated with some that were build- 
ers of said meeting-house, and find it a difficult thing to 
remove it, because such builders as we have conversed 
with, are very much opposed to the removing of said 
meeting-house. We are humbly of opinion, that it will 
be more for the peace of the precinct to take some other 
measures." Agreeably to this advice, it was voted at 
the same meeting to erect a meeting-house upon the 
place designated by the committee of the general court, 
and to authorize a committee to apply to Newton, for 
their old meeting-house, " that they may seasonably have 
a house for publick worship." The committee were 
permitted to give not more than eighty pounds for 
the house, and were required to have it delivered to 
them in the course of the ensuing October. The house 


was obtained and erected as intended, about the appoint- 
ed time. 

Having satisfactorily attained the object, for which they 
had so long laboured, a comfortable house, in which to 
worship God, the inhabitants of the precinct, at a general 
meeting, Aug. 14, 1722, chose Mr. William Welsteed, 
as their minister. He did not, however, accept their in- 
vitation, though, in his answer, he assigned no reasons 
for refusing it. Mr. Welsteed was afterwards a candi- 
date for the office of colleague pastor with Rev. Mr. Fox- 
croft, of First Church, Boston, which office the late Dr. 
Chauncy filled. In March 1728, Mr. W. was ordained 
pastor of the old north church, Boston, and died in 1753. 

Though disappointed in their first attempt to settle a 
minister, the inhabitants were not discouraged, but im- 
mediately heard another candidate, and in concurrence 
with the church, Dec. 18, 1722, they chose Mr War- 
ham Williams for their pastor. Mr. Williams, being a 
prudent man, accepted their invitation, upon condition, 
that they would ensure him " a convenient and suitable 
place for his comfortable, outward accommodation upon 
reasonable terms, that they would annually cut and bring 
to his house the fuel he might purchase, and that if his 
circumstances should afterwards require it, they would 
do what was necessary for his decent and honourable 
support." The precinct assented to these proposals 
April 30, 1723 ; and Mr. Williams was ordained on the 
eleventh day of June following. 

At a general meeting of the inhabitants of the precinct, 
Dec. 8, 1737, a committee was chosen to petition the 
general court, to incorporate them a separate town, that 
thus the differences, which had for some time subsisted 
in the place, might be healed, and the difficulties, which 
arose in transacting the business of the two parishes, 
might be removed. Application was accordingly made, 
and the prayer of the petitioners granted. The act of 
incorporation passed Jan. 4, 1737 — 38. Allowing for 
the difference between old and new style, the date of 
incorporation should now be Jan. 15, 1738. 


Rev. Mr. Williams died, June 22, 1751, aged fifty- 

two ; having been minister of the precinct and town a 
few days more than twenty-eight years. He was con- 
fined several weeks by sickness, previously to his death, 
during which time the town voluntarily supported the 
stated preaching of the gospel, exclusive of the salary 
of Mr. W. 

I find nothing upon record, relating to the character 
of Mr. Williams. He was the youngest son of the Rev. 
John Williams of Decrfield, Mass. and was carried by 
the Indians into Canada, with his father and family, Feb. 
29, 1703 — 4, being then about four years of age. He 
was detained in captivity between two and three years ; 
as I believe he returned with his father in Nov. 1706.* At 
an early age he was prepared for college, and was grad- 
uated at Cambridge, in 1719. Judging from the classical 
books which made part of his library, and from the few 
of his manuscript sermons, which I have seen, I should 
suppose him to have read much, and with more than or- 
dinary accuracy. By those of his parishoners, yet alive, 
he was considered prudent and exemplary as a man, and 
christian, a sensible and faithful minister. From the 
records kept by Mr. Williams, it appears that he baptized, 
in the course of his ministry in this town, seven hundred 
and forty-two persons, and received two hundred and 
twenty-five into the church. 

Feb. 3, 1752,- the church and town invited Mr. Eli 
Forbes to be their minister; but he declined their invi- 
tation. Mr. Forbes was afterwards settled as minister 
of the north parish in Brookfield, and thence removed 
to Gloucester, where he lived to an advanced age. He 
was an excellent man, and eminent in his profession. 

The town next heard Mr. Jacob Gushing as a candi- 
date for the ministry, and in unison with the church chose 
him to be their minister, July 27, 1752. Mr. Cushing 
was ordained Nov. 22, of the same year. 

* For a particular account of this interesting captivity, the reader is referred to 
"The Redeemed Captive returning to Zion." 


In 1767, the town erected a new meeting-house, which 
was completed the following year. It was placed nearly 
upon the spot of the former house, being moved only 
aboutten rods farther back, upon arising piece of ground, 
half of a mile north of the great road — a spot admirably 
well suited for a house of public worship, being perfectly 
retired from the noise and dust occasioned by the travel- 
ling over the Plain. From the Plain, the meeting-house 
makes a very handsome appearance. It has a tower, and 
a very neat and well proportioned steeple, which, rising 
among and above the surrounding trees, near the man- 
sion and cultivated fields of Mr. Lyman, not only attracts 
general observation, but excites in reflecting minds the 
most pleasant emotions. The house was not originally 
painted; but in the year 1806, it was repaired, many 
new pews were erected, and was painted throughout. 

Nothing occurred in the town for many years, greatly 
to excite the feelings, or disturb the tranquillity of the 
inhabitants. Having been trained up to good order and 
harmony under their late pastor, they passed a quiet and 
peaceable life under his successour, who laboured among 
them to a good old age, and who was remarkable for his 
talent of prudently managing affairs, both temporal and 
spiritual. His example incited them to industry and reg- 
ularity, and his whole life furnished them with no occa- 
sion for uneasiness or complaint. They were not un- 
mindful of the blessings they enjoyed under his ministry, 
but evinced their respect and regard for him, to the last 
hour of life. Dr. Cushing died, after a slight illness of a 
day or two, on Wednesday the 18th of Jan. 1809, in the 
79th year of his age, and 57th of his ministry. He had 
enjoyed, through life, an uncommon share of health ; and 
preached at Weston the sabbath before his death, with 
unabated vigour. He was venerable for years and piety. 
His praise was in all the churches ; and as a just tribute 
to his worth as a divine, and the dignity of his character, 
in 1806, the degree of doctor of divinity was conferred 
upon him, by the university at Cambridge, where he was 
graduated in 1748. 


Not having been personally acquainted with Dr. Crush- 
ing, 1 am unable to speak of him as his memory deserves. 
I shall therefore give a sketch of his character, from the 
discourse of the Rev. Dr. Stearns, preached at his fu- 

" The Rev. Dr. dishing was a man of a good natural 
temper, of sound and energetick faculties, and a correct 
judgment. Though of a lively and cheerful tempera- 
ment, he indulged very little to flights of the imagination. 
The exercises of reason were his delight. He chose 
rather to be useful, than eminent ; to be good, rather 
than to shine. His demeanour, the management of his 
affairs, and his publick performances, were all calculated 
on this principle." 

" He was modest in his opinion concerning himself; 
slow in determining the characters of others ; and did 
not rashly place confidence in any man." 

" His accuracy of discernment, and we might almost 
say, perfect economy, were conspicuous, in the manage- 
ment of common and domestick affairs. For of prudence 
and discretion he had a large share. In all concerns of 
life, greater or less, he loved method, and was a strict 
observer of order and punctuality." 

" In his theology he was evangelical, and mighty in the 
scriptures. To them he closely adhered, paying little 
regard to the systems of men. It is a credit to the accu- 
racy of his theological sentiments, that he was neither 
complained of for want of orthodoxy, nor censured as a 
bigot. He seemed to have hit the happy medium, be- 
tween the crabbed dogmatist and the vacillating skeptick. 
He preferred to treat of practical, rather than contro- 
versial points of doctrine." 

" The continual state of his church and congregation, 
during his ministry, are the most decisive eulogy on 
his pastoral skill and conduct. Peace and harmony pre- 
vailed among them without interruption, for the space of 
fifty-six years." 

" His piety was exemplary. In his discourses, he 
chose rather to convince the mind than rule the passions. 
Pious in sentiment and demeanour, and accurate in his 


morals, he baffled the censures of his enemies and con- 
ciliated the esteem of many friends. They who love 
God, keep his commandments.— He was an able, faith- 
ful, and godly minister." 

During his ministry, Dr. Gushing admitted as church 
members, three hundred and sixty-nine persons, bap- 
tized one thousand three hundred and seventy-six, and 
joined in wedlock seven hundred and fifty-six. 

By examining the chronological statements now given, 
it will be seen that the * three first ministers of the pre- 
cinct and town of Waltham filled the pastoral office al- 
most one hundred and six years. Mr. Williams and Dr. 
Gushing were ministers eighty-five years. 

Aug. 24, 1809, the present pastor, Samuel Ripley, 
was chosen to succeed the Rev. Dr. Gushing in the 
ministerial office, and was ordained Nov. 22, of the same 
year, it being that day fifty-seven years from the ordi- 
nation of his predecessor, and ten months after his de- 
cease. Since the ordination of Mr. Ripley, forty-five 
persons have been received to communion, and one 
hundred and fifty-nine baptized. The number of church 
members is about one hundred and sixty. 

M. U. 

Note on the Historical Sketch of Brookline. 

IN the Historical Sketch of Brookline, in our last vol- 
ume, p. 141, the writer seems to imply, that the grants 
of that part of Boston were made only to the poorer sort 
of inhabitants, for he represents the one hundred and two 
persons, to whom allotments there were made, as receiv- 
ing them under the vote for the relief of the poor. This 
is a mistake, which the diligent author of that paper 
would have escaped, had he examined other parts of the 
body of the record as well as the index of the Muddy 
River grants. Among others, of the greatest consequence 

* I call Mr. Angier minister of Wallham district, then of Watertown. 


in Boston, who held their lands in that quarter on the 
same footing as at Rumney Marsh or Mount Wollaston 
precincts, are the names of Bendall, Blackston, Colborn, 
Cotton, Dyneley, Eliot, Flint, Gillam, Hull, Hibbins, the 
Leveretts, Tliomas and John, the Olivers, Thomas, Pe- 
ter, and James, Savage, the Scottows, Tliomas and Josh- 
ua, Sherman, Tyng, Underbill, and Wilson. Several of 
these were then officers in Boston, and always resided 
within the neck. Indeed on the same page of the rec- 
ords, where the above mentioned vote is found, arc in- 
serted in 1635 grants at Muddy River to Rev. John Cot- 
ton, William Colborn, Thomas Oliver, and Thomas 
Leverett, immediately subsequent to those of Governour 
Coddington and Edmund Quiney at Mount Wollaston. 
After this slight correction, the notice, taken by the 
writer of the Sketch, of the emigration of so large a pro- 
portion of the settlers, as leaves a very few of the same 
name with them in Brookline, hardly needs to be ex- 
plained. Very few of the grantees, whose names are 
found in the records, moved from the old town, and per- 
haps of the poor, who took up lots under the town's vote, 
many were not recorded in the town book. However, 
whether the latter supposition be correct or not, the pres- 
ent inhabitants of Brookline ought not to be expected to 
contain a large proportion of the names of the first gran- 
tees, because they were not settlers. 2. 

Note on Jamaica. 1793. By Dr. Harris of 

J AMAICA is a hundred and fifty miles in length, and 
fifty in breadth in the widest part. A ridge of mountains 
runs through the island ; but it is mostly capable of cul- 
tivation. The Blue Mountain, an extensive mountain in 
the east part, is a mile in perpendicular height above the 
sea. The climate is healthful to the prudent and tempe- 
rate ; and many persons live to a great age. The sea 
breezes sometimes blow all night ; and sometimes begin 
at seven or eight o'clock in the morning. Earthquakes 



are not confined to any season of the year. Among its 
fruits is the manchineel, which, though poisonous, is de- 
lightful both to the smell and the eye. The soap tree, 
sapindus saponaria of Linnaeus, affords an excellent rem- 
edy for the rheumatism, a discovery which has lately 
been made. Excellent cattle are now fed on the guinea 
grass pens, and afford beef, which is fat and good ; some 
oxen weigh above a thousand pounds. Horses, above 
fifteen hands high, are sometimes raised on these pens ; 
and frequently sell for a hundred to two hundred pounds. 
Mutton and lamb, particularly salt pond mutton near 
Port Royal, are very fine. The fish of Jamaica are of a 
superiour quality. There are no adders on the island, 
but yellow and black snakes in plenty. The chiego is 
not so formidable an insect, as has been represented by 
several authors : it enters the skin only, and is easily ex- 
tracted ; but if it is neglected, it breeds sores, and some- 
times bring on the loss of the toes. The culture of 
coffee is rapidly improving. 

Letters respecting Hubbard's Historv. 

Harvard College, 14 Dec. 1814. 
Rev. Dr. Freeman, 
Dear Sir, 

AS our last volume contained a prospectus of 
Hubbard, the last paragraph of which gives an expecta- 
tion that the deficiencies of our copy might be supplied, 
&c. the following documents are submitted to the con- 
sideration of the present publishing committee, to be in- 
serted, if they think proper, in the next volume. 

Extracts from a letter, to the Recording Secretary, from 
Mr. George Eliot. 

" Birmingham, 19 Sept. 1814." 
" I enclosed your letter, with the printed specimen of 
the work, to Dr. Oliver. Before I received an answer, 


1 was introduced to E. Hutchinson, esquire, son of the 
aovernour, and brother of the late Thomas II. esquire. 
Wi*o expressed himself ready to afford any assistance in 
his power. He said that all the family papers were in 

the possession of his nephew, T. Hutchinson, esquire, 
who resides in Devonshire, and to whom he would write 
on the subject. A few days since, he called, and read 
from the answer, which was very polite, as follows : " 11 
« I had Hubbard's History they should be very welcome 
" to it ; but I do not recollect having ever seen it. 1 
c; know of no papers which would be of value to the So- 
"ciety ; but if at any time any are found, they shall be 
" sent. There is an unpublished volume of Hutchinson's 
" History, but the family concluded it to be unfit for the 
" press in England, and the same reason would prevent 
" their sending it to the United States." 

Copy of the letters mentioned in the preceding Extract. 

Birmingham, Aug. 13, 1814. 
Dr. Peter Oliver, 


I have the honour of enclosing a letter from the 
Reverend Joseph McKean, Professor of Rhetoric and 
Oratory at Harvard University, Cambridge, New Eng- 
land, directed to yourself or Thomas Hutchinson, Esq. 
The object of the Historical Society being to preserve 
and publish every thing relative to the History of Amer- 
ica, and particularly of New England, I trust, if in your 
power, you will grant the request, and thus greatly assist 
their exertions, and confer a benefit on the literature of 
the United States. &c. &cc. &:c. 

I am, Sir, with respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Signed,) George Eliot. 


Harvard College, (Cambridge, Mass.) 14 June, 1814, 

Dr. Peter Oliver, 

Dear Sir, 

The object of this address being of a publick na- 
ture, J offer no apology for venturing, although a stran- 
ger, to solicit your attention. By direction of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, and with the patronage of 
the Legislature, the publication of " Hubbard's History 
of New England " is just commenced. The only copy, 
in our country, is somewhat mutilated at the beginning 
and the end. I send the first half sheet, to shew how 
much is wanting ; and also to apprize you, what are the 
views of the publishers. You will see, in the Prefatory 
Notice, that we hope for aid from the family of the late 
Honourable Chief Justice Oliver. 

Would they who possess his historical treasures part 

With thf»m tr\ t\UV inotitn+mn ? \AfmlA +U~-- " t ■ 

....... ...^..1 o v,«. hmc^^v/h . Hvmu tuuy give, or loan 

the Hubbard MS. ? Would they permit a transcript of 
the pages deficient in our copy ? We should be glad to 
send half a dozen copies of the printed work, as an ex- 
pression of thanks, for so great a favour to our Society, 
our State, and our Country : one which will be acknow- 
ledged, with peculiar gratitude, by 


Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed,) Joseph McKean» 

Shrewsbury, Sept. 3, 1814, 
George Eliot, 

I received yours of the 18th August last, and one 
from a Mr. McKeane inclosed in it. As to lending my 
manuscript or giving any part of it, I must beg to be ex™ 
cused — for I do not know whether it wont be printed in 
this Country. As Mr. McKeanes letter came under 
cover to you, you can inform him of my determina- 


tion ; lience it will be useless to write me upon it any 

If I am not very much mistaken, what they have wafi 
the one that was stolen by the mob w lien they gutted 
Governour Hutchinson's House, I think in 1765, and it 
was then said that our Manuscript was the only one ex- 
isting — so that what they have mutilated, belongs to Mr. 
Hutchinson's remaining family, and ought in honor to be 
sent to them. 

I am, Sir, Yr. hbl. Servant, 

(Signed,) Peter Oliver. 

Boston, December, 1814. 

Rev. Dr. Freeman, 

Dear Sir, 

Doct. Oliver's letter to my nephew, Mr. George 
Eliot, seems to have been indited while in a passion : his 
charge of robbery in regard to Hubbard's MS. history 
is erroneous. When Gov. Hutchinson's house was ran- 
sacked by a mob, in 1765, his books and papers were 
thrown out of the windows, trampled under foot, and ex- 
posed to violent rains. Jf the manuscript was then in the 
governour's possession, it is probable that it did not es- 
cape ; and that the mutilation took place at that time. In 
the preface to the second volume of his history, a hand- 
some acknowledgment is made to my father for his exer- 
tions in collecting and preserving the property, and par- 
ticularly for receiving all the books and papers into his 
house. I well remember, that the governour spent a 
great deal of time afterwards in assorting them ; and that 
all which he considered of value were returned to his 
house. Gov. Hutchinson made use of this manuscript 
in compiling his history, and perhaps thought that he had 
as good a right to keep it as any one ; but that it was 
ever his property may be doubted. The manuscript in 
the possession of the Historical Society is, undoubtedly. 


the copy taken, in consequence of a grant from the Gen- 
eral Court, Oct. 1682,* and therefore, strictly speaking, 
is publick property. 

When the late Dr. Belknap began to compile his His- 
tory of New Hampshire, my father borrowed the manu- 
script for his use ; Gov. Hutchinson would not consent 
that it should be carried out of town, and one of my 
brothers copied such parts as the doctor conceived might 
be serviceable to him. This took up much time ; dur- 
ing which Gov. Hutchinson was superseded by Gen. 
Gage, and went to Great Britain : probably neither he 
nor my father thought any thing of the book. It was 
thus innocently left in my father's hands. He kept it 
most carefully ; as did my brother, the late Doct. John 
Eliot, after our father's death, until the institution of the 
Historical Society. It was then, as publick property, de- 
posited in their archives. 

By this means the publick will be favoured with an 
edition of such parts of it as remain. As Doct. Oliver 
could supply the deficiencies from a copy taken by his 
father, it is to be regretted that his temper should so far 
overcome his judgment as to cause a refusal. 

I am, Sir, respectfully, 

Your obedient servant. 

Ephraim Eliot. 

Deaths in the Society worshipping at Kings- 
chapel, in Boston. 

From Jan. 1st, 1747, to Dec. 31st, 1775 : 29 years. 

UNDER 1 year 68 Males 57 Females 125 Total. 

Between 1 and 5 59 50 109 

5 10 12 12 24 

See Vol. X. 1st Series, p. 187. 




nl Or 

ind 15 



11 Feu 

laics 20 







































































• 8 


















399 383 782 

Infants baptized during the same period. 
938 Males, 879 Females, 1817 Total. 


From Jan. 1st, 1788, to Dec. 3\st, 1814: 21 years. 

51 Males 49 Females 100 Total. 

43 81 

10 29 
4 7 
7 15 

15 25 

,17 29 

11 16 

Under 1 



Between 1 

and 5 























15 27 

* -<>a 


;tw'n40 and 45 

12 Males 

19 Females 31 

















































243 252 495 

Infants baptized during the same period. 
498 Males, 506 Females, 1004 Total. 

Acknowledgment of Donations. 

_I_ HE thanks of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
are presented for the following donations. 

A. Holmes, Corresponding Secretary. 

Transactions of the Society for the promoting of use- 
ful arts in the State of New York, 3 vols. 8vo. ; Charter 
and Bye-laws of the New York Dispensary ; Memorial 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Univer- 
sity of the State of New York to the Legislature of that 
State ; Syllabus of Medical Lectures delivered in said 
College of Physicians. By Dr. Francis. 

Memorial of the New York Historical Society to the 
Legislature of New York ; Dr. Spaulding's Inaugural 
Address ; Hints towards promoting Health and Cleanli- 
ness in New York ; MS. Sermons of the late Rev. Dr. 
Maclintock of Greenland, N. H. ; MS. Sketches of Ser- 
mons preached at Cambridge by Rev. W. Brattle, Tu- 


tor Llynt, and others, from 1707 to 1710; MS. account 
of Rev. Jabez Fitch, by John Rogers; and a print of 
Archibald Robertson* By Rev. Timothy Aldcn. 

Laws of Vermont, printed 1808, 2 vols. ; Journals ol 
the General Assembly of the State of Vermont, 1813; 
Laws passed by the Legislature of Vermont, L81S ; Jour- 
nal of the Council of Censors, 1813, 1814; Report of a 
Committee on the doings of the Canvassing Committee, 
18 13 ; Report of do. on the several branches of Vermont 
State Bank, 1813; Sermon delivered before the Legis- 
lature of Vermont, 1813, by Rev. Daniel Marsh. 

By the Legislature of Vermont. 

The Massachusetts Manual, or Political and Histori- 
cal Register and Almanack for 1814 ; Address of a Com- 
mittee of Congregational Ministers and Churches in 
England to Ministers and Churches of the Congrega- 
tional order. By Bev. Dr. Morse. 

A Half Century Sermon by Rev. Ammi R. Robbins ; 
Fifteenth Annual Account of missionary labours. &:c. of 

Missionary Society of Connecticut. 

By Bev. Dr. McClure. 

Rev. Dr. Parish's Sermon before the Society for prop- 
agating the Gospel among the Indians and others in 
North America, 1814. . By that Society. 

Catalogue of Books, belonging to the Library Compa- 
ny of Philadelphia, vol. II. part I. 

By the Directors of the Library Company. 

Extracts from the Minutes of the General Assembly 
of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, 1814; 
Rules of the Philadelphia Dispensary for the medical re- 
lief of the Poor; Report, the Sixth, of the Bible Society 
of Philadelphia. By Ebenezer Hazard, Esq. 

Holmer's Address before the American Antiquarian 
Society in Boston, 1814; Memoir of Cambridge Port, 
1814. By the Author. 

Map of Plymouth Harbour ; Swedish Sea Letter, 
1658 ; Commission from Sir Edmund Andros, 1687. 

By Mr. Samuel Davis. 

Pagitt's Christianography, or the Description of the 
multitude and sundry sorts of Christians in the world, 


not subject to the Pope, London, 1674 ; Sundry pam- 
phlets bound in 1 vol. parchment, viz. God's Promise to 
the Plantations, by J. Cotton, 1636; 1. Mather's Rela- 
tion of the Troubles which have happened in New Eng- 
land by reason of the Indians, from 1614 to 1675 ; By- 
field's Account of the late Revolution in New England, 
1689 ; The People's right to Election or Alteration of 
Government in Connecticut, 1689 ; J. Eliot's Harmony 
of the Gospels. By Caleb Gannett, Esq. 

Rev. Professor McKean's Sermon at the Ordination of 
Rev. John B. Wight in East Sudbury, 1815 ; do. at the 
Ordination of Rev. Nathaniel L. Frothingham in Boston, 
1815; do. on the death of Dr. John Warren, 1815; 
Continuation of Goldsmith and Wood's History of Eng- 
land, from the Peace of Amiens to that of Ghent, 1815. 

By the Author. 

Rev. Samuel Gary's Address to the Merrimack Hu- 
mane Society, 1808; Sermon at the ordination of the 

Election, 1814; do. at Brattle Street Church, and 
Thursday Lecture, 1814; Review of "The Grounds of 
Christianity examined ; " Cheever's Sermon on Gene- 
ral Election, Mass. 1712; Wadsworth's do. 1716; Col- 
man's do. 1723; Sewall's do. 1724; Cutler's do. on 
General Election, Connect. 1717. 

By Rev. Samuel Cary, 

Xenophon's History of the affairs of Greece, transl. by- 
John Newman, London, 1685. By Mr. Thomas B. Wait. 

B. Whitwell's Oration on American Independence, 
Boston, 4 July, 1814; do. Address to Massachusetts 
Charitable Fire Society, 27 May, 1814 ; Burdick's Mas- 
sachusetts Register, No. 1, Jan. 1814, and vol. 1. June, 
1814. By Mr. Charles Callender. 

J. Dickman's Dissertation on the Pathology of the 
Human Fluids, New York, 1814. By the Author. 

A History of the American War, published in Boston, 
1781, 2 vols. By Henry Hill, Esq. 

Sundry Pamphlets. By Dr. Bedford Webster. 

A Collection of Letters to and from various persons, 
on the revolutionary war, federal constitution, in MSS* 


with some other valuable papers of the late J Ion. Roger 
Sherman. By Oliver Sherman, Esq. 

A Description of the Times, being a History of the 
Province of New Fork, during Gov. Burnet's adminis- 
tration, MS. By William Smith, Esq. 

Inaugural Oration at Burlington, by Jason Chamber- 
lain ; E. Williams 9 Spelling-Book in the Language of 
the Seven Iroquois Nations ; Vermont University Cata- 
logue. By Jason Chamberlain, Esq. 

Andrews' Discourse to Merrimack Humane Society; 
White's Address to Merrimack Humane Society; Ga- 
ry's do. ; Adams's Letter to II. G. Otis ; Lathrop's 
Discourse on 17 May, 1812; Tappan's Sermon at In- 
stallation of Ilezekiah Packard ; Appleton's Sermon at 
Ordination of Jona. Cogswell ; Sermon on the Character 
of Xacheus ; Richmond's Sermon at Derby School ; 
iVndrews' Sermon at Interment of Rev. Thomas Cary ; 
Case of Barnes vs. the Inhabitants of the first Parish in 
Falmouth ; Bowdoin College Catalogue ; Remarks on 
Circumstances of the Murder of Paul Chadwick ; Sav- 
age's Oration, 4 July, and several other pamphlets. 

By Mr. Andrews Norton. 

Valedictory Address, a Latin Poem, delivered at the 
Grammar School, Boston, by Benjamin Gibson, 1715, 
MS. By Dr. Jacob Bigeloiv. 

Jos. Lathrop's Fast Sermon, 1797 ; Cummings' Dis- 
course to Young Men, 1719 ; Priestley's Letters in an- 
swer to Paine's Age of Reason ; Foster's Sermon, 1 1 
April, 1802; Foster's Fast Sermon, 1815; Rules and 
Catalogue of Social Law Library. By Mr. John Eliot. 

The Christian Disciple, 16 Nos. ; Pamphlets publish- 
ed by Society for religious and moral improvement of 
Seamen, 5 Nos. ; Address of do. ; Holmes' Sermon at 
Ordination of Gannett ; Sermon at State Prison ; Les- 
sons in Verse for Children. By Rev. Charles Lowell. 

Freeman's Tables of pay, emolument, and supplies of 
army and militia. By the Author. 

Collection of Documents, Reports, Bills, Rules, Laws, 
and Resolves. By the Legislature. 


Wright's Century Sermon at Medway. 

By the Author. 
Address to the Antiquarian Society, 23 October, 1813, 
by William Jenks. The Society. 

The Columbian Centinel, 1814. , By the Editor. 
Inchiquin's Letters, New York, 1810, 8vo. pp. 165, 
and a reply to the Criticism on these Letters in the Quar- 
terly Review, New York, 1815, 8vo. pp. 115. 

William Wells, Esq. 
Several copper coins, " Caro." — (From a large quan- 
tity found at Concord, Massachusetts.) 

Hon. Judge Winthrop. 


4k Q a a